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001.061-010 to 024.364-010

    This category includes occupations concerned with the theoretical or practical aspects of such fields of human endeavor as art, science, engineering, education, medicine, law, business relations, and administrative, managerial, and technical work. Most of these occupations require substantial educational preparation (usually at the university, junior college, or technical institute level).


    This division includes occupations concerned with the practical application of physical laws and principles of engineering or architecture for the development and utilization of machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and services. Typical specializations are research, design, construction, testing, procurement, production, operations, and sales. Also includes preparation of drawings, specifications, and cost estimates, and participation in verification tests.


This group includes occupations concerned with the design and construction of buildings and related structures, or landscaping, and floating structures, according to aesthetic and functional factors.

001.061-010 ARCHITECT (profess. & kin.)

Researches, plans, designs, and administers building projects for clients, applying knowledge of design, construction procedures, zoning and building codes, and building materials: Consults with client to determine functional and spatial requirements of new structure or renovation, and prepares information regarding design, specifications, materials, color, equipment, estimated costs, and construction time. Plans layout of project and integrates engineering elements into unified design for client review and approval. Prepares scale drawings and contract documents for building contractors. Represents client in obtaining bids and awarding construction contracts. Administers construction contracts and conducts periodic on-site observation of work during construction to monitor compliance with plans. May prepare operating and maintenance manuals, studies, and reports. May use computer-assisted design software and equipment to prepare project designs and plans. May direct activities of workers engaged in preparing drawings and specification documents.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

001.061-014 ARCHITECT, MARINE (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: architect, naval; naval designer

Designs and oversees construction and repair of marine craft and floating structures, such as ships, barges, tugs, dredges, submarines, torpedoes, floats, and buoys: Studies design proposals and specifications to establish basic characteristics of craft, such as size, weight, speed, propulsion, armament, cargo, displacement, draft, crew and passenger complements, and fresh or salt water service. Oversees construction and testing of prototype in model basin and develops sectional and waterline curves of hull to establish center of gravity, ideal hull form, and buoyancy and stability data. Designs complete hull and superstructure according to specifications and test data, in conformity with standards of safety, efficiency, and economy. Designs layout of craft interior including cargo space, passenger compartments, ladder wells, and elevators. Confers with MARINE ENGINEERS (profess. & kin.) to establish arrangement of boiler room equipment and propulsion machinery, heating and ventilating systems, refrigeration equipment, piping, and other functional equipment. Evaluates performance of craft during dock and sea trials to determine design changes and conformance with national and international standards.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

001.061-018 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: community planner; environmental planner; land planner; site planner

Plans and designs development of land areas for projects, such as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, and parkways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites: Confers with clients, engineering personnel, and ARCHITECTS (profess. & kin.) on overall program. Compiles and analyzes data on such site conditions as geographic location; soil, vegetation, and rock features; drainage; and location of structures for preparation of environmental impact report and development of landscaping plans. Prepares site plans, working drawings, specifications, and cost estimates for land development, showing ground contours, vegetation, locations of structures, and such facilities as roads, walks, parking areas, fences, walls, and utilities, coordinating arrangement of existing and proposed land features and structures. Inspects construction work in progress to ensure compliance with landscape specifications, to approve quality of materials and work, and to advise client and construction personnel on landscape features. May be designated according to project as Highway-Landscape Architect (profess. & kin.); Park-Landscape Architect (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

001.167-010 SCHOOL-PLANT CONSULTANT (education)

Formulates and enforces standards for construction and alteration of public school facilities throughout state: Develops legislation relative to school building sites and school design and construction. Guides school districts in development of long range comprehensive master plans, including such factors as site selection and expected population growth and mobility, and school finance and specifications. Coordinates activities, jurisdictions, and responsibilities of adjacent school districts and evaluates entire systems of schools. Provides technical information and advice to local school authorities considering construction or renovation of school plant. Inspects proposed sites and schools under construction or undergoing alteration to enforce applicable standards. Prepares suggested classroom plans and layouts, taking into consideration such factors as climate, construction costs, availability of materials, and accepted principles of institutional construction. Reviews plans for construction and renovation of school buildings and approves or disapproves plans in accordance with standards and policies of department. Confers with representatives of school boards, educators, and architects to explain and reach agreement on design concepts and construction standards. Arbitrates difficult and unusual construction disputes. Conducts special research studies concerned with lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and acoustics. Prepares reports for state education department and state legislature.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

001.261-010 DRAFTER, ARCHITECTURAL (profess. & kin.)

Prepares detailed drawings of architectural designs and plans for buildings, according to specifications, sketches, and rough drafts provided by ARCHITECT (profess. & kin.) 001.061-010: Draws rough and detailed sketches, drawings, and plans to scale [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title].
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

001.261-014 DRAFTER, LANDSCAPE (profess. & kin.)

Prepares detailed scale drawings and tracings from rough sketches or other data provided by LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT (profess. & kin.), performing duties described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May prepare separate detailed site plan, grading and drainage plan, lighting plan, paving plan, irrigation plan, planting plan, and drawings and detail of garden structures. May build models of proposed landscape construction and prepare colored drawings for presentation to client.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with design and development of aircraft, space vehicles, surface effect vehicles, missiles, weapons, and related systems. Accessory techniques needed are those found in electronic and electrical engineering, mechanical and electromechanical engineering, metallurgy, propulsion systems design, ordnance engineering, and human factors and test engineering.

002.061-010 AERODYNAMICIST (aircraft mfg.) alternate titles: aerodynamics engineer; aerophysics engineer

Plans and conducts analysis of aerodynamic, thermodynamic, aerothermodynamic, and aerophysics concepts, systems, and designs to resolve problems and determine suitability and application to aircraft and aerospace products: Establishes computational methods and computer input data for analyzing problems. Analyzes designs and develops configurations to ensure satisfactory static and dynamic stability and control characteristics for completed vehicle. Initiates and assists in formulating and evaluating laboratory, flight, and wind tunnel test programs, and prepares reports and conclusions for other engineering and design personnel. Coordinates activities of model design group and model shop to assure required configuration of wind tunnel models. Prepares air load data on vehicle to conform to aerodynamic requirements. May prepare reports on results of analyses, such as flight performance validation, aircraft configuration, trade studies, and aircraft certification. May confer with customer on performance problems during operational life of vehicle. May specialize in analysis of thermodynamic effects and be designated Thermodynamics Engineer (aircraft mfg.).
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

002.061-014 AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.)

Designs, develops, and tests aircraft, space vehicles, surface effect vehicles, missiles, and related component systems, applying engineering principles and techniques: Designs and develops commercial, military, executive, general aviation, or special purpose aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, missiles, or related hardware or systems. Tests models, prototypes, subassemblies, or production vehicles to study and evaluate operational characteristics and effects of stress imposed during actual or simulated flight conditions. May specialize in design and development of structural components, such as wings, fuselage, rib assemblies, landing gear, or operational control systems. May specialize in analytical programs concerned with ground or flight testing, or development of acoustic, thermodynamic, or propulsion systems. May assist in planning technical phases of air transportation systems or other aspects of flight operations, maintenance, or logistics.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

002.061-018 AERONAUTICAL TEST ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.)

Conducts testing activities on aerospace and aircraft products, performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

002.061-022 AERONAUTICAL-DESIGN ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.)

Develops basic design concepts used in design, development, and production of aeronautical and aerospace products and systems, performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

002.061-026 AERONAUTICAL-RESEARCH ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.)

Conducts research in field of aeronautics, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

002.061-030 STRESS ANALYST (aircraft mfg.)

Conducts stress analyses on designs of experimental, prototype, or production aircraft, space vehicles, surface effect vehicles, missiles, and related components to evaluate ability to withstand stresses imposed during flight or ground operations: Analyzes ability of structural components to withstand stresses imposed by static, dynamic, or thermal loads, due to operational or test conditions. Studies preliminary specifications and design requirements to determine strength and bending characteristics of parts, assemblies, and total airframe. Consults with design personnel regarding results of analyses and need for additional analysis, testing, or design modifications. Formulates $T3mathematical model$T1 of stress problem or devises other methods of computer analysis or simulation to assist in stress analysis.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88


Sells aeronautical products and provides customers with technical engineering services as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

002.167-010 VALUE ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.) alternate titles: cost development engineer; design specialist, producibility, cost and component technology

Plans and coordinates engineering activities to develop and apply standardized design criteria and production requirements for parts and equipment used in aircraft and aerospace vehicles: Establishes and maintains liaison between engineering and other departments to formulate and apply design criteria and production requirements for proposed products. Analyzes product design data to determine conformance to established design selection criteria, use of standardized parts and equipment, and design-to-cost ratio. Approves initial design or recommends modifications based on producibility, cost, and component technology factors. Coordinates testing of new parts and equipment, evaluates test results, and approves or rejects usage of parts and equipment based on test results. Evaluates and approves selection of vendors. Initiates and provides technical direction for research and development programs to enhance production methods, improve parts and equipment technology, and reduce costs. Develops methods and programs to predict, track, and report production costs during design development.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

002.167-014 FIELD-SERVICE ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.)

Plans and coordinates activities concerned with investigating and resolving customer reports of technical problems with aircraft or aerospace vehicles and eliminating future operational or service difficulties: Reviews performance reports and documentation from customers and field representatives, and inspects malfunctioning or damaged product to determine nature and scope of problem. Analyzes review and inspection findings to determine source of problem, and recommends repair, replacement, or other corrective action. Coordinates problem resolution with engineering, customer service, and other personnel to expedite repairs. Maintains records of performance reports. Analyzes reports of technical problems to determine trends affecting future design, production, service, and maintenance processes, and recommends modifications to eliminate future problems. May prepare service handbooks and bulletins based on field investigations, engineering changes, and overall knowledge of product. May provide on-site technical assistance to oversee repairs.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

002.167-018 AERONAUTICAL PROJECT ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.) alternate titles: aerospace project engineer

Directs and coordinates activities of personnel engaged in designing mechanisms, structures, systems, and equipment for aeronautical or aerospace products, applying knowledge of engineering theory and technology: Reviews and evaluates product request from customer, and formulates conceptual design to meet customer requirements. Analyzes project proposal to determine feasibility, producibility, cost, and production time, and discusses proposal with customer representatives, engineers, and other personnel. Assigns project personnel to specific aspects or phases of project, such as analysis, development, or design. Evaluates product design for conformance to engineering principles, customer requirements, quality standards, and specifications. Evaluates and approves design changes and drawing releases. Coordinates design, production, testing, and related activities. Consults with project personnel and others to provide technical assistance and information.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 88

002.261-010 DRAFTER, AERONAUTICAL (aircraft mfg.)

Drafts engineering drawings of developmental or production airplanes, missiles, and component and ancillary equipment, including launch mechanisms and scale models of prototype aircraft, as planned by AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.) 002.061-014. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

002.261-014 RESEARCH MECHANIC (aircraft mfg.) alternate titles: laboratory test mechanic

Lays out, fabricates, assembles, and tests mechanical, electromechanical, structural, hydraulic, and pneumatic aircraft parts, assemblies, and mechanisms to assist engineers in determining faulty design or fabrication procedures: Lays out, fabricates, and assembles parts, assemblies, and mechanisms to be tested, according to blueprints, specifications, sketches, templates, or verbal instructions. Installs test specimens, such as rib assemblies, struts, landing gears, valves, ducts, fuselage sections, and control surfaces, in test equipment, and connects wiring, tubing, couplings, and power sources, using handtools and power tools. Operates test equipment to gather data on performance of parts, assemblies, and mechanisms under simulated flight and operational conditions. Measures induced variations from normal, using precision instruments, such as micrometers, verniers, calipers, pressure gauges, flowmeters, strain gauges, and dynamometers. Records and interprets test data. Confers with engineering personnel regarding test procedures and test results. Fabricates and assembles test equipment, tooling, shop aids, or other devices for experimental test projects.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

002.262-010 FLIGHT-TEST DATA ACQUISITION TECHNICIAN (aircraft mfg.) alternate titles: data acquisition laboratory technician; technical aide, flight test data

Sets up, operates, monitors, modifies, calibrates, and maintains computer systems and devices for acquisition and analysis of flight test data, utilizing knowledge of electronic theory and operation of computer systems: Reviews engineering notification of flight test to determine data required for post-flight analysis. Plans method and sequence of operations to acquire data, and sets up required electronic data acquisition, test, and measurement equipment and accessories. Inputs flight test data and program information into computer console for specific test requested. Enters commands to modify program to accommodate additional or revised test requirements. Calculates calibration values used as model for comparison and measurement of test data. Monitors lights, displays, and other operating features of computer equipment, such as console, receivers, and printers, to detect malfunctions and ensure integrity of processed data. Diagnoses cause of equipment malfunctioning, and adjusts, repairs, or replaces faulty components. Enters information to update flight test data base and to maintain records, such as electronic parts inventory and manuals for equipment maintenance and calibrations. Discusses flight test requirements and results with engineers and other personnel.
GOE: 05.03.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89


This group includes occupations concerned with the application of the laws of electrical energy and the principles of engineering for the generation, transmission, and use of electricity. Also includes the design and development of machinery and equipment for production and utilization of electric power. Accessory techniques needed are those used in mechanical and process engineering. Typical specializations are electrical power generation, transmission, and distribution, atomic power generation, electrical and electronic components, equipment, and systems manufacturing, radio and television broadcasting, telephone, telegraph, and electronic computer engineering, and bioengineering.

003.061-010 ELECTRICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Researches, develops, designs, and tests electrical components, equipment, and systems, applying principles and techniques of electrical engineering: Designs electrical equipment, facilities, components, products, and systems for commercial, industrial, and domestic purposes [DESIGN ENGINEER, FACILITIES (profess. & kin.) Master Title; DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Designs and directs engineering personnel in fabrication of test control apparatus and equipment, and determines methods, procedures, and conditions for testing products [TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Develops applications of controls, instruments, and systems for new commercial, domestic, and industrial uses. Directs activities to ensure that manufacturing, construction, installation, and operational testing conform to functional specifications and customer requirements. May direct and coordinate operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment and systems in field installations. May specialize in specific area of discipline, such as electrical energy generation, transmission, and distribution systems; products, such as appliances, generators, transformers, control devices, and relays; or area of work, such as manufacturing, applications, or installation. May use computer-assisted engineering and design software and equipment to perform engineering tasks.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

003.061-014 ELECTRICAL TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts tests on electrical equipment and systems, performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.061-018 ELECTRICAL-DESIGN ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Designs electrical equipment and products, performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, FACILITIES (profess. & kin.) Master Title; DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.061-022 ELECTRICAL-PROSPECTING ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: electrical engineer, geophysical prospecting

Designs and develops electrical and electronic instruments and equipment used in petroleum prospecting with the seismograph, magnetometer, or other instruments which detect and measure various physical properties of the earth's crust.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.061-026 ELECTRICAL-RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research in various fields of electrical phenomena performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.061-030 ELECTRONICS ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Researches, develops, designs, and tests electronic components, products, and systems for commercial, industrial, medical, military, and scientific applications, applying principles and techniques of electronic engineering: Designs electronic circuits, components and integrated systems, utilizing ferroelectric, nonlinear, dielectric, phosphorescent, photo-conductive, and thermoelectric properties of materials [DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Designs test control apparatus and equipment, determines procedures for testing products [TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title], and directs engineering personnel in fabrication of test control apparatus and equipment. Develops new applications of conductive properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials used in components, and in application of components to products or systems. May direct field operations and maintenance of electronic installations. May evaluate operational systems and recommend design modifications to eliminate causes of malfunctions or changes in system requirements. May specialize in development of electronic principles and technology in fields, such as telecommunications, telemetry, aerospace guidance, missile propulsion control, counter-measures, acoustics, nucleonic instrumentation, industrial controls and measurements, high-frequency heating, computers, radiation detection, encephalography, electron optics, and biomedical research. May use computer-assisted engineering and design software and equipment to perform engineering tasks.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

003.061-034 ELECTRONICS-DESIGN ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Designs and develops electronic components, equipment, systems, and products, applying knowledge and principles of electronic theory, design, and engineering. Performs duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May use computer-assisted engineering and design software and equipment to formulate and test electronic designs.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

003.061-038 ELECTRONICS-RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research on electronic phenomena, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.061-042 ELECTRONICS-TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, develops, and conducts tests on electronic components, products, and systems, applying knowledge and principles of electronic theory, testing methodology and procedures, and electronic engineering. Performs duties described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May develop or use computer software and hardware to conduct tests on electronic products and systems.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

003.061-046 ILLUMINATING ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Designs and directs installation of illuminating equipment and systems for buildings, plants, streets, stadia, tunnels, and outdoor displays: Studies lighting requirements of client to determine lighting equipment and arrangement of lamps that will provide optimum illumination with economy of installation and operation. Designs lamps of required light intensity and output, light control reflectors and lenses, and lamp arrangement required to meet illuminating standards. Plans and prepares drawings for installation of lighting system in accordance with client's specifications and municipal codes. Directs installation of system to ensure conformance with engineering specifications and compliance with electrical codes. May be designated according to type or location of illumination system designed and installed as Building-Illuminating Engineer (profess. & kin.); Industrial-Illuminating Engineer (profess. & kin.); Outdoor-Illuminating Engineer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Conducts studies to develop data required for planning central office switching facilities, and prepares plans and schedules for acquisition and installation of equipment to meet long term and current relief requirements: Conducts studies to accumulate information on current services, equipment capacities, current traffic data and estimated acquisition and installation costs. Analyzes data and forecasts on subscriber demands and projected traffic to determine type, size, and quantity of switching equipment required. Plans and schedules equipment acquisition, and installation, considering such factors as availability, current and future costs, and other economic projections. Reviews implementation schedules on continuing basis to ensure switching facilities have capacity within objective limits for subscriber demands. Prepares modifications on implementation schedules for acquisition and installation of switching equipment due to unforeseen increase or decrease of demands for services.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in drafting and designing layouts of printed circuit boards (PCB's) for use in manufacture of electronic equipment: Confers with PCB vendors to resolve problems encountered with board design. Reviews cost quotations for equipment and attends demonstrations to select equipment for purchase. Requisitions supplies, such as film positives. May design or change design of layout for PCB's [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Performs duties as described under SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

003.151-010 SALES-ENGINEER, ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.)

Sells electrical products, power, and systems and provides technical services to clients, performing duties as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Sells electronic products and systems and provides technical services to clients, performing duties as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.161-010 ELECTRICAL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: electrical-laboratory technician

Applies electrical theory and related knowledge to test and modify developmental or operational electrical machinery and electrical control equipment and circuitry in industrial or commercial plants and laboratories: Assembles and tests experimental motor-control devices, switch panels, transformers, generator windings, solenoids, and other electrical equipment and components according to engineering data and knowledge of electrical principles. Modifies electrical prototypes to correct functional deviations under direction of ELECTRICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.). Diagnoses cause of electrical or mechanical malfunction or failure of operational equipment and performs preventative and corrective maintenance. Develops wiring diagrams, layout drawings, and engineering specifications for system or equipment modifications or expansion, and directs personnel performing routine installation and maintenance duties. Plans, directs, and records periodic electrical testing, and recommends or initiates modification or replacement of equipment which fails to meet acceptable operating standards.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

003.161-014 ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Lays out, builds, tests, troubleshoots, repairs and modifies developmental and production electronic components, parts, equipment, and systems, such as computer equipment, missile control instrumentation, electron tubes, test equipment, and machine tool numerical controls, applying principles and theories of electronics, electrical circuitry, engineering mathematics, electronic and electrical testing, and physics: Discusses layout and assembly procedures and problems with ELECTRONICS ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) 003.061-030 and draws sketches to clarify design details and functional criteria of electronic units. Assembles experimental circuitry (breadboard) or complete prototype model according to engineering instructions, technical manuals, and knowledge of electronic systems and components. Recommends changes in circuitry or installation specifications to simplify assembly and maintenance. Sets up standard test apparatus or devises test equipment and circuitry to conduct functional, operational, environmental, and life tests to evaluate performance and reliability of prototype or production model. Analyzes and interprets test data. Adjusts, calibrates, aligns, and modifies circuitry and components and records effects on unit performance. Writes technical reports and develops charts, graphs, and schematics to describe and illustrate system's operating characteristics, malfunctions, deviations from design specifications, and functional limitations for consideration by engineers in broader determinations affecting system design and laboratory procedures. May operate bench lathes, drills, or other machine tools to fabricate parts, such as coils, terminal boards, and chassis. May check functioning of newly installed equipment in aircraft, ships, and structures to evaluate system performance under actual operating conditions. May instruct and supervise other technical personnel. May be designated according to specialization in electronic applications as Computer-Laboratory Technician (profess. & kin.); Development-Instrumentation Technician (profess. & kin.); Electronic-Communications Technician (profess. & kin); Electronics Technician, Nuclear Reactor (profess. & kin); Experimental Electronics Developer (aircraft mfg.); Systems-Testing-Laboratory Technician (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88


Tests developmental semiconductor devices or sample production units, and evaluates test equipment to develop data for engineering evaluation of new designs or special production yield study, applying knowledge of electronic theory and test equipment operating principles: Designs basic circuitry and prepares rough sketches for design documentation as directed by engineers, using drafting instruments and computer-assisted design/drafting equipment. Evaluates, calibrates, and tests new equipment circuits and fixtures, using testing equipment, such as oscilloscopes, logic and test probes, and calibrators. Builds and modifies electronic components, using handtools and power tools. Assists engineers in development of testing techniques and laboratory equipment. Assists with equipment maintenance. Liaises between test project sites to ensure orderly flow of information and materials. May supervise other technicians in unit.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

003.167-010 CABLE ENGINEER, OUTSIDE PLANT (tel. & tel.)

Plans, directs, and coordinates activities concerned with laying and repairing submarine telecommunication cables: Devises plans for laying cable lines, taking into consideration ocean currents and ocean depths. Determines where and how cables should be laid and decides such matters as where to place buoys, where to cut cable, what grapnel to use, what length of rope to use for a given depth, what type of cable to use, and what route to follow. Keeps charts and records to show depth and location of all cables laid. Analyzes test figures made when cable fault occurs to determine exact location of cable break. Oversees work of locating and repairing damaged cables.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-014 DISTRIBUTION-FIELD ENGINEER (utilities) alternate titles: line inspector

Plans and outlines changes in power distribution facilities to overcome unsatisfactory conditions, such as overloaded or underloaded circuits, and to provide for new or anticipated load increases: Reviews complaints and reports of load requirements for area under question to determine nature of adjustment to be made. Makes field surveys or studies maps showing relays, line intersections, overhead and underground connections, feeder lines, and other component elements of power system area under observation to ascertain where changes can be made. Makes calculations, following standardized procedures, to determine amount and type of replacing, switching, or other system revisions necessary to improve service. Recommends installation of additional facilities if changes within existing system cannot meet increased load. Makes notes and sketches of proposed changes and refers sketch to DRAFTER, CARTOGRAPHIC (profess. & kin.) for detailed work drawings. May investigate low voltage complaints by visiting area and determining if excessive load or power leakage causes defect.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-018 ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, POWER SYSTEM (utilities) alternate titles: power engineer

Designs power system facilities and equipment and coordinates construction, operation, and maintenance of electric power generating, receiving, and distribution stations, transmission lines, and distribution systems and equipment: Designs and plans layout of generating plants, transmission and distribution lines, and receiving and distribution stations. Directs preparation of, or prepares drawings and specific type of equipment and materials to be used, in construction and equipment installation. Estimates labor, material, construction, and equipment costs. Inspects completed installations for conformance with design and equipment specifications and safety standards. Observes operation of installation for conformance with operational standards. Coordinates operation and maintenance activities to ensure optimum utilization of power system facilities and meet customer demands for electrical energy. May compile power rates and direct others in evaluating properties and developing utilities in new territories. May be designated according to type of engineering functions as Engineer, Design-And-Construction (utilities); Engineer, Operations-And-Maintenance (utilities).
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-022 ELECTROLYSIS-AND-CORROSION-CONTROL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: corrosion-control specialist; corrosion engineer; electrolysis engineer; electrolysis investigator

Investigates causes and devises means to combat or eliminate electrolysis of water, gas, and oil mains and pipelines resulting from stray electric currents flowing in earth: Determines existence and locates sources of stray electric currents creating electrolytic conditions, using voltmeters, ammeters, and other electrical testing apparatus. Recommends preventive and corrective measures for protection of pipe and underground structures, such as use of insulating and corrosion resisting materials. Confers with power company personnel and power consumers and suggests methods to eliminate sources of power leakage. Studies destructive properties of soil, corrosive actions, and other problems of deterioration, and suggests methods of preventing or mitigating trouble. Writes reports of studies and investigations conducted. May design and direct installation of cathodic protection stations to minimize and control electrolysis. May design and construct apparatus for use in testing materials or determining location of stray electric currents.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-026 ENGINEER OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (utilities) alternate titles: development-and-planning engineer; planning engineer; system-planning engineer

Plans and coordinates activities to provide for orderly development and improve operating efficiency of electric power system: Coordinates scheduling, conducting, and analysis of special studies, such as commercial and residential developments in surrounding territory, population estimates, and advantages of and facilities for interconnections with other power systems. Coordinates collection and analysis of operational data, such as system-load demands and generating capacity. Evaluates analyses and recommends additional facilities to meet requirements of new, increased, or future loads, or to improve system.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-030 ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE, STUDIO OPERATIONS (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: chief engineer; chief engineer, broadcasting operations; transmission engineer

Directs and coordinates radio or television station activities concerned with acquisition, installation, and maintenance, or with modification of studio broadcasting equipment: Evaluates studio needs for new broadcasting equipment to determine if acquisition would be justified considering such factors as cost, availability, and improvement gain in technical performance, and authorizes acquisition according to evaluation. Directs activities concerned with layout and design of electrical circuitry for acquired equipment to ensure conformance with codes and safety regulations. Establishes procedures for operation and maintenance of studio, remote control, and microwave transmission equipment. Inspects, and directs testing and maintenance of studio, remote, and airborne broadcasting equipment to ensure operational performance meets company standards and rules and regulations of Federal Communications Commission. Develops modification plans for existing broadcasting equipment to improve technical performance. Directs modification and testing of equipment to ensure operational performance meets specified standards. Prepares repair and maintenance schedules for studio, remote, and airborne broadcasting equipment to prevent interruption of broadcasts. Contacts telephone company personnel to ensure leased landlines or microwave facilities are operative and available for network broadcasting [COMMERCIAL ENGINEER (radio-tv broad.) 003.187-014]. Prepares annual budget for engineering department and controls expenditures within budget limitations. May direct and coordinate activities of transmitter personnel [ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE, TRANSMITTER (radio-tv broad.) 003.167-034]. May operate and maintain transmitter equipment to broadcast radio and television programs [TRANSMITTER OPERATOR (radio-tv broad.) 193.262-038]. May inspect and direct repair and maintenance of unmanned stations. Must hold First Class Radiotelephone License issued by FCC.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

003.167-034 ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE, TRANSMITTER (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: director of engineering; engineer, chief; transmitter engineer

Directs and coordinates operation and maintenance activities of radio, television broadcasting, or satellite uplink transmitter station in accordance with rules and regulations of Federal Communications Commission: Establishes procedures and standards for operation and maintenance of transmitter equipment. Trains workers to interpret readings and indicator lights on control console and picture on video monitor, and to determine operating adjustments required to obtain uniform audio sound level and video picture of specified clarity and color. Tunes or directs worker to tune transmitter to ensure signal emissions and radiation do not infringe on frequencies or broadcast area of other stations, and to obtain optimum operational performance of transmitting equipment. Trains workers in diagnosing causes of transmitter malfunctions, using test equipment, and in repairing or jury-rigging equipment (making temporary hookup) to return transmitter to operational status. Establishes procedures for testing of transmitter equipment, performance of preventative maintenance activities, and operation of equipment during test of Emergency Broadcast System. Develops, plans, and prepares schematic drawings designed to modify and improve existing transmitter equipment, and directs and coordinates equipment modification activities to prevent interruptions in transmitting operations. Prepares work schedules for TRANSMITTER OPERATORS (radio-tv broad.) 193.262-038. May remove and repair, or assist workers to remove and repair equipment, using handtools, such as screwdrivers, wrenches, and pliers. Must hold first class radiotelephone license issued by Federal Communications Commission.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89


Investigates and eliminates inductive interference by power transmission systems in telephones and radio receivers: Conducts technical investigations relating to inductive-coordination problems, including joint field investigations with engineers of communications and railroad companies. Checks proposed parallels between power and communications circuits and recommends installation of facilities to eliminate or reduce inductive interference. Consults with transmission and distribution line engineers on design of lines for prevention or reduction of radio interference. Conducts research in detection and elimination of the causes of radio noises in transmission systems. Assists municipalities on problems related to control equipment for alarm systems.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-042 OUTSIDE-PLANT ENGINEER (tel. & tel.)

Plans and prepares drawings for construction of new, and removal or rearrangement of existing, overhead or underground lines, cables, and conduits to obtain optimum and economical utilization of communications facilities: Analyzes traffic loads, available and existing lines, and estimates or forecasts of projected traffic to determine new construction or rearrangements and removals required. Selects routing of lines and equipment required for work projects. Prepares detailed construction and installation drawings, estimates equipment, labor, and material costs. Initiates work authorization request and submits request with substantiating drawings and documents to management for approval. Orders materials and equipment required and directs work activities to ensure conformance with engineering specifications and work authorization.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-046 POWER-DISTRIBUTION ENGINEER (utilities) alternate titles: electric-distribution engineer

Plans construction and coordinates operation of facilities for transmitting power from distribution points to consumers: Lays out substations and overhead and underground lines in urban and rural areas. Prepares specifications and estimates costs. Makes complex electrical computations to determine type and arrangement of circuits and size, type and number of pieces of equipment, such as transformers, circuit breakers, switches, and lightning arresters. Computes sag and stress for specifications on wire and cable. Plans layout of pole lines and underground cable and solves problems, such as determining height, location, spacing, guying, and insulating of poles. May be designated according to specialization as Overhead-Distribution Engineer (utilities); Rural-Service Engineer (utilities); Substation Engineer (utilities); Underground-Distribution Engineer (utilities).
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-050 POWER-TRANSMISSION ENGINEER (utilities) alternate titles: electrical-transmission engineer; transmission-and-coordination engineer; transmission-line engineer

Lays out plans and estimates costs for constructing transmission lines (high-tension facilities for carrying power from source to distributing points): Visits proposed construction site and selects best and shortest route to avoid interference with telephone or other lines. Submits data on proposed route to right-of-way department for obtaining necessary easements. Arranges for aerial, topographical, and other surveys to be made to obtain pertinent data for planning lines. Devises steel and wood supporting structures for cables and draws sketch showing their location. Performs detailed engineering calculations to draw up construction specifications, such as cable sag, pole strength, and necessary grounding. Estimates labor, material, and construction costs, and draws up specifications for purchase of materials and equipment. Keeps informed on new developments in electric power transmission. Assists various departments of power company on problems involving transmission-line operation and maintenance. Inspects completed installation. Does not usually plan facilities for distributing power to consumers [POWER-DISTRIBUTION ENGINEER (utilities)].
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-054 PROTECTION ENGINEER (utilities)

Plans layout and oversees maintenance of protection equipment of an electric power distribution system to minimize interruption to service and danger to lives and equipment from abnormalities, such as overload, no load, and short circuits: Studies drawings of power system and makes complex calculations to determine type, number, location, and correlation of protectors, such as relays, circuit breakers, fuses, and grounding devices. Plans adjustments and additions to protective system necessitated by increased demands in development of new residential areas and unusual requirements of heavy industry. Coordinates testing, repair, and installation of equipment. Studies new developments to determine suitability of their application to protection system. May program and direct computer analyses of system operating characteristics, such as power flow under normal and short-circuit conditions, system stability, and voltage and load limitations to obtain data used for such purposes as timing major system changes and additions, and analyzing interconnecting system problems. May be designated according to specialization as Grounding Engineer (utilities); Relay Engineer (utilities).
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-058 SUPERVISOR, MICROWAVE (radio-tv broad.)

Plans relocation, installation, repair, and maintenance of microwave transmitters and receivers for cable-television broadcasting and gives technical advice and direction to laboratory and field staff regarding microwave transmission and reception: Plans installation or relocation of microwave transmitters and receivers for improved cable-television reception, new channels, or on-site live-broadcast transmission, using knowledge of microwave and electronic theory and electronic measuring and testing instruments. Directs laboratory and field supervisors and technicians in technical aspects of relocating, installing, repairing, and maintaining microwave transmitters and receivers. Monitors field and laboratory technicians to see that F.C.C. regulations regarding microwave equipment are observed. Advises field and laboratory staff on technical problems of microwave equipment, commercial-FM radios used in company trucks, and portable radios used by field staff.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-066 TRANSMISSION-AND-PROTECTION ENGINEER (tel. & tel.) alternate titles: transmission engineer

Plans and lays out telephone transmitting facilities from engineering sketches: Advises and assists operation forces on application of transmission methods, devices, and standards affecting telephone equipment. Provides engineering services for protection of telephone service and facilities from noise, cross-talk, electrolysis, lightning, and other adverse electrical effects. Investigates causes of personal injury resulting from contact with high voltage communication equipment.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.167-070 ENGINEERING MANAGER, ELECTRONICS (profess. & kin.)

Directs and coordinates activities of engineering department to design, manufacture, and test electronic components, products, and systems: Directs department activities, through subordinates, to design new products, modify existing designs, improve production techniques, and develop test procedures. Analyzes technology trends, human resource needs, and market demand to plan projects. Confers with management, production, and marketing staff to determine engineering feasibility, cost effectiveness, and customer demand for new and existing products. Forecasts operating costs of department and directs preparation of budget requests. Directs personnel activities of department, such as recruitment, hiring, performance evaluations, and salary adjustments. May direct field testing of products and systems performed by field staff.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 88


Directs implementation of planning schedule for installation of central office toll or local switching facilities, or interoffice transmission facilities equipment, such as radio, TV, camera, and repeaters: Reviews planning schedule or equipment request and data on projected traffic to determine quantities of specific types of equipment required. Plans arrangement of equipment, prepares cost estimates for equipment and installation, and submits data to management for authorization approval. Prepares drawings and equipment specifications for installation. Monitors installation activities to solve any problems concerning arrangement or specifications. Assigns equipment and installation expenditures to specific program or project accounts. Closes out installation authorization when equipment has been tested and put in service.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.187-014 COMMERCIAL ENGINEER (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: traffic engineer

Plans use of wire facilities connecting stations comprising a network to cover changing conditions and requirements: Evaluates technical capabilities of wire facilities, according to availability and range, to obtain most effective method of transmission. Reviews network program schedule to be linked to network stations, and projects use of wire facilities. Subdivides wire facilities linking network stations for simultaneous broadcasting of different programs to stations. Tests facilities prior to broadcast time to determine readiness of transmission line. May prepare engineering estimates of equipment installations or modification of existing equipment.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

003.187-018 CUSTOMER-EQUIPMENT ENGINEER (tel. & tel.) alternate titles: services engineer

Directs activities concerned with selection and installation of telephone facilities and special equipment on customer's premises to meet customer's communication requirements: Reviews sales order to ascertain extent of telephone facilities and equipment required. Inspects customer premises to ascertain space available for installation of equipment and to determine type and quantity of designated equipment that can be installed to provide specific communication facilities. Prepares floor plan of equipment arrangement for customer or architect approval. Prepares cost estimate for equipment and installation and submits data to management for authorization to proceed with job. Orders equipment, prepares installation specifications, and monitors progress of installation to ensure facilities are ready on specified date. Prepares all job-related paper work and closes out work authorization when equipment is in service.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

003.261-010 INSTRUMENTATION TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Devises, selects, sets up, and operates electronic instrumentation and related electromechanical or electrohydraulic apparatus used for operational and environmental testing of mechanical, structural, or electrical equipment, and translates test data for engineering personnel to formulate engineering design and evaluation decisions: Selects, installs, calibrates, and checks sensing, telemetering, and recording instrumentation and circuitry, and develops specifications for nonstandard apparatus according to engineering data, characteristics of equipment under test, and capabilities of procurable test apparatus. Sketches and builds or modifies jigs, fixtures, and instruments and related apparatus, and verifies dimensional and functional acceptability of devices fabricated by craft or technical personnel. Performs preventive and corrective maintenance of test apparatus and peripheral equipment. Installs or directs technical personnel in installation of unit in test chamber or other test facility. Operates test apparatus during test cycle to produce, regulate, and record effects of actual or simulated conditions, such as vibration, stress, temperature, humidity, pressure, altitude, and acceleration. Analyzes and converts test data to usable form, using mathematical formulas, and prepares graphs and written reports to translate test results. May plan test program. May use computerized equipment and software to perform testing functions and produce graphs. May be designated according to equipment tested as Rocket-Control Technician (profess. & kin.); or according to nature of test as Environmental-Research Test Technician (profess. & kin.); Vibration Technician (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

003.261-014 CONTROLS DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: controls project engineer

Designs and drafts systems of electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic controls for machines and equipment, such as arc welders, robots, conveyors, and $T3programmable controllers,$T1 applying knowledge of electricity, electronics, hydraulics, and pneumatics: Discusses project with SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title and APPLICATIONS ENGINEER, MANUFACTURING (profess. & kin.) 007.061-038 to review functions of machines and equipment. Designs and drafts arrangement of linkage of conductors, relays, and other components of electrical, electronic, hydraulic, pneumatic, and lubrication devices, using drafting tools, and applying knowledge of electrical engineering and drafting [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Diagrams logic system for functions such as sequence and timing control. Designs and drafts diagrams of cable connection for robots, robot end-of-arm tool, $T3robot controller,$T1 and other machines. Illustrates and describes installation and maintenance details, such as where bearings should be lubricated, types of lubrication, and which parts are lubricated automatically and manually. Confers with ASSEMBLER AND WIRER, INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT (elec. equip.; machinery mfg.) 826.361-010 to resolve problems regarding building of controls systems. Reviews schematics with customer's representatives to answer questions during installation of robot systems. Observes gauges during trial run of programmed machine and equipment operation to verify that electrical signals in system conform to specifications. May design controls for energy conversion or other industrial plant monitoring systems. May use computer and software programs to produce design drawings and be designated Controls Designer, Computer-Assisted (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

003.261-018 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAYOUT DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: mask designer

Designs layout for integrated circuits (IC), according to engineering specifications, using computer-assisted design (CAD) equipment and software, and utilizing knowledge of electronics, drafting, and IC design rules (standard IC manufacturing process requirements): Reviews and analyzes engineering design schematics and supporting documents, such as logic diagrams and design rules to plan layout of IC. Confers with engineering staff to resolve design details or problems. Enters engineering specifications into computer memory of CAD equipment and composes configurations on equipment display screen of IC logic elements (basic components of integrated circuit, such as resistors and transistors) for all IC layers, using keyboard, digitizing work aids (light pen or digitizing tablet), and engineering design schematics, and applying knowledge of design rules, programmed CAD functions, and electronics. Compares logic element configuration on equipment display screen with engineering schematics and redesigns or modifies logic elements, as needed, using digitizing work aids (light pen or digitizing tablet), keyboard, and programmed CAD functions. Lays out, redesigns, and modifies arrangement and interconnections of logic elements for each layer of integrated circuit, using digitizing work aids (light pen or digitizing tablet), keyboard and programmed CAD functions listed on display screen. Keys in specified commands, using CAD equipment keyboard, to test final IC layout for errors in design rules, using design rule software package. May generate copy of logic element design, using plotter to verify that logic element design copy meets design requirements and for use in laying out IC layer design for Very Large Scale (VLS) integrated circuits. May generate tape of final layout design for use in producing photo masks for each layer of IC, using CAD equipment. May program CAD equipment to change CAD functions listed on display screen, using keyboard. May be designated according to complexity of IC designed as IC Designer, Custom (profess. & kin.); IC Designer, Gate Arrays (profess. & kin.); IC Designer, Standard Cells (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

003.261-022 PRINTED CIRCUIT DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

Designs and drafts layout for printed circuit boards (PCB's) according to engineering specifications, utilizing knowledge of electronics, drafting, and PCB design: Reviews and analyzes engineering design schematics and supporting documents to plan layout of PCB components and printed circuitry. Confers with engineering staff to resolve design details and problems. Drafts detailed drawings [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title] and composes master layout of design components and circuitry. Examines and verifies master layout for electrical and mechanical accuracy. May verify accuracy of film reproductions of master layout. May prepare copies of drawings for use in PCB fabrication, using blueprint or diazo print machine. May generate computer tape for use in photo plotting design onto film, using digitizing equipment.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

003.281-010 DRAFTER, ELECTRICAL (profess. & kin.)

Drafts electrical equipment working drawings and wiring diagrams used by construction crews and repairers who erect, install, and repair electrical equipment and wiring in communications centers, power plants, industrial establishments, commercial or domestic buildings, or electrical distribution systems, performing duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May use computer-assisted drafting (CAD) equipment and software and be designated Drafter (CAD), Electrical (profess. & kin.). May prepare detail cable layout and diagrams for cable installation and be designated Electric-Cable Diagrammer (elec. equip.).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

003.281-014 DRAFTER, ELECTRONIC (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: drafter, electromechanical

Drafts detailed drawings, such as wiring diagrams, layout drawings, mechanical detail drawings, and drawings of intermediate and final assemblies, used in manufacture, assembly, installation, and repair of electronic components, printed circuit boards, and equipment. Examines electronic schematics and supporting documents received from design engineering department to develop, compute, and verify specifications drafting data, such as configuration of parts, dimensions, and tolerances. Performs duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May use computer-assisted drafting (CAD) equipment and software and be designated Drafter (CAD), Electronic (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

003.362-010 DESIGN TECHNICIAN, COMPUTER-AIDED (electron. comp.) alternate titles: digitizer

Operates computer-aided design (CAD) system and peripheral equipment to resize or modify integrated circuit designs (artwork) and to generate computer tape of artwork for use in producing mask plates used in manufacturing integrated circuits: Reviews work order and procedural manuals to determine critical dimensions of design. Calculates figures to convert design dimensions to resizing dimensions specified for subsequent production processes, using conversion chart and calculator. Locates file relating to specified design projection data base library and loads program into computer. Enters specified commands into computer, using keyboard, to retrieve design information from file and display design on CAD equipment display screen. Types commands on keyboard to enter resizing specifications into computer. Confers with engineering and design staff to determine design modifications and enters editing information into computer. Keys in specified information, using keyboard connected to on-line or off-line peripheral equipment (plotter), to produce graphic representation (hard copy) of design for review and approval by engineering and design staff. Enters specified information into computer, using keyboard, to generate computer tape of approved design.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 86


This group includes occupations concerned with the planning, design, and construction of structures and facilities, such as buildings, bridges, roads, harbors, airfields, dams, tunnels, and water supply and sewage systems. Also included are occupations concerned with the engineering aspects of environmental health systems and urban planning or renewal. Frequently requires a knowledge of industrial trends, population growth, zoning laws, and state and local building codes and ordinances. Accessory techniques needed are those used in agricultural, ceramic, chemical, electrical, geological, mechanical, metallurgical, and mining engineering. Typical specializations are structures, hydraulics, transportation systems, sanitation, water utility systems, airports, city planning, environmental protection, construction, engineering mechanics, irrigation and drainage, power, soil mechanics and foundations, pipeline engineering, and waterways and harbors.

005.061-010 AIRPORT ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans and lays out airports and landing fields and directs construction work involved in leveling fields, laying out and surfacing runways, and providing drainage: Designs runways based on weight and size of aircraft and prepares material and construction specifications. Directs or participates in surveying to lay out installations and establish reference points, grades, and elevations to guide construction. Estimates costs to provide basis for payments to contractor. Observes progress of construction to ensure work is in conformity with specifications and advises SUPERINTENDENT, CONSTRUCTION (construction) regarding necessary corrections. May serve as agent or employee of contractor and study plans and specifications to recommend special equipment or procedures to reduce time and cost of construction. May schedule delivery of materials, analyze costs, and provide technical advice in solution of construction problems.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

005.061-014 CIVIL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, designs, and directs civil engineering projects, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation systems, pipelines, and powerplants: Analyzes reports, maps, drawings, blueprints, tests, and aerial photographs on soil composition, terrain, hydrological characteristics, and other topographical and geologic data to plan and design project. Calculates cost and determines feasibility of project based on analysis of collected data, applying knowledge and techniques of engineering, and advanced mathematics. Prepares or directs preparation and modification of reports, specifications, plans, construction schedules, environmental impact studies, and designs for project. Inspects construction site to monitor progress and ensure conformance to engineering plans, specifications, and construction and safety standards. May direct construction and maintenance activities at project site. May use computer-assisted engineering and design software and equipment to prepare engineering and design documents. May be designated according to specialty or product.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

005.061-018 HYDRAULIC ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: hydrologic engineer

Designs and directs construction of power and other hydraulic engineering projects for control and use of water: Computes and estimates rates of waterflow. Specifies type and size of equipment, such as conduits, pumps, turbines, pressure valves, and surge tanks, used in transporting water and converting water power into electricity. Directs, through subordinate supervisors, activities of workers engaged in dredging, digging cutoffs, placing jetties, and constructing levees to stabilize streams or open water ways. Designs and coordinates construction of artificial canals, conduits, and mains to transport and distribute water; and plans reservoirs, pressure valves, and booster stations to obtain proper water pressure at all levels. Frequently builds laboratory models to study construction and flow problems.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

005.061-022 IRRIGATION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, designs, and oversees construction of irrigation projects for transporting and distributing water to agricultural lands: Plans and designs irrigation fixtures and installation of fixtures to requirements and specifications. Directs, through subordinate supervisors, construction of such irrigation systems as dams, canals, and ditches, according to type of soil, climatic characteristics, water supply, return flow, and other factors affecting irrigation requirements. Conducts research on problems of soil drainage and conservation, applying knowledge of civil engineering [RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)].
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

005.061-026 RAILROAD ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Designs railroad and street railway tracks, terminals, yards, and other facilities and directs and coordinates construction and relocation of facilities: Plans roadbed, rail size, and curves to meet train speed and load requirements. Directs, through subordinate supervisors, construction of bridges, culverts, buildings, and other structures. Directs track and roadway maintenance. Surveys traffic problems related to street railway system and recommends grade revisions, additional trackage, use of heavier power, and other changes to relieve congestion and reduce hazards.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

005.061-030 SANITARY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: public-health engineer

Designs and directs construction and operation of hygienic projects such as waterworks, sewage, garbage and trash disposal plants, drainage systems, and insect and rodent control projects: Plans development of watersheds and directs building of aqueducts, filtration plants, and storage and distribution systems for water supply. Directs swamp drainage, insect spraying, and design of insect-proof buildings. Plans and directs workers in building and operation of sewage-disposal plants. Designs and controls operation of incinerators, sanitary fills, and garbage-reduction plants to dispose of garbage and other refuse. Advises industrial plants in disposal of obnoxious gases, oils, greases, and other chemicals. Inspects and regulates sanitary condition of public places, such as markets, parks, and camps. May plan and direct operation of water treatment plant to soften and purify water for human consumption or industrial use and be known as Water-Treatment-Plant Engineer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

005.061-034 STRUCTURAL ENGINEER (construction)

Directs or participates in planning, designing, or reviewing plans for erection of structures requiring stress analysis: Designs structure to meet estimated load requirements, computing size, shape, strength, and type of structural members, or performs structural analysis of plans and structures prepared by private engineers. May inspect existing projects and recommend repair and replacement of defective members or rebuilding of entire structure.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

005.061-038 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Develops plans for surface transportation projects according to established engineering standards and state or federal construction policy: Prepares plans, estimates, and specifications to design transportation facilities. Plans alterations and modifications of existing streets, highways, and freeways to improve traffic flow. Prepares deeds, property descriptions, and right-of-way maps. Performs field engineering calculations to compensate for change orders and contract estimates. May prepare and present public reports of environmental analysis statements and other transportation information. May specialize in particular phase of work, such as making surveys, improving signs or lighting, preparing plans, or directing and coordinating construction or maintenance activities. May be designated Highway Engineer (government ser.). May specialize in studying vehicular and pedestrian traffic conditions and be designated Traffic Engineer (government ser.). May plan, organize, and direct work in transportation studies to plan surface systems and be designated Transportation Planning Engineer (government ser.).
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Designs, implements, and tests systems and procedures to reduce volume and dispose of nuclear waste materials and contaminated objects: Identifies objects contaminated by exposure to radiation, such as trash, workers' clothing, and discarded tools and equipment. Analyzes samples of sludge and liquid effluents resulting from operation of nuclear reactors to determine level of radioactivity in substances and potential for retention of radioactivity, using radioactivity counters and chemical and electronic analyzers. Refers to state and federal regulations and technical manuals to determine disposal method recommended for prevention of leakage or absorption of radioactive waste. Compares costs of transporting waste to designated nuclear waste disposal sites and reducing volume of waste and storing waste on plant site. Confers with equipment manufacturers' representatives and plant technical and management personnel to discuss alternatives and to choose most suitable plan on basis of safety, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Designs and draws plans for systems to reduce volume of waste by solidification, compaction, or incineration. Oversees construction, testing, and implementation of waste disposal systems, and resolves operational problems. Develops plans for modification of operating procedures to reduce volume and radioactive level of effluents, and writes manuals to instruct workers in changes in work procedures. Advises management on selection of lands suitable for use as nuclear waste disposal sites and on establishment of effective safety, operating, and closure procedures.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

005.167-010 CHIEF ENGINEER, WATERWORKS (waterworks)

Plans and directs activities concerned with water utility systems installation, operation, maintenance, and service: Directs activities of engineers engaged in preparing designs and plans to construct, enlarge, and modify such facilities as water treatment plants, watersheds, and dams, hydroelectric stations, pumping stations, and to install water mains, and other appurtenances. Provides engineering and technical direction for planning and design of water utility projects. Reviews plans and specifications prior to instituting project to determine whether they meet organizational requirements. Analyzes and compiles data received from engineers to prepare budget estimates. Directs and coordinates engineers in conducting studies, such as economics of systems operation, water distribution, and water treatment plants or relative equipment performance to determine most feasible approach to meeting organizational and technical problems. Confers with municipal authorities concerning budget requirements, changes in organizational policy, regulation of water rates, and plumbing requirements, or other problems affecting community.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

005.167-014 DRAINAGE-DESIGN COORDINATOR (waterworks)

Plans, designs, and coordinates construction of drainage systems in irrigation district, based on knowledge of soils, slope of land, and availability and economic use of existing drainage canals: Requests engineering surveys and soil tests to determine surface profile, types of soil, and characteristics such as salinity, water table, and areas of subnormal crop growth. Studies data and sketches scale drawing of tile and open ditch drains for area, using triangles, scales, dividers, and other drawing instruments. Indicates depth, spacing, and size of tiling for crop area leading to district drainage canals. Considers drainage cost to improve fertility, at least cost to farmer and district. Recommends deepening of drainage canals when field elevation prevents gravity flow, or provides for installation of sumps and electric pumps to drain low areas. Arranges for sale to farmers of district approved drainage materials, such as concrete wells and pipes. Determines need for securing easements and right-of-way deeds for district drainage structures. Inspects completed systems to determine that installation conforms to plan.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

005.167-018 FOREST ENGINEER (forestry; logging)

Lays out and directs construction, installation, and use of structures, equipment, and road or rail systems, and performs other engineering duties concerned with removal of logs from timber area: Surveys timber land and draws maps to show topographical features of area. Determines locations of loading points and storage areas and selects methods and equipment for handling logs. Lays out and directs construction of roads or rail network used to transport logs from cutting areas to loading sites and storage areas. Plans and directs construction of campsites, loading docks, bridges and culverts, equipment shelters, and water and sewage systems to maintain efficient and safe removal of logs from constantly shifting cutting areas.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

005.167-022 HIGHWAY-ADMINISTRATIVE ENGINEER (government ser.) alternate titles: director, traffic and planning

Administers statewide highway planning, design, construction, and maintenance programs: Coordinates activities of state highway engineering agencies. Reviews highway and bridge plans, location, contracts, and cost estimates for technical and legal accuracy, and approves acceptable proposals or makes corrective recommendations. Directs workers in research activities related to highway planning and engineering, and formulates highway engineering policies and procedures. Directs preparation of state agency budgets. Directs workers in preparation of reports to state and federal government officials and represents state highway commissioner at hearings with public officials, contractors, and engineering personnel. Speaks before civic groups and public gatherings to disseminate highway planning information and to solicit public support.
GOE: 11.05.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

005.167-026 PRODUCTION ENGINEER, TRACK (r.r. trans.)

Plans, directs, and coordinates, through supervisory personnel, activities of track maintenance crews of railway system: Analyzes engineering data and inspects repair site to determine priority of proposed track repair and maintenance projects. Coordinates scheduling of track maintenance and activities within designated region. Determines frequency of track use and project costs, utilizing computerized data and knowledge of railroad operations and maintenance expense to formulate recommendations for revising established project priorities. Reviews production reports and confers with engineering personnel to identify causes of low productivity of repair crews. Visits work sites to observe work crews and to inspect repairs. Directs engineering supervisors to correct substandard repairs.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 9 DLU: 86

005.261-014 CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Assists CIVIL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) 005.061-014 in application of principles, methods, and techniques of civil engineering technology: Reviews project specifications and confers with CIVIL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) concerning assistance required, such as plan preparation, acceptance testing, evaluation of field conditions, design changes, and reports. Conducts materials testing and analysis, using tools and equipment and applying engineering knowledge necessary to conduct tests. Prepares reports detailing tests conducted and results. Surveys project sites to obtain and analyze topographical details of sites, using maps and surveying equipment. Drafts detailed dimensional drawings, such as those needed for highway plans, structural steel fabrication, and water control projects, performing duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. Calculates dimensions, profile specifications, and quantities of materials such as steel, concrete, and asphalt, using calculator. Inspects construction site to determine conformance of site to design specifications. May assist engineers to ensure that construction and repair of water and wastewater treatment systems meet pollution control requirements.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

005.281-010 DRAFTER, CIVIL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: drafter, civil engineering; drafter, construction; drafter, engineering

Drafts detailed construction drawings, topographical profiles, and related maps and specifications used in planning and construction of civil engineering projects, such as highways, river and harbor improvements, flood control, and drainage: Reviews rough sketches, drawings, specifications, and other engineering data received from CIVIL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) 005.061-014. Plots maps and charts showing profiles and cross-sections, indicating relation of topographical contours and elevations to buildings, retaining walls, tunnels, overhead power lines, and other structures. Drafts detailed drawings of structures and installations, such as roads, culverts, fresh water supply, sewage disposal systems, dikes, wharfs, and breakwaters. Computes volume of tonnage of excavations and fills and prepares graphs and hauling diagrams used in earthmoving operations. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May accompany survey crew in field to locate grading markers or to collect data required for revision of construction drawings. May specialize in drafting and modifying topographical maps from surveying notes and aerial photographs and be designated Drafter, Topographical (profess. & kin.). May use computer-assisted drafting (CAD) equipment and software and be designated Drafter, Civil (CAD) (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

005.281-014 DRAFTER, STRUCTURAL (profess. & kin.)

Performs duties of DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title by drawing plans and details for structures employing structural reinforcing steel, concrete, masonry, wood, and other structural materials. Produces plans and details of foundations, building frame, floor and roof framing, and other structural elements.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the design, manufacture, and application of products made from nonmetallic minerals and rocks; and the design, construction, and control of necessary equipment and tools for the manufacture of such products. Accessory techniques include those used in chemical, mechanical, and electrical engineering, and physics and mineralogy. Typical specializations are structural materials, abrasives, cements, glass, whiteware, and refractories. Occupations which are involved in only one phase of engineering, such as research, design, testing, sales, or project control, are found in Group 019.

006.061-010 CERAMIC DESIGN ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Designs ceramics manufacturing equipment and products, performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, FACILITIES (profess. & kin.) Master Title; DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

006.061-014 CERAMIC ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research, designs machinery, develops processing techniques, and directs technical work concerned with manufacture of ceramic products: Directs testing of physical, chemical, and heat-resisting properties of materials, such as clays and silicas. Analyzes results of test to determine combinations of materials which will improve quality of products. Conducts research into methods of processing, forming, and firing of clays to develop new ceramic products, such as ceramic machine tools, refractories for space vehicles, and for use in glass and steel furnaces. Designs equipment and apparatus for forming, firing, and handling products. Coordinates testing activities of finished products for characteristics, such as texture, color, durability, glazing, and refractory properties. May specialize in one branch of ceramic production, such as brick, glass, crockery, tile, pipe, or refractories. May specialize in developing heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant materials for use in aerospace, electronics, and nuclear energy fields.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

006.061-018 CERAMIC RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research to develop new ceramic products performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

006.061-022 CERAMICS TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts tests on ceramic products performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

006.151-010 SALES ENGINEER, CERAMIC PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.)

Sells ceramic products and provides technical services for client performing duties as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

006.261-010 SCIENTIFIC GLASS BLOWER (glass products) alternate titles: glass technician; glass technologist

Fabricates, modifies, and repairs experimental and laboratory glass products, using variety of machines and tools, and provides technical advice to scientific and engineering staff on function, properties, and proposed design of products, applying knowledge of glass technology: Confers with scientific or engineering personnel to exchange information and suggest design modifications regarding proposed glass apparatus, such as distillation and high-vacuum systems. Cuts glass tubing of specified type, using cutting tools, such as glass saw and hot-wire cutter. Heats glass tubing until pliable, using gas torch, and blows, bends, and shapes tubing to specified form, using blowhose, handtools, and manual pressure. Performs finishing operations to fabricate glass product or section, using machines and equipment, such as $T3lapping$T1 and polishing wheels, spot-welding and sandblasting machines, internal-plating equipment, and drill press. Measures products to verify dimensions, using $T3optical scanner,$T1 micrometers, and calipers, and examines glass coloration for degree of internal stress, using polariscope, to determine annealing requirements. Anneals products, using annealing oven. Joins and seals subassemblies to assemble finished product, using gas torch, handtools, and vacuum pump. May operate special equipment, such as radio-frequency-fusing machine, to bond glass to metal, quartz, and ceramic materials. May identify glass of unknown composition by heating with gas torch and evaluating curvature, bondability, and color characteristics. May direct and train GLASS BLOWERS, LABORATORY APPARATUS (glass products; inst. & app.). May design fixtures for use in production of prototype glass products and prepare sketches for machine-shop personnel. May prepare cost estimates for prototype glass products. May requisition or recommend purchase of materials, tools, and equipment. May specialize in specific types of glass scientific apparatus and have knowledge of effects of special environments on glass, such as radioactivity, vacuums, gases, chemicals, and electricity.
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with application of principles of physics and engineering for the generation, transmission, and utilization of heat and mechanical power; and the design, production, installation, and maintenance of fabricated products, tools, machines, machinery, and associated or auxiliary systems. Accessory techniques needed may be those used in electrical, metallurgical, nuclear, and civil engineering. Typical specializations are steam and mechanical power generation, transmission, and utilization; hydraulics; instrumentation; controls; automotive engineering; tooling; heating and ventilating; air-conditioning and refrigeration; bioengineering; pollution control; systems engineering; research; design; testing; sales; and project control.

007.061-010 AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEER (auto. mfg.)

Develops improved or new designs for automotive structural members, engines, transmissions, and associated automotive equipment or modifies existing equipment on production vehicles, and directs building, modification, and testing of vehicle, using computerized work aids: Conducts experiments and tests on existing designs and equipment to obtain data on function of and performance of equipment. Analyzes data to develop new designs for motors, chassis, and other related mechanical, hydraulic, and electromechanical components and systems in automotive equipment. Designs components and systems to provide maximum customer value and vehicle function, including improved economy and safety of operation, control of emissions, and operational performance, at optimum costs. Directs and coordinates building, or modification of, automotive equipment or vehicle to ensure conformance with engineering design. Directs testing activities on components and equipment under designated conditions to ensure operational performance meets design specifications. Alters or modifies design to obtain specified functional and operational performance. May assist DRAFTER, AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN (auto. mfg.) 017.261-042 in developing structural design for auto body. May conduct research studies to develop new concepts in automotive engineering field.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

007.061-014 MECHANICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Researches, plans, and designs mechanical and electromechanical products and systems, and directs and coordinates activities involved in fabrication, operation, application, installation, and repair of mechanical or electromechanical products and systems: Researches and analyzes data, such as customer design proposal, specifications, and manuals to determine feasibility of design or application. Designs products or systems, such as instruments, controls, robots, engines, machines, and mechanical, thermal, hydraulic, or heat transfer systems, applying knowledge of engineering principles [DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Plans and directs engineering personnel in fabrication of test control apparatus and equipment, and development of methods and procedures for testing products or systems [TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Directs and coordinates fabrication and installation activities to ensure products and systems conform to engineering design and customer specifications. Coordinates operation, maintenance, and repair activities to obtain optimum utilization of machines and equipment. May design products and systems to interface machines, hardware, and software. May evaluate field installations and recommend design modifications to eliminate machine or system malfunctions. May specialize in specific field of mechanical engineering, such as heat transfer, hydraulics, electromechanics, controls and instrumentation, robotics, nuclear systems, tooling, air-conditioning and refrigeration; or in type of product, such as propulsion systems or machinery and mechanical equipment; or in type of work, such as steam or gas generation and distribution, steam plant engineering, or system planning.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

007.061-018 MECHANICAL-DESIGN ENGINEER, FACILITIES (profess. & kin.)

Designs and directs installation of plant systems or product lines performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, FACILITIES (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

007.061-022 MECHANICAL-DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.)

Designs mechanical or electromechanical products or systems performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

007.061-026 TOOL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

Designs single- or multiple-edged machine cutting tools, such as broaches, milling-machine cutters, and drills, and related jigs, dies, and fixtures: Studies specifications, engineering blueprints, tool orders, and shop data and confers with engineering and shop personnel to resolve design problems related to material characteristics, dimensional tolerances, service requirements, manufacturing procedures, and cost. Applies algebraic and geometric formulas and standard tool engineering data to develop tool configuration. Selects standard items, such as bushings and tool bits, to incorporate into tool design. Draws preliminary sketches and prepares layout and detail drawings, using standard drafting tools and equipment or computer-assisted design/drafting equipment and software. Modifies tool designs according to trial or production service data to improve tool life or performance.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

007.061-030 TOOL-DESIGNER APPRENTICE (profess. & kin.)

Performs duties as described under APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

007.061-034 UTILIZATION ENGINEER (utilities)

Solves engineering problems concerned with industrial utilization of gas as source of power: Studies industrial processes to determine where and how application of gas fuel-consuming equipment can be made. Designs equipment to meet process requirements. Examines gas-powered equipment after installation to ensure proper functioning. Investigates equipment failures and difficulties and diagnoses faulty operation. Corrects or makes recommendations to maintenance crew to correct faults. Conducts safety, breakdown, and other engineering tests on gas fuel-consuming equipment to ascertain efficiency and safety of design and construction. May solve problems concerned with other gas-consuming equipment, such as air-conditioning and heating.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

007.061-038 APPLICATIONS ENGINEER, MANUFACTURING (profess. & kin.)

Plans, designs, and coordinates integration of machinery and equipment into manufacturing process of industrial establishment, applying knowledge of engineering and programming, and using computer, precision-measuring instruments, and drafting tools: Develops and writes equipment specifications, performance requirements, cost analysis, and proposal for integrating machinery and equipment, such as robots, $T3robot controllers,$T1 and $T3programmable controllers$T1 into manufacturing process, applying knowledge of mechanics, hydraulics, pneumatics, electrical wiring, electronics, programming, and manufacturing requirements, and using computer and calculator. Selects or designs robot end-of-arm tools to meet specifications, using robot manuals and either drafting tools or computer and software programs. Writes operating programs, using existing computer program, or writes own computer programs, applying knowledge of programming language and computer. Oversees installation to ensure machines and equipment are installed and functioning according to specifications. Tests ability of machines, such as robot, to perform tasks, using $T3teach pendant$T1 and precision measuring instruments and following specifications. Confers with establishment personnel to implement operating procedures and resolve system malfunctions. Determines parts supply, maintenance tasks, safety procedures, and service schedule required to maintain machines and equipment in prescribed condition. Develops models of alternate processing methods to test feasibility of new applications of system components, and recommends implementation of improved procedures. Participates in meetings, seminars, and training sessions to stay apprised of new developments in field. Confers with workers in other departments, such as marketing, legal, and engineering, to provide technical information. May develop and conduct robot and related equipment training programs and demonstrate skills to trainees, using teach pendant, handtools, precision-measuring instruments, and following schematics, plant drawings, and manufacturer's specifications.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

007.061-042 STRESS ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts stress analyses on engineering designs for electronic components, systems, and products, using mathematical formulas and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems: Analyzes engineering designs, schematics, and customer specifications to determine stress requirements on product. Formulates $T3mathematical model$T1 or three-dimensional computer graphic model of product, using calculator or CAE system. Analyzes ability of product to withstand stress imposed by conditions such as temperature, loads, motion, and vibration, using mathematical formulas and computer simulation. Builds product model of wood or other material, performs physical stress tests on model, and evaluates test results. Consults with ELECTRONICS-DESIGN ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) 003.061-034 to recommend design modifications of product based on results of stress analysis. Prepares stress analysis reports.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86


Sells mechanical equipment and provides technical-services to clients as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

007.161-010 DIE DESIGNER (machine shop) alternate titles: design leader; die design drafter; die developer

Develops plans for single stage or progressive stage dies for stamping, forming, forging, or extrusion presses, according to blueprints of product and knowledge of press characteristics and process limitations: Drafts drawings of dies necessary to form complete forging, stamping, or other part. Determines sequence and number of die stages in which single or progressive cutting, punching, and forming will be accomplished, and type of die sets required to produce complete part, based on knowledge of dies, forming processes, and machines. Drafts scale drawings of each die set, delineating contours and dimensions for manufacture of die. Compares part drawings with wood patterns of cast dies to determine correctness of pattern dimensions and form. May observe setup and tryout of newly developed die set in production machine to determine need for redesign or readiness for production use.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.161-014 DIE-DESIGNER APPRENTICE (machine shop)

Performs duties as described under APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.161-018 ENGINEERING ASSISTANT, MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: mechanical design technician

Develops detailed design drawings and related specifications of mechanical equipment, according to engineering sketches and design proposal specifications: Analyzes engineering sketches, specifications, and related data and drawings to determine design factors, such as size, shape, and arrangement of parts. Sketches rough layout of machine and computes angles, weights, surface areas, dimensions, radii, clearances, tolerances, leverages, and location of holes. Computes magnitude, direction, and point of application of tension, compression, and bending forces, and develops geometric shape of machine parts to accommodate operating loads. Drafts detailed multiview drawings of machine and subassemblies, including specifications for gear ratios, bearing loads, and direction of moving parts, using engineering data and standard references. Compiles and analyzes test data to determine effect of machine design on various factors, such as temperature, pressures, speed, horsepower, and fuel consumption. Modifies machine design to correct operating deficiencies or to reduce production problems. May measure machine and parts during production to ensure compliance with design specifications, using precision measuring instruments. May specialize in specific type of machine, such as air-cooled internal combustion engines, diesel engines, or machine tools. May use computer-assisted design/drafting equipment and software to develop designs.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

007.161-022 MECHANICAL RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research to develop mechanical equipment and machinery, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

007.161-026 MECHANICAL-ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: engineering technician; experimental technician; laboratory-development technician; mechanical technician

Develops and tests machinery and equipment, applying knowledge of mechanical engineering technology, under direction of engineering and scientific staff: Reviews project instructions and blueprints to ascertain test specifications, procedures, objectives, test equipment, nature of technical problem, and possible solutions, such as part redesign, substitution of material or parts, or rearrangement of parts or subassemblies. Drafts detail drawing or sketch for drafting room completion or to request parts fabrication by machine, sheet metal or wood shops. Devises, fabricates, and assembles new or modified mechanical components or assemblies for products, such as industrial equipment and machinery, power equipment, servosystems, machine tools, and measuring instruments. Sets up and conducts tests of complete units and components under operational conditions to investigate design proposals for improving equipment performance or other factors, or to obtain data for development, standardization, and quality control. Analyzes indicated and calculated test results in relation to design or rated specifications and test objectives, and modifies or adjusts equipment to meet specifications. Records test procedures and results, numerical and graphical data, and recommendations for changes in product or test method.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.161-030 OPTOMECHANICAL TECHNICIAN (optical goods; photo. appar.)

Applies engineering theory and practical knowledge, under direction of engineering staff, to build and test prototype optomechanical devices to be used in such equipment as aerial cameras, gun sights, and telescopes: Reviews project instructions, and preliminary specifications to identify and plan requirements for parts fabrication, purchase, assembly, and test. Prepares sketches and writes work orders and purchase requests for items to be furnished by others, and follows up delivery. Designs, builds, or modifies fixtures used to assemble parts. Lays out cutting lines for machining, using drafting tools. Assembles and adjusts parts and related electrical units of prototype to prepare for test. Sets up prototype and test apparatus, such as control console, collimator, recording equipment, and cables in accordance with specifications. Operates controls of test apparatus and prototype to observe and record test results. Computes test data on laboratory forms for engineers. Confers in technical meetings, recommending design and material changes to reduce cost and lead time. May be assigned as group leader to coordinate work of technicians, model makers, and others assigned to assist.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

007.161-034 TEST ENGINEER, MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Conducts tests on mechanical equipment performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

007.161-038 SOLAR-ENERGY-SYSTEMS DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

Designs solar domestic hot water and space heating systems for new and existing structures, applying knowledge of energy requirements of structure, local climatological conditions, solar technology, and thermodynamics: Estimates energy requirements of new or existing structures, based on analysis of utility bills of structure, calculations of thermal efficiency of structure, and prevailing climatological conditions. Determines type of solar system, such as water, glycol, or silicone, which functions most efficiently under prevailing climatological conditions. Calculates on-site heat generating capacity of different solar panels to determine optimum size and type of panels which meet structure's energy requirements. Arranges location of solar system components, such as panel, pumps, and storage tanks, to minimize length and number of direction changes in pipes and reconstruction of existing structures. Studies engineering tables to determine size of pipes and pumps required to maintain specified flow rate through solar panels. Specifies types of electrical controls, such as differential thermostat, temperature sensors, and solenoid valves, compatible with other system components, using knowledge of control systems. Completes parts list, specifying components of system. Draws wiring, piping, and other diagrams, using drafting tools. May inspect structures to compile data used in solar system design, such as structure's angle of alignment with sun and temperature of incoming cold water. May inspect construction of system to ensure adherence to design specifications.
GOE: 05.03.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

007.167-010 DIE-DRAWING CHECKER (profess. & kin.)

Examines die design drawings prepared by DIE DESIGNER (machine shop) for accuracy of design detail and to assure production feasibility of die sets: Computes dimensions of drawings to check accuracy of figures and proper placement of layout. Ascertains that production parts can be fabricated with dies as designed by applying thorough knowledge of machine capacities. Returns erroneous drawings to original designer for correction, indicating orally, or in writing, changes to be made.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.167-014 PLANT ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: factory engineer; superintendent, mechanical

Plans, directs, and coordinates activities concerned with design, construction, modification, and maintenance of equipment and machinery in industrial plant: Establishes standards and policies for pollution control, installation, modification, quality control, testing, operating procedure, inspection, and maintenance of equipment, according to engineering principles and safety regulations. Directs maintenance of plant buildings and coordinates requirements for new designs, surveys, and maintenance schedules for equipment and machinery. Prepares bid sheets and contracts for construction and facilities acquisition. Tests newly installed machines and equipment to ensure fulfillment of contract specifications.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

007.167-018 TOOL PROGRAMMER, NUMERICAL CONTROL (any industry) alternate titles: computer-programmer, numerical control; programmer, numerical control; tool programmer

Plans numerical control program to control contour-path machining of metal parts on automatic machine tools: Analyzes drawings, sketches, and design data of part to determine dimension and configuration of cuts, selection of cutting tools, and machine speeds and feed rates, according to knowledge of machine shop processes, part specifications, and machine capabilities. Determines reference points and direction of machine cutting paths. Computes angular and linear dimensions, radii, and curvatures, and outlines sequence of operations required to machine part. Prepares geometric layout on graph paper or using computer-assisted drafting software to show location of reference points and direction of cutting paths, using drafting instruments or computer. Writes instruction sheets and cutter lists to guide setup and operation of machine. Writes program of machine instructions in symbolic language to encode numerical control tape or direct numerical control data base to regulate movement of machine along cutting path. Compares encoded tape or computer printout with original program sheet to assure accuracy of machine instructions. Revises program to eliminate instruction errors or omissions. Observes operation of machine on trial run to prove taped or programmed instructions.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

007.181-010 HEAT-TRANSFER TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Plans requirements for fabricating, installing, testing, and servicing climate control and heat transfer assemblies and systems to assist engineering personnel, utilizing knowledge of heat transfer technology and engineering methods: Calculates required capacities for equipment units of proposed system to obtain specified performance and submits data to engineering personnel for approval. Studies supplier catalogs and technical data to recommend equipment unit selections for system. Prepares unit design layouts and detail drawings for fabricating parts and assembling system. Estimates cost factors, such as labor and material for purchased and fabricated parts, and costs for assembling, testing and installing in customer's premises. Fabricates nonstandard parts for system, using metalworking machinery and assembles system, using handtools and power tools. Installs test fixtures, apparatus, and controls and conducts operational tests under specified conditions. Analyzes test data and prepares report for evaluation by engineering personnel. Installs system in customer premises and tests operational performance for compliance with contract specifications and applicable codes. Diagnoses special service problems of systems under service contract and writes instructions for service or repair personnel. May be designated according to specialty as Air-Conditioning Technician (profess. & kin.); Heating Technician (profess. & kin.); Refrigerating Technician (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.261-010 CHIEF DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: layer-out; lay-out drafter

Draws rough layout and sketches, and assigns work to and directs subordinate drafting workers: Sketches layout according to design proposal and standard specifications and practices. Assigns drafting of detail drawings to subordinate personnel and verifies accuracy and completeness of finished drawings. May perform duties described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.261-014 DRAFTER, CASTINGS (profess. & kin.)

Drafts detailed drawings for castings which require special knowledge and attention to shrinkage allowances and such factors as minimum radii of fillets and rounds. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.261-018 DRAFTER, PATENT (profess. & kin.)

Drafts clear and accurate drawings of varied sorts of mechanical devices for use of LAWYER, PATENT (profess. & kin.) in obtaining patent rights. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.

GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.261-022 DRAFTER, TOOL DESIGN (profess. & kin.)

Drafts detailed drawing plans for manufacture of tools, usually following designs and specifications indicated by TOOL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.). Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

007.267-010 DRAWINGS CHECKER, ENGINEERING (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: standards analyst

Examines engineering drawings of military and commercial parts, assemblies, and installations to detect errors in design documents: Compares figures and lines on production drawing or diagram with production layout, examining angles, dimensions, bend allowances, and tolerances for accuracy. Determines practicality of design, material selection, available tooling, and fabrication process, applying knowledge of drafting and manufacturing methods. Confers with design personnel to resolve drawing and design discrepancies. May specialize in checking specific types of designs, such as mechanical assemblies, microelectronic circuitry, or fluid-flow systems. May operate copier equipment to make duplicates of designs.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

007.267-014 TOOL DESIGN CHECKER (aircraft mfg.) alternate titles: tool drawing checker

Examines tool drawings prepared by TOOL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) 007.061-026 for inaccuracies of detail and evaluates overall tool design for fit, form, and function, utilizing knowledge of engineering principles, tool design methods, and manufacturing processes: Measures drawing dimensions, and compares figures with dimensions on original layout, specifications, or sample part to verify measurements conform to scale. Marks verified or out-of-scale dimensions on drawings. Inspects lines and figures on drawings for clarity. Evaluates overall tool design for functionality, conformance to drawing standards and design specifications, and manufacturing feasibility. Reviews material requirements for standardization and conformance to industry specification manuals. Discusses design, manufacturing, and related issues with engineering, production, or other personnel. Approves or rejects design. May operate computer to examine and evaluate computer-generated tool designs.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

007.281-010 DRAFTER, MECHANICAL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: drafter, engineering

Drafts detailed drawings of machinery and mechanical devices, indicating dimensions and tolerances, fasteners and joining requirements, and other engineering data: Reviews rough sketches and engineering specifications received from engineer or architect. Drafts multiple-view assembly, subassembly, and layout drawings as required for manufacture and repair of machines and equipment. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

007.362-010 NESTING OPERATOR, NUMERICAL CONTROL (aircraft mfg.) alternate titles: computer-numerical-control nesting operator; pattern data operator

Operates computer to lay out graphic display of parts to be machined in optimum arrangement (nest) and generate control media for numerical-control drilling, routing, and cutting machines: Reviews shop orders to determine job specifications and nesting requirements. Sorts shop orders into groups according to compatibility factors, such as quantity and shape of parts, and type, size, alloy, and gauge of material to be machined to produce nest that maximizes material utilization and minimizes machine setup and operation. Enters computer commands to retrieve stored parts data and graphic displays, such as simulated patterns or templates, and displays and manipulates part images on computer screen into optimum arrangement. Calculates and codes machine controlling criteria, such as table movement, type and size of cutting and drilling tools, spindle location, and machining start point, feed rate, and speed, utilizing knowledge of numerical-control machine operation. Enters commands to title and store nest layouts in computer memory and to build and maintain source files. Keys in commands to transfer nest data, listings, or layouts to other media, such as hardcopy, tape, or floppy disk, or to route nest data by direct link to direct-numerical-control machines. Loads and unloads disk packs, tapes, or floppy disks. May operate digitizing equipment to produce patterns. May discuss nesting or machining problems with machine operators or other personnel.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 89


This group includes occupations concerned with the application of chemistry and other sciences, such as physics and mathematics, and of engineering principles to manufacturing operations which involve chemical processes. Also includes the design, construction, and operation of industrial plants carrying out chemical processes. Typical specializations are heat transfer and energy conversion, food and pharmaceutical products, forest products, petrochemicals and fuels, and materials handling.

008.061-010 ABSORPTION-AND-ADSORPTION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: adsorption-and-absorption engineer

Designs equipment and devises chemical processes to remove and separate components of gas mixture or liquid solutions by absorption and adsorption, using knowledge of chemistry and engineering: Devises processes and directs workers, using equipment, such as crushers, grinders, kilns, screens, pumps, compressors, pipelines, valves, tanks, and separators. Directs workers controlling flow of liquid or gas through an adsorbent, such as fuller's earth, clays, carbons, charcoal, and bone char in granular form (percolation method); or mixing adsorbent with liquid or gas and removing adsorbent by filtration, settling, or combination of both (contact filtration method). Directs workers, using absorption method to remove soluble constituent of gas or vapor by dissolving it in a liquid, using packed columns or towers into which liquid is sprayed.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

008.061-014 CHEMICAL DESIGN ENGINEER, PROCESSES (profess. & kin.)

Designs equipment and processes to produce chemical changes in elements and compounds, performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, FACILITIES (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

008.061-018 CHEMICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Designs equipment and develops processes for manufacturing chemicals and related products utilizing principles and technology of chemistry, physics, mathematics, engineering and related physical and natural sciences: Conducts research to develop new and improved chemical manufacturing processes. Designs, plans layout, and oversees workers engaged in constructing, controlling, and improving equipment to carry out chemical processes on commercial scale. Analyzes operating procedures and equipment and machinery functions to reduce processing time and cost. Designs equipment to control movement, storage, and packaging of solids, liquids, and gases. Designs and plans measurement and control systems for chemical plants based on data collected in laboratory experiments and pilot plant operations. Determines most effective arrangement of unit operations such as mixing, grinding, crushing, heat transfer, size reduction, hydrogenation, distillation, purification, oxidation, polymerization, evaporation, and fermentation, exercising judgment to compromise between process requirements, economic evaluation, operator effectiveness, and physical and health hazards. Directs activities of workers who operate and control such equipment as condensers, absorption and evaporation towers, kilns, pumps, stills, valves, tanks, boilers, compressors, grinders, pipelines, electro-magnets, and centrifuges to effect required chemical or physical change. Performs tests and takes measurements throughout stages of production to determine degree of control over variables such as temperature, density, specific gravity, and pressure. May apply principles of chemical engineering to solve environmental problems. May apply principles of chemical engineering to solve bio-medical problems. May develop electro-chemical processes to generate electric currents, using controlled chemical reactions or to produce chemical changes, using electric currents. May specialize in heat transfer and energy conversion, petrochemicals and fuels, materials handling, pharmaceuticals, foods, forest products, or products such as plastics, detergents, rubber, or synthetic textiles. May be designated according to area of specialization.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

008.061-022 CHEMICAL RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research on chemical processes and equipment, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

008.061-026 CHEMICAL-TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts tests on chemicals, fuels, and processes, performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

008.151-010 CHEMICAL-EQUIPMENT SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Sells chemical processing equipment and provides technical services to clients, performing duties as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

008.167-010 TECHNICAL DIRECTOR, CHEMICAL PLANT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: technical manager, chemical plant

Plans and coordinates technical activities in chemical plant, pilot-plant, or chemical-engineering department: Directs activities of engineering personnel engaged in preparing plans, designs, cost estimates, and specifications for experimental, maintenance, or modernization programs to determine most feasible approach to technical problems. Directs activities of engineers and technicians setting up prototype units designed to perform experimental operations. Coordinates activities of workers engaged in testing and metering unit operations, and collecting and interpreting processing records. Evaluates performance records of chemical processes and physical operations and submits report of findings to management. May prepare reports on cost of plant operation.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

008.261-010 CHEMICAL-ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Applies chemical engineering principles and technical skills to assist CHEMICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) in developing, improving, and testing chemical-plant processes, products, and equipment: Prepares charts, sketches, diagrams, flow charts, and compiles and records engineering data to clarify design details or functional criteria of chemical processing and physical operation units. Participates in fabricating, installing, and modifying equipment to ensure that critical standards are met. Tests developmental equipment and formulates standard operating procedures. Tests processing equipment and instruments to observe and record operating characteristics and performance of specified design or process. Observes chemical or physical operation processes and recommends modification or change. Observes and confers with equipment operators to ensure specified techniques are used. Writes technical reports and submits finding to CHEMICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.). Performs preventive and corrective maintenance of chemical processing equipment. May prepare chemical solutions for use in processing materials, such as synthetic textiles, detergents, and fertilizers following formula. May set up test apparatus. May instruct or direct activities of technical personnel. May assist in developing and testing prototype processing systems and be designated Chemical-Engineering Technician, Prototype-Development (profess. & kin.). May assist in development of pilot-plant units and be designated Pilot-Plant Research-Technician (petrol. refin.).
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the extraction of minerals from the earth, including planning the development of the mine. Accessory techniques include those used in geology and in civil, mechanical, electrical, metallurgical, and chemical engineering. Typical specializations are according to activities involved, such as exploration, extraction, mine layout, oil well development, safety, research, and supervision and management; or according to type of substance involved, such as metals, nonmetallic minerals, coal, or petroleum and natural gas.


Designs mining and oil field machinery, performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

010.061-014 MINING ENGINEER (mine & quarry)

Conducts research to determine location and methods of extracting minerals, such as metallic ores and nonmetallic substances, such as coal, stone, and gravel: Conducts or collaborates in geological exploration, and reviews maps and drilling logs to determine location, size, accessibility, and estimated value of mineral deposit. Determines methods to extract minerals, considering factors such as safety, operational costs, deposit characteristics, overburden depth, and surrounding strata. Plans, recommends, and coordinates mining process, type and capacity of haulage equipment, such as power shovels and trucks, and labor utilization. Lays out and directs mine construction operations, such as location and development of shafts, tunnels, chambers, position of excavation benches (levels), and access roads. Designs, implements, and monitors facility projects, such as water and power supply, ventilation system, rock-dust and radon gas control, drainage, rail and conveyor systems, and material cleaning, grading, and reduction systems. May devise methods and locations to store and replace excavated soil to reclaim mine sites. May analyze labor requirements, equipment needs, and operational costs to compute and prepare annual budget reports. May apply knowledge of mining engineering to solve problems concerned with environment.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

010.061-018 PETROLEUM ENGINEER (petrol. & gas)

Analyzes technical and cost factors to plan methods to recover maximum oil and gas in oil-field operations, utilizing knowledge of petroleum engineering and related technologies: Examines map of subsurface oil and gas reservoir locations to recommend placement of wells to maximize economical production from reservoir. Evaluates probable well production rate during natural or stimulated-flow production phases. Recommends supplementary processes to enhance recovery involving stimulation of flow by use of processes, such as pressurizing or heating in subsurface regions. Analyzes recommendations of reservoir engineering specialist for placement of well in oil field. Develops well drilling plan for management approval, specifying factors including drilling time, number of special operations, such as directional drilling, and testing, and material requirements and costs including well casing and drilling muds. Provides technical consultation during drilling operations to resolve problems such as bore directional change, unsatisfactory drilling rate or invasion of subsurface water in well bore. Advises substitution of drilling mud compounds or tool bits to improve drilling conditions. Inspects well to determine that final casing and tubing installations are completed. Plans oil and gas field recovery containers, piping, and treatment vessels to receive, remove contaminants, and separate oil and gas products flowing from well. Monitors production rate of gas or oil from established wells and plans rework process to correct well production, such as repacking of well bore and additional perforation of subsurface sands adjacent to well bottom. May apply knowledge of petroleum engineering to solve problems concerned with environment [ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)]. May be designated according to specialty as Development Engineer, Geothermal Operations (profess. & kin.); Drilling Engineer (petrol. & gas); Production Engineer (petrol. & gas); Reservoir Engineer (petrol. & gas).
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

010.061-022 RESEARCH ENGINEER, MINING-AND-OIL-WELL EQUIPMENT (mine & quarry; petrol. & gas)

Conducts research to develop improved mining and oil well equipment, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

010.061-026 SAFETY ENGINEER, MINES (mine & quarry) alternate titles: director, safety

Inspects underground or open-pit mining areas and trains mine personnel to ensure compliance with state and federal laws and accepted mining practices designed to prevent mine accidents: Inspects mine workings to detect unsafe timbers, cribbing, roof bolts, electric wiring, elevators, explosives storage, equipment, and working conditions. Examines walls and roof surfaces for evidence of strata faults indicating cave-in or rock slide hazards. Tests air to detect concentrations of toxic gases and explosive dusts, using safety lamp, methane detector, carbon monoxide register, and anemometer. Recommends alteration or installation of ventilation shafts, partitions, or equipment to remedy inadequate air circulation of air-conditioning. Applies principles of mining engineering and human engineering to design protective equipment and safety devices for mine machinery. Gives instructions to mine personnel in safe working practices and first aid, and strives to promote and maintain safety-mindedness of workers. Investigates explosions, fires, and accidents and reports causes and recommendations for remedial action to insurance companies, mine management, and state authorities. May lead rescue activities during emergencies and maintain rescue equipment.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 80

010.061-030 TEST ENGINEER, MINING-AND-OIL-FIELD EQUIPMENT (mine & quarry; petrol. & gas)

Conducts tests on mining and oil field machinery and equipment, performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

010.131-010 WELL-LOGGING CAPTAIN, MUD ANALYSIS (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: mud-analysis-well-logging captain

Supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in analysis of oil well drilling mud and well cuttings during drilling operations to detect presence of oil or gas and identify productive strata: Coordinates work of WELL-LOGGING OPERATORS, MUD ANALYSIS (petrol. & gas) engaged in continuous sampling and analysis of mud circulating through wells being drilled and preparation of mud analysis logs. Reviews analysis made by workers of cores cut from wells to determine nature of earth formations penetrated. Summarizes log data and core analysis records for engineering personnel. Initiates or recommends personnel actions, such as pay increase, transfer or discipline.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

010.151-010 SALES ENGINEER, MINING-AND-OIL-WELL EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES (mine & quarry; petrol. & gas)

Sells mining and oilwell equipment and provides technical services to clients, performing duties as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

010.161-010 CHIEF ENGINEER, RESEARCH (petrol. & gas)

Coordinates research activities to develop new and improved methods of drilling wells and producing oil or gas: Directs, through subordinate engineering personnel, planning and progress of experimental projects in drilling and production operations, such as projects investigating composition of drilling mud, recovery of natural gasoline from crude oil and gas solutions, or dehydration of crude petroleum. Assists CHIEF PETROLEUM ENGINEER (petrol. & gas) in solution of technical operating problems. May direct research activities in geochemical or other petroleum prospecting methods.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

010.161-014 CHIEF PETROLEUM ENGINEER (petrol. & gas)

Plans and directs engineering activities of a petroleum company to develop oil fields and produce oil and gas: Formulates programs for developing oil fields, planning schedules for drilling wells and for constructing pumping units, crude-oil treating units, and other production facilities. Coordinates projected activities with civil, electrical, and other engineering departments. Directs, through subordinate workers, selection, installation, use, and repair of oil field equipment. Directs PETROLEUM ENGINEERS (petrol. & gas) in engineering work concerned with drilling new wells and producing flow of oil or gas from wells, in maintaining well logs, and in other engineering activities. Directs laboratory and field research to develop new or to improve old methods and equipment for recovery of oil and gas. Keeps abreast of new developments in petroleum engineering. Selects, trains, and promotes engineering personnel. May direct mechanical, civil, electrical, and other engineering activities. May direct engineering and drilling activities in developing geothermal field and be designated Director, Geothermal Operations (petrol. & gas).
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

010.161-018 OBSERVER, SEISMIC PROSPECTING (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: field seismologist; geophysical operator; section-plotter operator

Plans and directs activities of field party engaged in collecting seismic data used in prospecting for oil or gas: Designates location of shot holes and placement of seismometers and connecting cables over blast area according to plot drawn by SURVEYOR, GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING (petrol. & gas). Plans and directs activities of workers engaged in laying out seismographic measuring apparatus over test area. Surveys area to verify that equipment is in position specified and tests electrical circuits for continuity. Directs SHOOTER, SEISMOGRAPH (petrol. & gas) to detonate charges placed in shot holes, using short wave radio. Observes reaction of recording instruments to detect irregularity. Develops picture of seismic wave pattern in photographic developing solution. Examines wave pattern on subterranean strata for evidence of distortion caused by electronic crossfeed, short circuit, or loose connection. Orders redrilling of shot holes and equipment layout to repeat shot. Directs repair or repairs instruments or equipment, using manufacturers' manuals and handtools.
GOE: 05.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

010.167-010 CHIEF ENGINEER (petrol. & gas; pipe lines)

Directs activities of workers in engineering department of petroleum production or pipeline company and advises management on engineering problems: Apportions work among engineering staff according to specialized training. Reviews engineering designs for neatness and accuracy. Directs engineering personnel in formulating plans, designs, cost estimates, and specifications for oil field or pipeline construction, maintenance, and modernization programs. Supervises engineering office workers computing operating budgets, compiling reports, and conducting special investigations and studies to evaluate efficiency of engineering programs. May apply knowledge of petroleum engineering to coordinate work of engineers engaged in solving problems concerned with environment [ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)]. May be designated according to engineering department supervised as Chief Engineer, Drilling And Recovery (petrol. & gas); Chief Engineer, Pipeline (petrol. & gas); Chief Engineer, Production (petrol. & gas); Chief, Reservoir Engineering (petrol. & gas).
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

010.167-014 DISTRICT SUPERVISOR, MUD-ANALYSIS WELL LOGGING (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: mud-analysis-well-logging supervisor, district; mud engineer; mud-logging superintendent

Plans and directs mud-sample testing operations: Consults with SUPERINTENDENT, OIL-FIELD DRILLING (petrol. & gas) and interprets drilling logs to determine status of wells being drilled. Plans and coordinates itinerary for WELL-LOGGING CAPTAIN, MUD ANALYSIS (petrol. & gas); WELL-LOGGING OPERATOR, MUD ANALYSIS (petrol. & gas) and other members of mobile field-laboratory crews to obtain maximum utilization of personnel with minimum disruption of drilling operations. Interprets mud analysis logs obtained by crews, for PETROLEUM ENGINEER (petrol. & gas).
GOE: 05.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

010.167-018 SUPERINTENDENT, OIL-WELL SERVICES (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: manager, oil-well services

Directs activities concerned with providing technical services, such as electrical well logging, gun perforating, directional or caliper surveying, and cementing, acidizing, and formation fracturing, to assist in solving special oil well drilling and production problems: Advises SUPERINTENDENT, DRILLING AND PRODUCTION (petrol. & gas) on specific servicing problems and recommends use of specialized tools, techniques, and services. Directs organization and training of personnel, and directly or through subordinate personnel supervises servicing operations. Supervises repair and maintenance of equipment. Keeps records of operations and prepares reports.
GOE: 05.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

010.261-010 FIELD ENGINEER, SPECIALIST (petrol. & gas)

Collects fluid samples from oil-or gas-bearing formations and analyzes sample to determine potential productivity of formation: Moves controls on panel to fire charge into formation and to operate hydraulic mechanism which thrusts and seals probe into perforation. Analyzes fluid in sample to determine potential productivity of formation.
GOE: 05.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

010.261-014 OBSERVER, ELECTRICAL PROSPECTING (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: electrical-logging engineer; electrical-prospecting operator

Measures resistance of earth formations to electrical charges, using electrical apparatus to obtain data for locating rock strata favorable to further petroleum exploration activities: Transports electrical equipment and instruments to designated locations, and directs and assists in laying out and connecting cables, electrodes, instrument panels, and other electrical equipment. Adjusts electrical instruments to eliminate electrical interferences from earth currents or weather conditions. Opens and closes circuits to send electrical current through electrodes into earth. Reads dials and records data of millivoltmeter readings at various receptor points along cable to detect loss of potential due to resistance of earth formations. Diagnoses cause of malfunctioning of instruments and cables and makes repairs.
GOE: 05.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

010.261-018 OBSERVER, GRAVITY PROSPECTING (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: gravity-prospecting operator; recorder, gravity prospecting

Records readings of gravity meter, torsion balance, and other gravity-measuring instruments at various points in terrain to obtain data regarding gravity characteristics indicating potential source of metallic ore or petroleum deposits: Sets up or directs set-up of instruments at specified location and records readings. Examines readings for accurate registration and adjusts instruments to specifications. Reads thermometers, barometers, and other instruments and records variations in temperature, barometric pressure, elevation, and other physical factors that affect instrument readings. May be designated according to instrument used as Gravity-Meter Observer (mine & quarry; petrol. & gas); Magnetometer Operator (mine & quarry; petrol. & gas).
GOE: 05.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

010.261-022 SURVEYOR, OIL-WELL DIRECTIONAL (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: oil-well-logging engineer

Measures sonar, electrical, or radioactive characteristics of earth formations in oil- or gas-well boreholes to evaluate productivity of oil- or gas-bearing reservoirs, using sonic, electronic, or nuclear measuring instruments: Signals HOISTING ENGINEER (any industry) to lower instruments into well, observing oscillograph and meters on control panel to verify operating condition of instruments. Turns dials on control panel to adjust instrument for specified recording and starts recording device when instruments reach bottom of borehole. Prints copies of recorded graphs in truck darkroom [DEVELOPER (photofinishing)]. Interprets graphs for customer to indicate identity, porosity, oil- or gas-bearing content, and productivity of geological formations. Measures borehole diameters, direction of borehole, and inclination of geological strata, using microcalipers, directional indicators (clinometers), and dipmeters. May be designated according to measuring instruments used as Acoustical Logging Engineer (petrol. & gas); Nuclear Logging Engineer (petrol. & gas).
GOE: 05.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

010.261-026 TEST-ENGINE EVALUATOR (petrol. refin.) alternate titles: research-test-engine evaluator

Collects and assists in evaluation of data obtained in testing petroleum fuels and lubricants under simulated operating conditions: Inspects engines after test runs have been made by TEST-ENGINE OPERATOR (petrol. refin.), for wear, deposits, and defective parts, using microscope and precision weighing and measuring devices to obtain accurate data. Records findings and assists in analyzing data. Assists in dismantling and reassembling engines during test runs. May obtain and analyze samples of engine-exhaust gas.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

010.267-010 SCOUT (petrol. & gas)

Investigates and collects information concerning oil well drilling operations, geological and geophysical prospecting, and land and lease contracts from other oil fields, the press, lease brokers, individuals, and organizations leading to possible discovery of new oil fields: Interviews individuals and observes field operations to obtain data, such as locations and depths of oil or gas wells or exploratory boreholes or of producing wells, subsurface and geophysical survey results, methods of well completion, and volume of oil or gas flow. Collects rock samples and cuttings and samples of oil or gas from wells. Inspects cores and notes recurrence of specific strata in various boreholes to confirm or disprove concepts of stratigraphy. Obtains information on purpose and locations of lease purchases, royalty contracts, and other agreements made by competitive companies. Observations may be confined to prospecting or to include drilling and producing activities. Must have knowledge of production engineering, oil field practices, and geology. May sketch subsurface contours of geological formations as indicated by data obtained. May negotiate with landowners for drilling leases, ore royalties, and land options [LEASE BUYER (mine & quarry; petrol. & gas)].
GOE: 05.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

010.281-010 DRAFTER, DIRECTIONAL SURVEY (petrol. & gas)

Plots oil- or gas-well boreholes from photographic subsurface survey recordings and other data. Computes and represents diameter, depth, degree, and direction of inclination, location of equipment, and other dimensions and characteristics of borehole. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

010.281-014 DRAFTER, GEOLOGICAL (petrol. & gas)

Draws maps, diagrams, profiles, cross sections, directional surveys, and subsurface formations to represent geological or geophysical stratigraphy and locations of gas and oil deposits, performing duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title: Correlates and interprets data obtained from topographical surveys, well logs, or geophysical prospecting reports, utilizing special symbols to denote geological and geophysical formations or oil field installations. May finish drawings in mediums and according to specifications required for reproduction by blueprinting, photographing, or other duplication methods.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

010.281-018 DRAFTER, GEOPHYSICAL (petrol. & gas)

Draws subsurface contours in rock formations from data obtained by geophysical prospecting party. Plots maps and diagrams from computations based on recordings of seismograph, gravity meter, magnetometer, and other petroleum prospecting instruments and from prospecting and surveying field notes. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May be designated according to method of prospecting as Drafter, Seismograph (petrol. & gas).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

010.281-022 WELL-LOGGING OPERATOR, MUD ANALYSIS (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: mud-analysis-well-logging operator

Analyzes mud and drill cuttings that are circulated through oil- or gas-well boreholes during drilling operations, using special testing equipment, to detect presence of oil or gas, and interprets findings to locate productive stratum: Attaches pump-stroke counter, mud-tank level indicator, and other measurement devices to drilling rig equipment, and connects electrical conductor cables to measurement devices and drilling rig monitoring instruments to prepare field laboratory for testing of mud and well cuttings. Detects presence of gas in mud by reading dial of gas-detection meter hooked up to detection devices in mud. Collects mud and drill cutting samples during drilling operations, and inspects samples to determine nature of earth formations encountered and presence of oil or gas in formation, using ultraviolet light, microscope, and other laboratory equipment. Keeps records of dial readings and tests made, and calculates depth of formations found to contain gas or oil. Performs minor repairs to electrical and mechanical equipment.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the extraction of metals from ores, and their processing and conversion into final shape. Also includes the design and development of process methods. Accessory techniques needed include those used in chemistry, geology, ceramics, mineralogy, and in mining, chemical, and mechanical engineering.

011.061-010 FOUNDRY METALLURGIST (foundry) alternate titles: foundry technician

Conducts research to develop and improve methods of sand molding, melting, alloying, and pouring of metals: Makes experimental sand molds, and tests sand for permeability, strength, and chemical composition. Calculates quantity of alloying metals required. Melts alloys and pours metals under controlled conditions to make castings. Performs physical and radiographic tests and evaluates data to develop improved alloys and foundry techniques.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

011.061-014 METALLOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts microscopic, macroscopic, and other tests and investigations on samples of metals and alloys for purposes as metallurgical control over products or use in developing new or improved grades and types of metals, alloys, or production methods: Directs laboratory personnel in preparing of samples, such as polishing or etching, and designates area of sample where microscopic or macroscopic examination is to be made. Studies photomicrographs and performs microscopic examinations on samples to determine metal characteristics, such as crystal structure, porosity, and homogeneity. Interprets findings and prepares drawings, charts, and graphs for inclusion in reports for reference or instruction purposes, and writes reports regarding findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Coordinates and participates in performing special tests, such as end-quench hardenability, bend and tensile, and grain size tests.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

011.061-018 METALLURGIST, EXTRACTIVE (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: metallurgist, process

Originates, controls, and develops flotation, smelting, electrolytic, and other processes used in winning metals from their ores, for producing iron and steel, or for refining gold, silver, zinc, copper, and other metals: Studies ore reduction problems to determine most efficient methods of producing metals commercially. Controls temperature adjustments, charge mixtures, and other variables in blast-furnace operations and steel-melting furnaces to obtain pig iron and steel of specified metallurgical characteristics and qualities. Investigates methods of improving metallurgical processes, as in the reduction of alumina by electrolytic methods to produce aluminum, the distillation of molten ore to purify zinc, or selective oxidation methods to extract lead, nickel, mercury, and other nonferrous metals from their ores.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

011.061-022 METALLURGIST, PHYSICAL (profess. & kin.)

Investigates and conducts experiments concerned with physical characteristics, properties, and processing of metals to develop new alloys, applications, and methods of commercially fabricating products from metals: Conducts microscopic, x ray, x-ray diffraction, and spectroscopic studies of metals and alloys, such as steel, cast iron, and nonferrous alloys, to determine their physical characteristics, such as crystal structure, dispersion of alloy particles through basic metal, and presence of impurities, fractures, and other defects in metal samples. Develops melting, hot-working, cold-working, and heat-treating processes to obtain desired characteristics, such as ductility, malleability, elongation ability, durability, and hardness. Tests alloys in tension, compression, impact, bending, or fatigue devices to study physical characteristics for manufacturing purposes or determine compliance with manufacturing specifications and standards. Consults with engineers and officials to develop methods of manufacturing alloys at minimum costs. May specialize in particular area of physical metallurgy, such as development of improved techniques and materials, for use in production of pressed metallic-powder products.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

011.061-026 WELDING ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Develops welding techniques, procedures, and application of welding equipment to problems involving fabrication of metals, utilizing knowledge of production specifications, properties and characteristics of metals and metal alloys, and engineering principles: Conducts research and development investigations to develop and test new fabrication processes and procedures, improve existing or develop new welding equipment, develop new or modify current welding methods, techniques, and procedures, discover new patterns of welding phenomena, or to correlate and substantiate hypotheses. Prepares technical reports as result of research and development and preventive maintenance investigations. Establishes welding procedures to guide production and welding personnel relating to specification restrictions, material processes, pre- and post-heating requirements which involve use of complex alloys, unusual fabrication methods, welding of critical joints, and complex postheating requirements. Evaluates new developments in welding field for possible application to current welding problems or production processes. Directs and coordinates technical personnel in performing inspections to ensure workers' compliance with established welding procedures, restrictions, and standards; in testing welds for conformance with national code requirements; or testing welding personnel for certification. Contacts personnel of other agencies, engineering personnel, or clients to exchange ideas, information, or offer technical advice concerning welding matters. May perform experimental welding to evaluate new equipment, techniques, and materials.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

011.161-010 SUPERVISOR, METALLURGICAL-AND-QUALITY-CONTROL-TESTING (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: physical-testing supervisor

Directs and coordinates, through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities of workers engaged in testing finished and semifinished metal sample specimens to determine if metallurgical and physical properties meet manufacturing specifications: Reviews production schedules to ascertain work load and prepares schedules and priorities for work. Assigns personnel to specific work assignments and reviews test reports to determine if physical characteristics of sample specimens meet metallurgical specifications and quality control standards. Investigates causes of defective material and advises supervisory personnel of production department responsible of processing defects. Determines disposition of substandard material, according to established precedent or practice or upon approval of superior, such as downgrading, reprocessing, or scrapping material. Advises metallurgical personnel on problems involving quality control and testing techniques and methods and on application of metallurgical specifications to metal products.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

011.261-010 METALLURGICAL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: metallurgical-laboratory assistant; metallurgical tester; physical-laboratory assistant

Examines and tests metal samples to determine their physical properties, under direction of METALLOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.): Conducts routine microscopic examinations of metals and alloys to determine their crystal structure, porosity, homogeneity, and other characteristics. Polishes or etches metal specimens and photographs samples, using photomicroscope, or directs photography technical personnel to take, develop, and mount photomicrographs. Examines metal and alloy samples with x-ray, gamma-ray, and magnetic-flux equipment to detect internal fractures, impurities, and similar defects in metals. Tests samples in pressure devices, hot-acid baths, and other apparatus to determine strength, hardness, elasticity, toughness, or other properties of metal.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

011.261-014 WELDING TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Conducts experiments and tests and evaluates data to assist welding engineering personnel in development and application of new or improved welding equipment; welding techniques, procedures, and practices; and specifications for material heat treating: Assists engineering personnel in testing and evaluating welding equipment, metals, and alloys. Evaluates data and conducts experiments to develop application of new equipment or improved techniques, procedures, or practices. Recommends adoption of new developments and applications to engineering personnel and demonstrates practicability of recommendations. Inspects welded joints and conducts tests to ensure welds meet company standards, national code requirements, and customer job specifications. Records inspection and test results and prepares and submits reports to welding engineering personnel. Conducts certification tests for qualification of personnel with national code requirements.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

011.261-018 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts radiographic, penetrant, ultrasonic, and magnetic particle tests on metal parts to determine if parts meet nondestructive specifications: Reviews test orders to determine type of test requested, test procedures to follow, and part acceptability criteria. Applies agents, such as cleaners, penetrants, and developers, and couplant (light oil which acts as medium), to parts, or heats parts in oven, to prepare parts for testing. Determines test equipment settings according to type of metal, thickness, distance from test equipment, and related variables, using standard formulas. Calibrates test equipment, such as magnetic particle, x-ray, and ultrasonic contact machines, to standard settings, following manual instructions. Sets up equipment to perform tests, and conducts tests on parts, following procedures established for specified tests performed. Examines surface-treated materials during penetrant and magnetic particle tests to locate and identify cracks or other defects, using black light. Moves transducer probe across part when conducting ultrasonic tests and observes CRT (cathode ray tube) screen to detect and locate discontinuities in metal structure [ULTRASONIC TESTER (any industry) 739.281-014]. Examines film when conducting radiographic tests to locate structural or welding flaws. Marks tested parts to indicate defective areas. Evaluates test results against designated standards, utilizing knowledge of metals and testing experience. Prepares reports outlining findings and conclusions. May perform similar tests on nonmetallic parts or structures.
GOE: 05.07.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

011.261-022 LABORATORY ASSISTANT, METALLURGICAL (steel & rel.) alternate titles: metallurgical analyst; metallurgical inspector

Analyzes data obtained from investigation of physical and chemical properties of metals, or processes used in recovering metals from their ores to select method, standards, and procedures of examination and testing and conducts tests: Analyzes operating records and test reports, or by personal observation and investigation, determines conformance to established procedures, methods, and standards. Conducts physical, chemical, and process examinations, using metallurgical equipment and instruments for routine, special, and experimental investigations. Writes report indicating deviations from specifications and recommends corrective measures for approval.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

011.281-014 SPECTROSCOPIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: spectrographer; spectrographic analyst

Conducts spectrographic examinations of metal and mineral samples under established procedures, using spectrograph, spectrometer, densitometer, and other measuring instruments: Analyzes densitometer or spectrometer readings to measure density ratio of specific elements in sample. Computes percentage composition of sample by comparing intensity ratio with standard charts. Investigates deviations from standard, performing further examinations by other spectrographic procedures and methods to establish degree of conformance to standard. Records quantitative determination, procedure, and standard applied for each sample examined.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

011.361-010 TESTER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: physical tester; testing-machine operator

Measures tensile strength, hardness, ductility, or other physical properties of metal specimens, using following prescribed series of operations: Determines tensile strength on tension-testing machines. Measures dimensions of specimen with scales and micrometers and records measurements. Screws or clamps specimen in holders on machine. Clamps extensometer onto specimen and connects wire from extensometer to automatic stress-strain recorder. Turns handwheels or moves levers to apply tension to specimen at specified rate. Notes reading of indicator dial on control panel of machine or observes stress-strain curve (curve obtained by plotting applied tension against resultant elongation) being drawn by recorder to determine yield point and tensile strength of specimen. Removes pieces of broken specimen from machine, fits them together, and measures amount of elongation. Makes simple calculations of values, such as unit tensile strength and percentage elongation, using tables. Records readings and calculations on special forms. Measures hardness of specimens [HARDNESS INSPECTOR (heat treating) 504.387-010]. Measures ductility of sheet metal specimens in sheet metal testing machine. May test specimens for plasticity and compression. May specialize in testing iron or steel sheets for ductility and be designated Sheet Tester (steel & rel.).
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the design and installation of integrated systems of personnel, materials, machinery, and equipment. Accessory techniques may include those used in mechanical and various other engineering specialities. Typical specializations are plant layout; production methods and standards; cost control; quality control; time, motion, and incentive studies; and methods, production, and safety engineering.

012.061-010 PRODUCT-SAFETY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Develops and conducts tests to evaluate product safety levels and recommends measures to reduce or eliminate hazards: Establishes procedures for detection and elimination of physical and chemical hazards and avoidance of potential toxic effects and other product hazards. Investigates causes of accidents, injuries, and illnesses resulting from product usage and develops solutions. Evaluates potential health hazards or damage which could result from misuse of products and applies engineering principles and product standards to improve safety. May participate in preparation of product usage and precautionary label instructions.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

012.061-014 SAFETY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Develops and implements safety program to prevent or correct unsafe environmental working conditions, utilizing knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws: Examines plans and specifications for new machinery or equipment to determine if all safety precautions have been included. Determines amount of weight that can be safely placed on plant floor. Tours plant to inspect fire and safety equipment, machinery, and facilities to identify and correct potential hazards and ensure compliance with safety regulations. Determines requirements for safety clothing and devices, and designs, builds, and installs, or directs installation of safety devices on machinery. Conducts or coordinates safety and first aid training to educate workers about safety policies, laws, and practices. Investigates industrial accidents to minimize recurrence and prepares accident reports. May conduct air quality tests for presence of harmful gases and vapors.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

012.061-018 STANDARDS ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Establishes engineering and technical limitations and applications for items, materials, processes, methods, designs, and engineering practices for use by designers of machines and equipment, such as aircraft, automobiles, and space vehicles: Communicates with management of industrial organization to maintain knowledge of current and proposed projects in order to develop appropriate standards for design and production of new items. Evaluates data in scientific journals, suppliers' catalogs, government standards documents, and other sources of information on materials, processes, and parts to update knowledge of available resources. Prepares specification sheets and standard drawings designating parts and materials acceptable for specific uses, using knowledge of primary engineering discipline and related disciplines. Examines all factors involved to confirm that standards will result in most economic use of material and labor consistent with safety and durability of final product. Reviews standards prepared with other departmental specialists to assure consistency with existing standards and those in other specialized disciplines. Communicates with user personnel to confirm knowledge of standards and cooperation of various project groups. Follows established procedures for retention of data developed to assure optimum storage and retrieval by manual or automated methods.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

012.067-010 METROLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Develops and evaluates calibration systems that measure characteristics of objects, substances, or phenomena, such as length, mass, time, temperature, electric current, luminous intensity, and derived units of physical or chemical measure: Identifies magnitude of error sources contributing to uncertainty of results to determine reliability of measurement process in quantitative terms. Redesigns or adjusts measurement capability to minimize errors. Develops calibration methods and techniques based on principles of measurement science, technical analysis of measurement problems, and accuracy and precision requirements. Directs engineering, quality, and laboratory personnel in design, manufacture, evaluation, and calibration of measurement standards, instruments, and test systems to ensure selection of approved instrumentation. Advises others on methods of resolving measurement problems and exchanges information with other metrology personnel through participation in government and industrial standardization committees and professional societies.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

012.167-010 CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

Analyzes proposed changes of product design to determine effect on overall system, and coordinates recording of modifications for management control: Confers with manufacturer or customer representatives to establish change-reporting procedure, and prepares directives for change authorization and documentation by company and subcontractor personnel. Analyzes proposed part-design changes and exhibits to prepare report of effect on overall product for management action, using knowledge of engineering, manufacturing, and procurement activities. Confers with department managers to obtain additional information or to interpret policies and procedures for reporting changes in product design. Audits subcontractor's inspection or technical documents preparation procedure to verify compliance with contract requirements. Coordinates activities of personnel preparing manual or automated records of part-design change documents and $T3first-article configuration inspection.$T1
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

012.167-014 MANAGER, QUALITY CONTROL (profess. & kin.)

Plans, coordinates, and directs quality control program designed to ensure continuous production of products consistent with established standards: Develops and analyzes statistical data and product specifications to determine present standards and establish proposed quality and reliability expectancy of finished product. Formulates and maintains quality control objectives and coordinates objectives with production procedures in cooperation with other plant managers to maximize product reliability and minimize costs. Directs, through intermediate personnel, workers engaged in inspection and testing activities to ensure continuous control over materials, facilities, and products. Plans, promotes, and organizes training activities related to product quality and reliability. May investigate and adjust customer complaints regarding quality.
GOE: 05.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

012.167-018 FACTORY LAY-OUT ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: planning engineer

Plans layout of complete departments of industrial plant or commercial establishment to provide maximum possible operating efficiency: Measures and studies available floor space and draws plan of floor space to scale, using drafting tools. Studies sequence of operations to be performed and flow of materials. Studies and measures machines, conveyors, benches, furnaces, and other equipment. Coordinates all available knowledge and information into finished scale drawing, showing most efficient location for each piece of equipment and necessary working area around each. May use computer-assisted design/drafting equipment.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

012.167-022 FIRE-PREVENTION RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: loss-prevention research engineer

Conducts research to determine cause and methods of preventing fires and prepares educational materials concerning fire prevention for insurance companies, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

012.167-026 FIRE-PROTECTION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: fire-loss-prevention engineer

Advises and assists private and public organizations and military services for purposes of safeguarding life and property against fire, explosion, and related hazards: Makes studies of industrial, mercantile, and public buildings, homes, and other property before and after construction, considering factors, such as fire resistance of construction, usage or contents of buildings, water supplies and water delivery, and egress facilities. Designs or recommends materials or equipment, such as structural components protection, fire-detection equipment, alarm systems, fire extinguishing devices and systems, and advises on location, handling, installation, and maintenance. Recommends materials, equipment, or methods for alleviation of conditions conducive to fire. Devises fire protection programs, and organizes and trains personnel to carry out such programs. May evaluate fire departments and adequacy of laws, ordinances, and regulations affecting fire prevention or firesafety. Conducts research and tests on fire retardants and firesafety of materials and devices and to determine fire causes and methods of fire prevention. May determine fire causes and methods of fire prevention. May teach courses on fire prevention and protection at accredited educational institutions. May advise and plan for prevention of destruction by fire, wind, water, or other causes of damage.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

012.167-030 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans utilization of facilities, equipment, materials, and personnel to improve efficiency of operations: Studies functional statements, organization charts, and project information to determine functions and responsibilities of workers and work units and to identify areas of duplication. Establishes work measurement programs and analyzes work samples to develop standards for labor utilization. Analyzes work force utilization, facility layout, and operational data, such as production costs, process flow charts, and production schedules, to determine efficient utilization of workers and equipment. Recommends methods for improving worker efficiency and reducing waste of materials and utilities, such as restructuring job duties, reorganizing work flow, relocating work stations and equipment, and purchase of equipment. Confers with management and engineering staff to implement plans and recommendations. May develop management systems for cost analysis, financial planning, wage and salary administration, and job evaluation.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

012.167-034 INDUSTRIAL-HEALTH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: industrial hygiene engineer

Plans and coordinates private or government industrial health program requiring application of engineering principles and technology to analyze and control conditions contributing to occupational hazards and diseases: Conducts plant or area surveys to determine safe limits of exposure to materials or conditions, such as temperatures, noise, dusts, fumes, vapors, mists, gases, solvents, and radiation which are known or suspected of being real or potential detriments to health, and implements or recommends control measures. Directs workers engaged in field and laboratory verification of compliance with health regulations. Provides technical guidance to management, labor organizations, government agencies, and civic groups regarding health-related problems, such as stream and air pollution and correct use of protective clothing or accessories.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

012.167-038 LIAISON ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.)

Coordinates activities to evaluate and resolve engineering-related production problems encountered in assigned area of aircraft manufacturing facility: Reviews production schedules, engineering specifications, orders, and related information to maintain current knowledge of manufacturing methods, procedures, and activities in assigned area. Confers with quality control, material, manufacturing, and other department personnel to provide technical support. Interprets engineering drawings and facilitates correction of errors on drawings and documents identified during manufacturing operations. Investigates reports of defective, damaged, or malfunctioning parts, assemblies, equipment, or systems to determine nature and scope of problem. Examines, measures, inspects, or tests defective part for conformance to engineering design drawings or blueprint specifications, using precision measuring and testing instruments, devices, and equipment. Consults with project engineers to obtain specialized information. Evaluates findings to formulate corrective action plan and coordinates implementation of plan. Maintains records or oversees recording of information by others to ensure engineering drawings and documents are current and that engineering-related production problems and resolutions are documented. Serves as member of material review board to determine disposition of defective or damaged parts. May specialize in investigating and resolving tooling problems and be designated Tool Liaison (aircraft mfg.).
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

012.167-042 MANUFACTURING ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, directs, and coordinates manufacturing processes in industrial plant: Develops, evaluates, and improves manufacturing methods, utilizing knowledge of product design, materials and parts, fabrication processes, tooling and production equipment capabilities, assembly methods, and quality control standards. Analyzes and plans work force utilization, space requirements, and workflow, and designs layout of equipment and workspace for maximum efficiency [INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) 012.167-030]. Confers with planning and design staff concerning product design and tooling to ensure efficient production methods. Confers with vendors to determine product specifications and arrange for purchase of equipment, materials, or parts, and evaluates products according to specifications and quality standards. Estimates production times, staffing requirements, and related costs to provide information for management decisions. Confers with management, engineering, and other staff regarding manufacturing capabilities, production schedules, and other considerations to facilitate production processes. Applies statistical methods to estimate future manufacturing requirements and potential.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

012.167-046 PRODUCTION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans and coordinates production procedures in industrial plant: Directs production departments. Regulates and coordinates functions of office and shop. Introduces efficient production line methods. Initiates and directs procedures to increase company output.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

012.167-050 PRODUCTION PLANNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: planner, chief; planning supervisor; process planner; production-planning supervisor; production scheduler; scheduler; tool-and-production planner

Plans and prepares production schedules for manufacture of industrial or commercial products: Draws up master schedule to establish sequence and lead time of each operation to meet shipping dates according to sales forecasts or customer orders. Analyzes production specifications and plant capacity data and performs mathematical calculations to determine manufacturing processes, tools, and human resource requirements. Plans and schedules workflow for each department and operation according to previously established manufacturing sequences and lead times. Plans sequence of fabrication, assembly, installation, and other manufacturing operations for guidance of production workers. Confers with department supervisors to determine status of assigned projects. Expedites operations that delay schedules and alters schedules to meet unforeseen conditions. Prepares production reports. May prepare lists of required materials, tools, and equipment. May prepare purchase orders to obtain materials, tools, and equipment.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

012.167-054 QUALITY CONTROL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans and directs activities concerned with development, application, and maintenance of quality standards for industrial processes, materials, and products: Develops and initiates standards and methods for inspection, testing, and evaluation, utilizing knowledge in engineering fields such as chemical, electrical, or mechanical. Devises sampling procedures and designs and develops forms and instructions for recording, evaluating, and reporting quality and reliability data. Establishes program to evaluate precision and accuracy of production equipment and testing, measurement, and analytical equipment and facilities. Develops and implements methods and procedures for disposition of discrepant material and devises methods to assess cost and responsibility. Directs workers engaged in measuring and testing product and tabulating data concerning materials, product, or process quality and reliability. Compiles and writes training material and conducts training sessions on quality control activities. May specialize in areas of quality control engineering, such as design, incoming material, process control, product evaluation, product reliability, inventory control, metrology, automated testing, software, research and development, and administrative application. May manage quality control program [MANAGER, QUALITY CONTROL (profess. & kin.) 012.167-014].
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

012.167-058 SAFETY MANAGER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, implements, and coordinates program to reduce or eliminate occupational injuries, illnesses, deaths, and financial losses: Identifies and appraises conditions which could produce accidents and financial losses and evaluates potential extent of injuries resulting from accidents. Conducts or directs research studies to identify hazards and evaluate loss producing potential of given system, operation or process. Develops accident-prevention and loss-control systems and programs for incorporation into operational policies of organization. Coordinates safety activities of unit managers to ensure implementation of safety activities throughout organization. Compiles, analyzes, and interprets statistical data related to exposure factors concerning occupational illnesses and accidents and prepares reports for information of personnel concerned. Maintains liaison with outside organizations, such as fire departments, mutual aid societies, and rescue teams to assure information exchange and mutual assistance. Devises methods to evaluate safety program and conducts or directs evaluations. Evaluates technical and scientific publications concerned with safety management and participates in activities of related professional organizations to update knowledge of safety program developments. May store and retrieve statistical data, using computer.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

012.167-062 SUPERVISOR, VENDOR QUALITY (any industry) alternate titles: chief, vendor quality

Directs and coordinates quality inspection of parts, components, and materials produced by subcontractors and vendors, and surveillance of subcontractors' manufacturing processes: Directs sampling inspection, and testing of received parts, components, and materials to determine conformance to standards. Conducts periodic and special surveys of subcontractors' facilities and manufacturing processes to determine adequacy and capability of quality control and ability to comply with complete quality specifications. Reviews quality problems with engineering personnel and directs action required to correct defects. Prepares periodic and special reports concerning departmental activities, problems, subcontractors' quality system, schedules, and rejected items. Aids in organizational planning by participating in departmental conferences.
GOE: 05.03.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

012.167-070 TIME-STUDY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: efficiency expert; manager, production; methods-and-procedures analyst; production engineer; production expert; time-study analyst; work-measurement engineer

Develops work measurement procedures and directs time-and-motion studies to promote efficient and economical utilization of personnel and facilities: Directs or conducts observation and analysis of personnel and work procedures to determine time-and-motion requirements of job duties. Analyzes work study data and equipment specifications to establish time and production standards. Applies mathematical analysis to determine validity and reliability of sampling and work study statistics. Applies principles of industrial engineering and applied psychology to evaluate work methods proposals and to develop recommendations to management affecting work methods, wage rates, and budget decisions. Trains INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) in time-and-motion study principles and techniques.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

012.167-074 TOOL PLANNER (any industry) alternate titles: processor

Analyzes blueprints or prototype parts to determine tools, fixtures, and equipment needed for manufacture and plans sequence of operations for fabrication and assembly of products, such as aircraft assemblies, automobile parts, cutting tools, or ball bearings: Studies engineering blueprints, drawings, models, and other specifications to obtain data on proposed part. Applies knowledge of functions and processes of various departments and capacities of machines and equipment to determine tool requirements and establish sequence of operations to fabricate and assemble parts. Lists operations to be performed on routing card or paper, indicates machines, cutting tools, fixtures, and other equipment to be used, and estimates times needed to perform each operation. May prepare reports for PRODUCTION PLANNER (profess. & kin.) in scheduling work for entire plant. May plan tool and operation sequences for only one department. May specify type of material to be used in construction of tools.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

012.167-078 DOCUMENTATION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, directs, and coordinates preparation of project documentation, such as engineering drawings, production specifications and schedules, and contract modifications, to ensure customer contract requirements are met: Reviews contract to determine documentation required for each phase of project, applying knowledge of engineering and manufacturing processes. Schedules due dates for drawings, specifications, software, technical manuals, and other documents. Monitors status of project to ensure documentation is submitted according to schedule. Reviews and verifies project documents for completeness, format, and compliance with contract requirements. Submits project documentation to management for approval, and transmits approved documents to customer. Confers with engineers, managers, customers, and others to discuss project, prepare documents, or modify contract schedules.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

012.167-082 MATERIAL SCHEDULER (aircraft mfg.) alternate titles: commodities requirements analyst; material planning and acquisition analyst; production control scheduler

Develops and analyzes lists of raw materials, purchased parts, equipment, and other items required to manufacture aircraft and aerospace products: Reviews and evaluates engineering drawings and blueprints to estimate quantity and type of materials, parts, or other items required. Converts requirements to orders of conventional sizes and quantities, considering factors such as existing inventories, unavoidable waste, and kind of material to be used. Reviews material lists for conformance to company standard practices in regard to parts and materials used. Schedules deliveries based on production forecasts, material substitutions, storage and handling facilities, and maintenance requirements. Prepares or authorizes preparation of purchase requisitions. Estimates need to reorder supplies due to rejections and engineering changes during manufacturing cycle. Confers with purchasing, engineering, planning, and other personnel to exchange information regarding inventories, schedules, and related issues.
GOE: 05.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

012.187-014 SHOE-LAY-OUT PLANNER (boot & shoe) alternate titles: shoe planner

Plans detailed instructions of operations in manufacture of newly designed shoes: Compiles manufacturing data from designer specifications, such as last to be used, size runs, ornamentation, saddle height, strap width, and color. Computes sizes of parts, such as inserts, linings, quarters, or vamps according to shoe size specifications or following $T3standard size system.$T1 Lists specifications, such as materials, stitching, and findings for each shoe size. May cut paper patterns of shoe design. May cut traced design into pattern of shoe parts.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

012.261-010 AIR ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: air tester

Analyzes samples of air in industrial establishments or other work areas to determine amount of suspended foreign particles and effectiveness of control methods, using dust collectors: Starts dust collector apparatus that draws air through machine and precipitates dust on tubes, plates, electrodes, or in flasks. Weighs or otherwise determines amount of collected particles, such as lead, rock, or coal dust. Compares weight or count of particles with volume of air passed through machine, and computes percentage of concentration per cubic foot of air tested, using mathematical and chemical formulas. Prepares summary of findings for submission to appropriate department. May recommend remedial measures.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

012.261-014 QUALITY CONTROL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Tests and inspects products at various stages of production process and compiles and evaluates statistical data to determine and maintain quality and reliability of products: Interprets engineering drawings, schematic diagrams, or formulas and confers with management or engineering staff to determine quality and reliability standards. Selects products for tests at specified stages in production process, and tests products for variety of qualities, such as dimensions, performance, and mechanical, electrical, or chemical characteristics. Records test data, applying statistical quality control procedures. Evaluates data and writes reports to validate or indicate deviations from existing standards. Recommends modifications of existing quality or production standards to achieve optimum quality within limits of equipment capability. May set up and perform destructive and nondestructive tests on materials, parts, or products to measure performance, life, or material characteristics. May prepare graphs or charts of data or enter data into computer for analysis. May specialize in particular area of quality control engineering, such as design, incoming material, process control, product evaluation, inventory control, product reliability, research and development, and administrative application.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

012.267-010 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Studies and records time, motion, methods, and speed involved in performance of maintenance, production, clerical, and other worker operations to establish standard production rate and to improve efficiency: Prepares charts, graphs, and diagrams to illustrate workflow, routing, floor layouts, material handling, and machine utilization. Observes workers operating equipment or performing tasks to determine time involved and fatigue rate, using stop watch, motion-picture camera, electrical recorder, and similar equipment. Recommends revision of methods of operation or material handling, alterations in equipment layout, or other changes to increase production or improve standards. Aids in planning work assignments in accordance with worker performance, machine capacity, production schedules, and anticipated delays. May be designated according to type of studies analyzed as Methods-Study Analyst (profess. & kin.); Motion-Study Analyst (profess. & kin.); Pace Analyst (profess. & kin.); Time-Study Analyst (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

012.281-010 SMOKE TESTER (smelt. & refin.)

Tests emissions from smokestack to determine if electrostatic precipitator and flue recovery systems are operating within prescribed standards: Measures force of gas flow by observing manometer attached to Pitot tube placed at various points in stack. Obtains solids contained in gas by drawing metered quantity of flue exhaust through filter bag. Computes total amount of gases and solids lost, using specified formula.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the application of engineering principles and techniques for the solution of agricultural problems. Also includes the design and development of agricultural machinery and structures. Accessory techniques needed may be those used in civil, mechanical, power, and electrical engineering; mineralogy; chemistry; and biology. Typical specializations are soil and water conservation; farm electrification; farm fire protection; pest control; and farm power and machinery, farm structures, and rural roads engineering.

013.061-010 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Applies engineering technology and knowledge of biological sciences to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products: Develops criteria for design, manufacture, or construction of equipment, structures, and facilities. Designs and uses sensing, measuring, and recording devices and instrumentation to study such problems as effects of temperature, humidity, and light, on plants or animals, or relative effectiveness of different methods of applying insecticides. Designs and directs manufacture of equipment for land tillage and fertilization, plant and animal disease and insect control, and for harvesting or moving commodities. Designs and supervises erection of structures for crop storage, animal shelter, and human dwelling, including light, heat, air-conditioning, water supply, and waste disposal. Plans and directs construction of rural electric-power distribution systems, and irrigation, drainage, and flood-control systems for soil and water conservation. Designs and supervises installation of equipment and instruments used to evaluate and process farm products, and to automate agricultural operations. May conduct radio and television educational programs to provide assistance to farmers, local groups, and related farm cooperatives. Workers are usually designated according to area of specialty or product.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

013.061-014 AGRICULTURAL-RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research to develop agricultural machinery and equipment, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Designs agricultural machinery and equipment, performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

013.061-022 TEST ENGINEER, AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Conducts tests on agricultural machinery and equipment, performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

013.151-010 SALES ENGINEER, AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Sells agricultural machinery and equipment and provides technical services to client, performing duties as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Prepares original layout and completes detailed drawings of agricultural machinery and equipment, such as farm machinery, irrigation, power, and electrification systems, soil and water conservation equipment and agricultural harvesting and processing equipment: Applies biological and engineering knowledge, design principles, and theories to ensure compliance with company policy, and an end product which will perform as required. Maintains working knowledge of functions, operations, and maintenance of various types of equipment and materials used in the industry to assure appropriate utilization.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the design, development, and installation of ship machinery and related equipment, including propulsion machines and power supply systems. Accessory techniques needed are those used in mechanical and electrical engineering. Typical specializations are construction and repair, design and layout, consulting, research, and the administration of engineering enterprises and government regulatory activities.

014.061-010 DESIGN ENGINEER, MARINE EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Designs marine machinery and equipment performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

014.061-014 MARINE ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Designs and oversees installation and repair of marine powerplants, propulsion systems, heating and ventilating systems, and other mechanical and electrical equipment in ships, docks, and marine facilities: Studies drawings and specifications and performs complex calculations to conceive equipment and systems designed to meet requirements of marine craft or facility. Oversees and evaluates operation of equipment during acceptance testing and shakedown cruises. May specialize in design of equipment, such as boilers, steam-driven reciprocating engines, heat exchangers, fire-control and communication systems, electric power systems, or piping and related fittings and valves.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

014.061-018 RESEARCH ENGINEER, MARINE EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research on marine machinery and equipment, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

014.061-022 TEST ENGINEER, MARINE EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Conducts tests on marine machinery and equipment, performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

014.151-010 SALES ENGINEER, MARINE EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Sells marine machinery and equipment and provides technical services to client, performing duties as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

014.167-010 MARINE SURVEYOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: ship surveyor

Surveys marine vessels and watercraft, such as ships, boats, tankers, and dredges, to ascertain condition of hull, machinery, equipment, and equipage, and to determine repairs required for vessel to meet requirements for insuring: Examines underwater section of hull while ship is drydocked to ascertain conditions that indicate repairs are required. Takes readings on tailshaft and tailshaft bearings. Inspects condition of propellers, rudders, and sea valves. Inspects above waterline section of ship, such as hatchways, freeing ports, ventilators, bulkheads, fittings, and attachments, for compliance with operating standards, and compliance with standards for protection of crew. Observes operating tests on machinery and equipment and inspects opened up machinery for interior condition. Observes testing of cargo gear for compliance with testing standards and issues or endorses certificate for gear tested. Prepares reports on types of surveys conducted, recommended actions and repairs, or conditions remedied. Submits report to client.
GOE: 05.03.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

014.167-014 PORT ENGINEER (ship-boat mfg.; water trans.)

Coordinates repair and maintenance functions furnished operating fleet to minimize loss of revenue and cost of repairs: Reviews repair request and compares request with previous work accomplished on ship concerned and similar vessels to determine that expenditures are economically sound. Prepares recommendations for work, and initiates procurement of materials. Inspects machinery, equipment, or spaces outlined in work request, draws up job specifications, and obtains bids from contractors or shipyards to perform repairs. Maintains contact with contractors to ensure completion of work at minimum cost. Investigates machinery casualties to determine cause, and advises ship's officers in methods of operation to prevent recurrence of casualty or maloperation. Maintains records of engineering costs for each vessel, such as repairs, supplies, and personnel. Cooperates with regulatory bodies to ensure that requirements for alterations, repair, or modifications are kept at minimum cost consistent with safety. May represent ferry system interests in ferry and terminal construction and maintenance activities, and in union contract negotiations.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L3 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

014.281-010 DRAFTER, MARINE (profess. & kin.)

Draws structural and mechanical features of ships, docks, and other marine structures and equipment, performing duties of DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. Works from general design drawings and notes made by ARCHITECT, MARINE (profess. & kin.) or MARINE ENGINEER (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the reasearch, development, and application of scientific knowledge of nuclear reactions and radiations, and principles of engineering applied to the production of heat and power, transmutation of elements, and production of neutrons, gamma radiation, and radioisotopes.

015.021-010 HEALTH PHYSICIST (profess. & kin.)

Devises and directs research, training, and monitoring programs to protect plant and laboratory personnel from radiation hazards: Conducts research to develop inspection standards, radiation exposure limits for personnel, safe work methods, and decontamination procedures, and tests surrounding areas to ensure that radiation is not in excess of permissible standards. Develops criteria for design and modification of health physics equipment, such as detectors and counters, to improve radiation protection. Assists in developing standards of permissible concentrations of radioisotopes in liquids and gases. Directs testing and monitoring of equipment and recording of personnel and plant area radiation exposure data. Requests bioassay samples from individuals believed to be exposed. Consults with scientific personnel regarding new experiments to determine that equipment or plant design conforms to health physics standards for protection of personnel. Conducts research pertaining to potential environmental impact of proposed atomic energy related industrial development to determine qualifications for licensing. Requisitions and maintains inventory of instruments. Instructs personnel in principles and regulations related to radiation hazards. Assigns film badges and dosimeters to personnel, and recommends changes in assignment for health reasons. Advises public authorities on methods of dealing with radiation hazards, and procedures to be followed in radiation incidents, and assists in civil defense planning. May specialize in research concerning decontamination of radioactive equipment and work areas in nuclear plants, laboratories, and other facilities and be designated Nuclear-Decontamination Research Specialist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

015.061-010 DESIGN ENGINEER, NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Designs nuclear machinery and equipment, performing duties as described under DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

015.061-014 NUCLEAR ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research into problems of nuclear energy systems; designs and develops nuclear equipment; and monitors testing, operation, and maintenance of nuclear reactors: Plans and conducts nuclear research to discover facts or to test, prove, or modify known nuclear theories concerning release, control, and utilization of nuclear energy. Evaluates findings to develop new concepts of thermonuclear analysis and new uses of radioactive processes. Plans, designs, and develops nuclear equipment such as reactor cores, radiation shielding, and associated instrumentation and control mechanisms. Studies nuclear fuel cycle to define most economical uses of nuclear material and safest means of waste products disposal. Monitors nuclear tests and examines operations of facilities which process or utilize radioactive or fissionable material to ensure efficient functioning and conformance with safety specifications, regulations, and laws. Prepares technical reports, utilizing knowledge obtained during research and development activities and inspectional functions. May direct operating and maintenance activities of operational nuclear facility.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

015.061-018 RESEARCH ENGINEER, NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research on nuclear equipment and machinery, performing duties as described under RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

015.061-022 TEST ENGINEER, NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Conducts tests on nuclear machinery and equipment, performing duties as described under TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

015.061-026 NUCLEAR-FUELS RECLAMATION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, designs, and oversees construction and operation of nuclear fuels reprocessing systems: Performs research and experiments to determine acceptable methods of reclaiming various types of nuclear fuels. Designs nuclear fuel reclamation systems and equipment for pilot plants. Communicates with vendors and contractors, and computes cost estimates of reclamation systems. Writes project proposals and submits them to company review board. Studies safety procedures, guidelines, and controls, and confers with safety officials to ensure that safety limits are not violated in design, construction, or operation of systems and equipment. Oversees nuclear fuels reprocessing system construction and operation, conferring with construction supervisory and operating personnel. Tests system equipment and approves equipment for operation. Monitors operations to detect potential or inherent problems. Initiates corrective actions and orders plant shutdown in emergency situations. Identifies operational and processing problems and recommends solutions. Maintains log of plant operations, and prepares reports for review by plant officials.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

015.061-030 NUCLEAR-FUELS RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Studies behavior of various fuels and fuel configurations in differentiated reactor environments to determine safest and most efficient usage of nuclear fuels, applying theoretical and experiential knowledge of reactor physics and thermal and metallurgical characteristics of nuclear fuels and fuel cell claddings: Analyzes available data and consults with other scientists to determine parameters of experimentation and suitability of analytical models. Designs fuels behavior tests and coordinates activities of experimental research team in performance and analysis of test operations. Monitors test reactor indicators of factors such as neutron power level, coolant level, and vital pressure, temperature and humidity readings, and changes or modifies procedures to meet test goals. Synthesizes analyses of test results and prepares technical reports to disseminate findings and recommendations. Formulates equations that describe phenomena occurring during fissioning of nuclear fuels and develops analytical models for nuclear fuels research.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

015.067-010 NUCLEAR-CRITICALITY SAFETY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research and analyzes and evaluates proposed and existing methods of transportation, handling, and storage of nuclear fuel to preclude accidental nuclear reaction at nuclear facilities: Reviews and evaluates fuel transfer and storage plans received from nuclear plants. Studies reports of nuclear fuel characteristics to determine potential or inherent problems. Reads blueprints of proposed storage facilities and visits storage sites to determine adequacy of storage plans. Forecasts nuclear fuel criticality (point at which nuclear chain reaction becomes self-sustaining), given various factors which may exist in fuel handling and storage, using knowledge of nuclear physics, calculator, and computer terminal. Determines potential hazards and accident conditions which may exist in fuel handling and storage and recommends preventive measures. Summarizes findings and writes reports. Confers with project officials to resolve situations where hazard is beyond acceptable levels. Prepares proposal reports for handling and storage of fuels to be submitted to government review board. Studies existing procedures and recommends changes or additions to guidelines and controls to ensure prevention of self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

015.137-010 RADIATION-PROTECTION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in monitoring radiation levels and condition of equipment used to generate nuclear energy to ensure safe operation of plant facilities: Evaluates water chemical analysis data in primary and supportive plant systems to determine compliance with radiation content and corrosion control regulations. Investigates problems, such as radioactive leaks in reactors and auxiliary systems, or excessive radiation or corrosion of equipment, applying knowledge of radiation protection techniques and principles of chemistry and engineering to correct conditions. Confers with departmental supervisors, manufacturing representatives, and regulatory agency staff to discuss problems, to develop tests to detect radioactive leaks, and to design plans to monitor equipment and safety programs. Directs workers in testing and analyzing water samples and monitoring processing system. Prepares reports, such as environmental monitoring operation report, radioactive waste releases, and shipping reports, for review by administrative personnel and submission to regulatory agency. May prepare employee performance reviews and related reports.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

015.151-010 SALES ENGINEER, NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT (profess. & kin.)

Sells nuclear machinery and equipment and provides technical services to client, performing duties as described under SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.01.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Monitors plant safety status, advises operations staff, and prepares technical reports for operation of thermal-nuclear reactor at electric-power generating station: Observes control-room instrumentation systems and confers with operating personnel to ensure safe operation of plant. Walks throughout plant and observes machinery, equipment, and operating procedures to identify potential hazards. Examines locations of accidents and transients (sudden changes of voltage or load) and obtains data to formulate preventive measures. Implements changes in systems, procedures, structure, or equipment to improve safety. Compares critical parameters with plant transient predictions and accident analysis and determines whether response of plant safety systems is sufficient. Formulates corrective actions, calculates critical parameters from raw data, and computes rate of control rod withdrawal during reactor startup. Confers with operating personnel to provide technical assistance and to discuss maintenance activities, abnormal conditions, and safe operation of plant. Prepares reports to inform management officials of any proposed changes or irregularities in plant operation or systems.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86


Evaluates, coordinates, and oversees testing of nuclear reactor equipment: Analyzes test proposal to ensure that test is valid and feasible. Identifies and resolves problems, such as incompatibilities between proposal and nuclear test-reactor system. Coordinates technical and financial agreements involving feasibility, scope, purpose, and cost of project in nuclear test facility. Assists engineering personnel in interpretation of test language, mathematical formulas, and computer codes used in test. Writes operational instructions. Inspects general condition of nuclear test-reactor vessel and related systems. Verifies setup of nuclear test-reactor for compliance with specifications. Observes control room instrumentation to ensure that performance factors such as neutron power level, chemical composition of coolant, and reactor temperatures and pressures are carried out as prescribed. Evaluates and resolves operational problems. Coordinates activities directed toward removal of test specimens from reactors and subsequent chemical, metallurgical, or mechanical analysis. Compiles report of test results.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

015.261-010 CHEMICAL-RADIATION TECHNICIAN (government ser.)

Tests materials and monitors operations of nuclear-powered electric generating plant, using specialized laboratory equipment and chemical and radiation detection instruments: Collects samples of water, gases, and solids at specified intervals during production process, using automatic sampling equipment. Analyzes materials, according to specified procedures, to determine if chemical components and radiation levels are within established limits. Records test results and prepares reports for review by supervisor. Assists workers to set up equipment and monitors equipment that automatically detects deviations from standard operations. Notifies personnel to adjust processing equipment, quantity of additives, and rate of discharge of waste materials, when test results and monitoring of equipment indicate that radiation levels, chemical balance, and discharge of radionuclide materials are in excess of standards. Carries out decontamination procedures to ensure safety of workers and continued operation of processing equipment in plant. Calibrates and maintains chemical instrumentation sensing elements and sampling system equipment, using handtools. Assists workers in diagnosis and correction of problems in instruments and processing equipment. Advises plant personnel of methods of protection from excessive exposure to radiation.
GOE: 11.10.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

015.362-010 ACCELERATOR OPERATOR (profess. & kin.)

Controls operation of particle accelerator used in research experiments involving properties of subatomic particles: Reviews experiment schedule to ascertain particle beam parameters specified by experimenter (scientist), such as energy, intensity, and repetition rate. Communicates with accelerator maintenance personnel to ensure readiness of support systems, such as vacuum, water cooling, and radiofrequency power source. Sets control panel switches, according to standard procedures, to route electric power from source and direct particle beam through injector unit. Turns panel controls and watches meters and panel lights to adjust beam steering units and direct beam to accelerator. Pushes console buttons in prescribed sequence to control beam path in accelerator. Adjusts controls to increase beam pulse rate, energy, and intensity to specified levels. Notifies experimenter in target control room when beam parameters meet specifications. Pushes control levers to steer beam to experimenter's target, as directed. Monitors readings at console during experiment to ensure accelerator systems meet specifications and notifies experimenter of condition. Alters beam parameters during experiment as directed. Ensures that maintenance workers vacate hazardous locations before operations. Records data in log relative to beam specifications, equipment settings used, and beam conditions obtained for future reference. Participates in maintenance and modification of systems as member of team. May be designated according to type of accelerator operated.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

015.362-014 GAMMA-FACILITIES OPERATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: pile operator; reactor-service operator

Controls gamma radiation equipment to irradiate materials for scientific research: Inserts capsules of materials to be irradiated into tubes leading to reactor core, using extension tool. Computes radiation time and dosage for experiments, and gamma intensities required at various distances from grid, using standard formulas, conversion tables, and slide rule, and submits data to supervisor for review. Tends cutoff saw, mounted on water-filled canal floor (radiation shield), that cuts fuel elements to size to fit into shielding boxes, using extension tools. Places fuel elements in geometric configurations around tube in gamma facility according to radiation intensity specifications. Lowers experimental materials, such as foods, plastics, or metal, into tube to subject material to irradiation for specified period of time. Lowers extension tool into floor of canal and transfers materials from completed experiments, and spent fuel elements discharged from reactor, to storage area on canal floor or into cask for subsequent shipment. Writes summary of irradiation activities performed. Monitors instruments and gauges that control heating, ventilating, steam, and water systems, and instruments that record gamma intensity, temperatures of experiments, and fuel elements in canal.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

015.362-018 HOT-CELL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: irradiation technician

Operates remote-controlled equipment in hot cell to conduct metallurgical and chemical tests on radioactive materials: Controls slave manipulators from outside cell to remove metal or chemical materials from shielded containers inside hot cell and places on bench or equipment work station. Tests chemical or metallurgical properties of materials according to standardized procedures, and observes reaction through cell window. Sets up and operates machines to cut, lap, and polish test pieces, following blueprints, x-ray negatives, and sketches. Tests physical properties, using equipment, such as tensile tester, hardness tester, metallographic unit, micrometer, and gauges. Immerses test sample in chemical compound to prepare for testing. Places irradiated nuclear fuel materials in environmental chamber to test reaction to temperature changes. Records results of tests for further analysis by engineers, scientists, or customers. Places specimen in shielded container for removal from cell, using manipulators. Participates in cleaning and decontamination of cell during maintenance shutdown. May devise adapters and fixtures for use in hot cell operations.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

015.362-022 RADIOISOTOPE-PRODUCTION OPERATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: isotope-production technician

Controls laboratory compounding equipment enclosed in protective hot cell to prepare radioisotopes and other radioactive materials for use as tracers for biological, biomedical, physiological, and industrial purposes according to written procedures: Places specified amounts of chemicals into container to be irradiated at nuclear reactor or with other irradiation equipment. Secures vacuum pump head to outlet valve on special container to replace air with inert gas, and routes container to irradiation facility. Receives irradiated chemicals delivered in shielded cell. Moves manipulator to open container and transfer irradiated contents into glass vessel. Opens pneumatic valves or uses manipulators to add specified types and quantities of chemical reagents into glass vessel to produce radioactive product. Controls manipulators to pour liquids required to perform standard chemical analyses involving titration and filtration. Withdraws radioactive sample for transport to chemical laboratory for analysis. Fills shipping container inside cell with prescribed quantity of radioisotope material for shipment pending sample approval.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

015.362-026 REACTOR OPERATOR, TEST-AND-RESEARCH (profess. & kin.)

Controls operation of nuclear reactor to create fissionable materials used for research purposes, study structure of atoms, and determine properties of materials: Positions fuel elements (uranium) and object to be irradiated in position in reactor core, using slave manipulators. Installs instrumentation leads in core to measure operating temperature and pressure in reactor working from mockups, blueprints, and wiring and instrumentation diagrams. Activates reactor and inserts object to be irradiated into rabbit (pneumatic) tube, beam hole, or irradiation tunnel according to size of object and nature of experiment. Monitors instruments at console and reactor panels to control chain reaction, following directions of nuclear experimenters. Calculates applicable limits of operating factors, such as temperature and pressure, using standard formulas, and adjusts controls to maintain operating conditions, such as power level, airflow and waterflow, temperature, and radiation and neutron levels in reactor within operating limits. Records data, such as type of material irradiated, exposure time, pile atmospheric conditions, and position of control rods in core. Disassembles reactor parts, such as core plug (shield) and control rods, using crane and handtools. Lifts spent fuel elements and irradiated objects from core, using extension tool, and drops them through chute into canal for recovery of fissionable material. May work as member of team and alternate between operating reactor controls and monitoring instruments, gauges, and other recording devices in control room.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

015.384-010 SCANNER (profess. & kin.)

Compiles lists of events (collisions of atomic nuclei) from photographs of bubble chamber, cloud chamber, or other particle detector, and operates machine to record characteristics of events into computers: Observes projected photographs to locate particle tracks, locate and count events indicated by tracks, and identify nature of observed events. Receives instructions from scientist directing project as to specific events that are important in experiment, and identifies such events from other events. Turns cranks to move projector and locates point on track under crosshairs of eyepiece. Enters data into computer to record coordinates of particles. Repeats process to record successive stages of tracks resulting from each event to provide information for scientists to identify particles. May use microscope fitted with scales and protractors to scan photographic emulsions previously exposed to direct radiation and to compute direction, angle, length, curvature, density, and depth of tracks from standard formulas.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with preparing drawings used to communicate engineering ideas and information.

017.161-010 DRAFTER, CHIEF, DESIGN (utilities)

Oversees DRAFTERS, ARCHITECTURAL (profess. & kin.); DRAFTERS, ELECTRICAL (profess. & kin.); DRAFTERS, MECHANICAL (profess. & kin.); and DRAFTERS, STRUCTURAL (profess. & kin.) in drawing designs of indoor and outdoor facilities and structures of electrical or gas power plants and substations. Consults with engineering staff on development of plans and designs for buildings and installations and prepares layout diagrams to ensure accurate interpretation of designs by workers supervised.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

017.261-010 AUTO-DESIGN CHECKER (auto. mfg.) alternate titles: checker, product design

Examines detail, layout, and master drawings of either auto-body or chassis parts, assemblies, and systems, for practicality of design, accuracy of mathematical calculations, dimensional accuracy, projection, and conformity to specifications and standards, using computerized work aids. Applies knowledge of auto-body and chassis design, methods of manufacture and assembly, and drafting techniques and procedures. Discusses necessary changes with staff members and coordinates corrections.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

017.261-014 DESIGN DRAFTER, ELECTROMECHANISMS (profess. & kin.)

Drafts designs of electromechanical equipment such as aircraft engine subassemblies, electronic optical-character-recognition and related data processing systems, gyroscopes, rocket engine control systems, automatic materials handling and processing machinery, or bio-medical equipment: Confers with engineers and other drafters to interpret design concepts, determine nature and type of required detailed working drawings, and coordinate work with others. Drafts detail and assembly drawings performing duties described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. Compiles data, computes quantities, determines materials needed, and prepares cost estimates.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.261-018 DETAILER (profess. & kin.)

Drafts detailed drawings of parts of machines or structures from rough or general design drawings: Shows dimensions, material to be used, and other information necessary to make detailed drawing clear and complete. Makes tracing of finished drawing on semitransparent paper from which blueprints can be made. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May specialize in preparing detail drawings for specific type of machine, structure, or product.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.261-022 DETAILER, FURNITURE (profess. & kin.)

Prepares detailed shop drawings in scale or full size, from blueprints of FURNITURE DESIGNER (furniture), showing methods of construction and upholstering, and indicating sizes and kinds of material to be used. Performs other duties as described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.261-026 DRAFTER, COMMERCIAL (profess. & kin.)

Performs general duties of DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title in all-round drafting, such as laying out location of buildings, planning of arrangements in offices, large rooms, store buildings, and factories, and drawing of charts, forms, and records. Paints and washes colored drawings when required.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

017.261-030 DRAFTER, DETAIL (profess. & kin.)

Makes detailed drawings, in accordance with customers' orders, to provide shop departments with accurate information for manufacture of structural and ornamental construction parts: Confers with customers. Makes freehand sketches of designs and drawings of approved sketches. Advises supervisory personnel on difficult or obscure problems.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.261-034 DRAFTER, HEATING AND VENTILATING (profess. & kin.)

Draws plans for installation of heating, air-conditioning, and ventilating equipment, performing duties of DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title. May calculate heat loss and heat gain for buildings for use in determining equipment specifications, using calculator and following standardized procedures. May specialize in drawing plans for installation of refrigeration equipment only and be designated Drafter, Refrigeration (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.261-038 DRAFTER, PLUMBING (profess. & kin.)

Performs duties of DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title but specializes in drawing of plans for installation of plumbing equipment.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.261-042 DRAFTER, AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN (auto. mfg.)

Designs and drafts working layouts and master drawings of automotive vehicle components, assemblies, and systems from specifications, sketches, models, prototype or verbal instructions, applying knowledge of automotive vehicle design, engineering principles, manufacturing processes and limitations, and conventional and computer drafting techniques and procedures, using drafting instruments and computerized work aids: Analyzes specifications, sketches, engineering drawings, ideas and related design data to determine critical factors affecting design of components based on knowledge of previous designs and manufacturing processes and limitations. Draws rough sketches and performs mathematical computations to develop design and work out detailed specifications of components. Applies knowledge of mathematical formulas and physical laws and uses conventional and computerized work aids to make calculations. Performs preliminary and advanced work in development of working layouts and final master drawings adequate for detailing parts and units of design. Makes revisions to size, shape and arrangement of parts to create practical design. Confers with AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEER (auto. mfg.) 007.061-010 and others on staff to resolve design problems. Specializes in design of specific type of body or chassis components, assemblies or systems, such as door panels, chassis frame and supports, or braking system.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

017.281-010 AUTO-DESIGN DETAILER (auto. mfg.)

Drafts full-size or scale detail drawings of either auto-body or chassis parts and assemblies from specifications, master drawings, layouts, models, prototypes, sketches, or verbal instructions, for engineering and manufacturing purposes [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title], applying knowledge of auto-body or chassis structure and methods of manufacture and assembly.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 90

017.281-014 DRAFTER APPRENTICE (profess. & kin.)

Performs duties as described under APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

017.281-018 DRAFTER, ASSISTANT (profess. & kin.)

Copies plans and drawings prepared by DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title by tracing them with ink and pencil on transparent paper or cloth spread over drawings, using triangle, T-square, compass, pens, and other drafting instruments. Makes simple sketches or drawings under close supervision.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.281-026 DRAFTER, AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN LAYOUT (auto. mfg.)

Prepares working layouts and master drawings of automotive vehicle components, assemblies, or systems from specifications, prior layouts, well-defined sketches, models or verbal instructions sufficient for detailing, applying knowledge of conventional and computerized drafting techniques and procedures, automotive vehicle design, manufacturing processes and limitations, using conventional drafting instruments and computerized work aids: Studies specifications, sketches, notes, and other design data and measures prior layouts, using scales and dividers, to determine details and dimensions of components being laid out from superimposed views and sections of parts on layouts. Lays out on vellum major or minor components, assemblies, or systems in full-scale working layouts. Performs mathematical calculations to work out detailed additions to specifications, applying knowledge of mathematical formulas, using slide rule or digital calculators. Develops design of details not completely defined. Projects sections and auxiliary views of components on layouts. Makes corrections, revisions, and changes to layouts as directed by AUTO-DESIGN CHECKER (auto. mfg.) 017.261-010 or DRAFTER, AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN (auto. mfg.) 017.261-042. Drafts master drawing of approved design on mylar, aluminum, or other materials. Specializes in laying out specific type of body or chassis components, assemblies, or systems. Coordinates and works in conjunction with other workers designing, laying out, or detailing same or related structures. May direct activities of detailers.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

017.281-030 DRAFTER, OIL AND GAS (petrol. & gas; petrol. refin.)

Drafts plans and drawings for layout, construction, and operation of oil fields, refineries, and pipeline systems from field notes, rough or detailed sketches, and specifications: Develops detail drawings for construction of equipment and structures, such as drilling derricks, compressor stations, gasoline plants, frame, steel, and masonry buildings, piping manifolds and pipeline systems, and for manufacture, fabrication, and assembly of machines and machine parts [DRAFTER, ARCHITECTURAL (profess. & kin.); DRAFTER, CIVIL (profess. & kin.); DRAFTER, MECHANICAL (profess. & kin.)]. Prepares maps of pipeline systems and oil and gas locations, using field survey notes and aerial photographs [DRAFTER, CARTOGRAPHIC (profess. & kin.)]. May draft topographical maps or develop maps to represent geological stratigraphy and locations of oil and gas deposits, using geological and geophysical prospecting and surveying data [DRAFTER, GEOLOGICAL (petrol. & gas); DRAFTER, GEOPHYSICAL (petrol. & gas)].
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.281-034 TECHNICAL ILLUSTRATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: engineering illustrator; production illustrator

Lays out and draws illustrations for reproduction in reference works, brochures, and technical manuals dealing with assembly, installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of machines, tools, and equipment: Prepares drawings from blueprints, designs, mockups, and photoprints by methods and techniques suited to specified reproduction process or final use, such as blueprint, photo-offset, and projection transparencies, using drafting and optical equipment. Lays out and draws schematic, perspective, orthographic, or oblique-angle views to depict function, relationship, and assembly-sequence of parts and assemblies, such as gears, engines, and instruments. Shades or colors drawing to emphasize details or to eliminate undesired background, using ink, crayon, airbrush, and overlays. Pastes instructions and comments in position on drawing. May draw cartoons and caricatures to illustrate operation, maintenance, and safety manuals and posters.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

017.684-010 TAPER, PRINTED CIRCUIT LAYOUT (electron. comp.)

Places (tapes) adhesive symbols and precision tape on sheets of mylar in conformance with preliminary drawing of printed circuit board (PCB) to produce master layout: Places, aligns, and secures preliminary drawing of PCB and successive layers of transparent sheets of mylar on lighted drafting table, using register bar. Selects specified symbols and width of tape to indicate peak voltage potential. Cuts tape and places tape and adhesive symbols on specified sheets of mylar to outline board size, to indicate connector pads, placement of various components, and to trace circuitry of PCB as indicated on underlying preliminary drawing, using utility knife, precision grid, and straightedge. Places specified adhesive identification and reference numbers on master layout. Reproduces blueprint copy of master layout, using print machine. Inspects copy to verify accuracy.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R2 M2 L2 SVP: 2 DLU: 86


This group includes occupations concerned with determining, delineating, planning, and positioning tracts of land, natural and constructed features, coastlines, and land areas. Typical specialized surveys include property, cartography, construction, geodesy, hydrography, mining, photogrammetry, topography, land development, and mapping.

018.131-010 SUPERVISOR, CARTOGRAPHY (profess. & kin.)

Supervises and coordinates activities of DRAFTERS, CARTOGRAPHIC (profess. & kin.); PHOTOGRAMMETRISTS (profess. & kin.); and other personnel concerned with preparation of maps or map components: Develops design concept of map product. Defines production specifications, such as projection, scale, size, and colors. Provides guidelines for source material to be used, such as maps, automated mapping products, photographs, survey data, and place names. Supervises and coordinates compilation and editing of product components and monitors reproduction. Performs other duties as described under SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

018.161-010 SURVEYOR, MINE (profess. & kin.)

Conducts surveys at surface and subsurface mine sites to obtain data used in planning mining operations: Takes instrument readings of sun or stars and calculates longitude and latitude to determine mine location. Directs survey technicians and helpers [SURVEYOR HELPER (any industry) 869.567-010] in use of electronic surveying equipment, light emitting systems, or other instruments to transfer surface survey positions and directions to underground areas and to survey assigned sections. Computes data necessary for driving and connecting underground passages to control direction and extent of mining operation. Computes volume of coal or ore in portions of mine, using survey data. Surveys and calculates volume of material deposits, spoil piles, or veins, and amount of overburden to be removed. Drafts or directs others to draft maps of survey data. May assist MINE SUPERINTENDENT (mine & quarry) 181.117-014 and MINING ENGINEER (mine & quarry) 101.061-014 in planning mining operations. May conduct surveys of tunnels, subway sites, and underground storage facilities.
GOE: 05.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

018.167-010 CHIEF OF PARTY (profess. & kin.)

Leads work of survey party under direction of LAND SURVEYOR (profess. & kin.), performing surveying duties not requiring licensure.
GOE: 05.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.167-014 GEODETIC COMPUTATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: topographic computator

Calculates latitude, longitude, angles, areas, and other information for mapmaking from field notes secured by engineering survey party, using reference tables and calculating machine or computer.
GOE: 05.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

018.167-018 LAND SURVEYOR (profess. & kin.)

Plans, organizes, and directs work of one or more survey parties engaged in surveying earth's surface to determine precise location and measurements of points, elevations, lines, areas, and contours for construction, mapmaking, land division, titles, mining or other purposes: Researches previous survey evidence, maps, deeds, physical evidence, and other records to obtain data needed for surveys. Develops new data from photogrammetric records. Determines methods and procedures for establishing or reestablishing survey control. Keeps accurate notes, records, and sketches to describe and certify work performed. Coordinates findings with work of engineering and architectural personnel, clients, and others concerned with project. Assumes legal responsibility for work and is licensed by state.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.167-022 MANAGER, LAND SURVEYING (profess. & kin.)

Plans, directs, and coordinates work of survey parties, and related staff, engaged in surveying earth's surface and preparing reports and legal descriptions of land: Develops organization policy or interprets it to staff. Prepares or approves budget for unit or organization within assigned area of responsibility. Coordinates work of LAND SURVEYOR (profess. & kin.) with that of legal, engineering, architectural, and other staff on project. Directs survey parties and projects, and reviews and certifies completed work to satisfy legal requirements. Writes or directs the writing of descriptions of land to satisfy legal requirements according to standard surveying practices. Appears as expert witness in court in cases involving land or boundary disputes. Monitors new technology, and evaluates and purchases or authorizes purchase of new equipment and supplies. Selects new staff for employment and takes disciplinary action when necessary. Assumes legal responsibility for work performed and is licensed by state.
GOE: 05.02.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

018.167-026 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, coordinates, and directs activities of workers concerned with conducting aerial surveys and preparing topographic materials from aerial photographs and other data: Analyzes survey objectives and specifications, utilizing knowledge of survey uses, such as municipal and ecological planning, property and utility mapping, and petroleum and mineral exploration. Selects most appropriate and economical survey methods, using knowledge of capabilities of aerial photography and applications of remote sensing (imagery through electronic scanning). Estimates cost of survey. Advises customers and department supervisors regarding flights for aerial photography and plans for ground surveys designed to establish base lines, elevations, and other geodetic measurements. Prepares charts and tables for aerial navigation, to specify flight path, altitude, and airspeed of camera-carrying aircraft. Computes geodetic measurements and interprets survey data from ground or aerial photographs or remote-sensing images to determine position, shape, and elevation of geomorphic and topographic features. Conducts research in surveying and mapping methods and procedures, using knowledge of techniques of photogrammetric map compilation, electronic data processing, and flight and control planning. May direct one or more phases of technical operations concerned with preparing survey proposals, negotiating with clients, scheduling activities, conducting surveys, processing data, reviewing work quality, and training and assigning personnel.
GOE: 05.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

018.167-030 SUPERVISOR, MAPPING (petrol. & gas; pipe lines)

Supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in mapping production areas of petroleum or natural gas company: Supervises drafting personnel in drafting maps used for exploration, leasing of lands, and construction and operation of production facilities, such as pumping stations, storage tanks, drilling derricks, and pipelines. Reviews completed maps for neatness and accuracy. May supervise production of blueprints, photostats, and photographs.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.167-034 SURVEYOR ASSISTANT, INSTRUMENTS (profess. & kin.)

Obtains data pertaining to angles, elevations, points, and contours used for construction, map making, mining, or other purposes, using alidade, level, transit, plane table, Theodolite, electronic distance measuring equipment, and other surveying instruments. Compiles notes, sketches, and records of data obtained and work performed. Directs work of subordinate members of survey team. Performs other duties relating to surveying work as directed by CHIEF OF PARTY (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.167-038 SURVEYOR, GEODETIC (profess. & kin.)

Plans, directs, or conducts surveys of land areas of such size that shape and size of earth exerts sufficient influence on survey measurements to require use of special high-accuracy techniques, including astronomical observations and complex computations to compile data used in preparation of geodetic maps and charts.
GOE: 05.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.167-042 SURVEYOR, GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING (petrol. & gas)

Locates and marks sites selected for conducting geophysical prospecting activities concerned with locating subsurface earth formations likely to contain petroleum deposits. Makes precise determinations of elevations and records other characteristics of terrain. May obtain permits for prospecting from property owner.
GOE: 05.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

018.167-046 SURVEYOR, MARINE (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: surveyor, hydrographic

Makes surveys of harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to determine shore lines, topography of bottom, or other items for such purposes as determining navigable channels, and securing data for construction of breakwaters, piers, and other marine structures.
GOE: 05.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.261-010 DRAFTER, CARTOGRAPHIC (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: map maker; mapper

Draws maps of geographical areas to show natural and constructed features, political boundaries, and other features, performing duties described under DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title: Analyzes survey data, source maps and photographs, computer or automated mapping products, and other records to determine location and names of features. Studies legal records to establish boundaries of properties, and local, national, and international areas of political, economic, social, or other significance. Geological maps are drawn by DRAFTER, GEOLOGICAL (petrol. & gas).
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.261-018 EDITOR, MAP (profess. & kin.)

Verifies accuracy and completeness of topographical maps from aerial photographs and specifications: Views photographs and other reference materials, such as old maps and records and examines corresponding area of map to verify correct identification of specified topographical features and accuracy of contour lines. Verifies correct location and accuracy of scaled distances between control points and reference lines. Examines reference materials to detect omission of topographical features, poor register, or other defects in photography or draftsmanship. Marks errors and makes corrections, such as numbering grid lines or lettering names of rivers or towns.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.261-022 MOSAICIST (profess. & kin.)

Lays out and matches aerial photographs to form photographic mosaic of geographic area for subsequent use in photogrammetric activities, such as topographical mapping: Lays out photographic prints on table according to sequence in which photographs were taken during flightpath of aircraft. Examines prints to locate established landmarks and notes absence of normal overlap of adjacent prints indicating deflection of aircraft from prescribed flightpath. Locates and marks specified reference points, such as structures and highway or rail junctions. Computes and measures scaled distances between reference points to establish exact relative position of adjoining prints. Trims excess from edges of overlapping prints and glues prints to backing board, maintaining scaled distances between reference points and alignment of adjoining prints.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.261-026 PHOTOGRAMMETRIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: cartographic technician

Analyzes source data and prepares mosaic prints, contour maps, profile sheets, and related cartographic materials requiring technical mastery of photogrammetric techniques and principles: Prepares original maps, charts, and drawings, from aerial photographs, and survey data and applies standard mathematical formulas and photogrammetric techniques to identify, scale, and orient geodetic points, elevations, and other planimetric or topographic features and cartographic detail. Graphically delineates aerial photographic detail, such as control points, hydrography, topography, and cultural features, using precision stereoplotting apparatus or drafting instruments. Revises existing maps and charts and corrects maps in various stages of compilation. May prepare rubber, plastic, or plaster three-dimensional relief models.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

018.262-010 FIELD-MAP EDITOR (profess. & kin.)

Identifies and verifies information shown on aerial photographs used in map making: Travels over photographed area to observe and record all cultural and drainage features shown and not shown on photograph. Verifies numbers, names, and classes of roads and highways, location and number of railroads, location of state and county lines, and location and identification of streams, rivers, lakes, schools, and major buildings. Marks observations on map overlay, using specified symbols. Determines elevation of hills, trees, and buildings, using geometry. Obtains boundary and other official information from county records. May use stereoscope to combine information from two aerial maps.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

018.281-010 STEREO-PLOTTER OPERATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: stereo operator; stereoptic projection topographer

Draws topographical maps from aerial photographs, using instruments that produce simultaneous projections of two photographs, taken from different positions, in manner that permits stereoscopic viewing for delineation of planimetric detail and drawing of contours: Orients plotting instruments to form three-dimensional stereo image. Views stereoscopic image by using anaglyphic, binocular, or image alternator techniques. Determines contour interval and vertical scale of image, using mathematical table. Traces contours and topographical details to produce map.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with the application of the theoretical and practical aspects of engineering and architecture.

019.061-010 BIOMEDICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research into biological aspects of humans or other animals to develop new theories and facts, or test, prove, or modify known theories of life systems, and to design life-support apparatus, utilizing principles of engineering and bio-behavioral sciences: Plans and conducts research concerning behavioral, biological, psychological, or other life systems. Studies engineering aspects of bio-behavioral systems of humans, utilizing knowledge of electrical, mechanical, chemical, or other engineering principles and knowledge of human anatomy and physiology. Develops $T3mathematical models$T1 to simulate human bio-behavioral systems in order to obtain data for measuring or controlling life processes, utilizing knowledge of computer, graphics, and other related technologies. Designs and develops instruments and devices, such as artificial organs, cardiac pacemakers, or ultrasonic imaging devices, capable of assisting medical or other health-care personnel in observing, repairing, or treating physical ailments or deformities, using knowledge of materials compatible with body tissues, energy exchanges within the body, and instrumentation capable of measuring and controlling body functions. May specialize in design and development of biomedical equipment used by medical facilities and be known as Clinical Engineer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

019.061-014 MATERIALS ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Evaluates technical and economic factors, recommending engineering and manufacturing actions for attainment of design objectives of process or product by applying knowledge of material science and related technologies: Reviews plans for new product and factors, such as strength, weight, and cost to submit material selection recommendations ensuring attainment of design objectives. Plans and implements laboratory operations to develop material and fabrication procedures for new materials to fulfill product cost and performance standards. Confers with producers of materials, such as metals, ceramics, or polymers, during investigation and evaluation of materials suitable for specific product applications. Reviews product failure data and interprets laboratory tests and analyses to establish or rule out material and process causes.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

019.061-018 OPTICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: optical designer

Designs optical systems with specific characteristics to fit within specified physical limits of precision optical instruments, such as still- and motion-picture cameras, lens systems, telescopes, and viewing and display devices: Determines specifications for operations and makes adjustments to calibrate and obtain specified operational performance. Determines proper operation of optical system and makes adjustments to perfect system. Designs mounts for components to hold them in proper planes in relation to each other and instrument in which they will be used. Designs inspection instruments to test optical systems for defects, such as aberrations and deviations. May work with electrical and mechanical engineering staff to develop overall design of optical system.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

019.061-022 ORDNANCE ENGINEER (chemical; ordnance)

Designs, tests, and coordinates development of explosive ordnance material to meet military procurement specifications and to prepare project proposals for negotiating production contracts: Participates in discussions with military authorities to determine characteristics desired in explosive material, nature of target objective, and type of delivery system to be used. Prepares or directs preparation of design drawings and specifications for approval by procurement authorities, according to knowledge of explosives and plastics chemistry, ballistics theory, fuse technology, metallurgy, electronics, fluidics, and techniques of efficient production. Tests sample shells, warheads, or similar material under simulated military conditions [PROOF TECHNICIAN (ordnance)]. Evaluates tests to determine acceptability of ordnance items or need for redesign. Presents findings orally and in writing to procurement authorities and demonstrates successful designs on proving ground. May negotiate procurement contracts. May coordinate pilot or serial production of ordnance items. May participate in development of delivery systems, fire-control components, and nonexplosive material. May be designated according to type of ordnance item developed.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

019.061-026 RELIABILITY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Analyzes preliminary engineering-design concepts of major product, such as aircraft, naval vessel, or electronic communication or control system to recommend design or test methods for attaining customer-specified operational reliability, using knowledge of reliability engineering and other technologies: Analyzes preliminary plans and develops reliability engineering program to achieve customer reliability objectives. Analyzes projected product utilization and calculates cumulative effect on final system reliability of individual part reliabilities. Drafts $T3failure mode and effect analysis$T1 sheets or formulates $T3mathematical models,$T1 using computer-aided engineering equipment, to identify units posing excessive failure risks and support proposed changes in design. Enters data to simulate electrical inputs, transient conditions, temperature, stress, and other factors to develop computer models, and analyzes and adjusts design to predict and improve system reliability. Advises and confers with engineers in design review meetings to give reliability findings and recommendations. Determines units requiring environmental testing and specifies minimum number of samples to obtain statistically valid data. Reviews subcontractors' proposals for reliability program and submits evaluation for decision. Reviews engineering specifications and drawings, proposing design modifications to improve reliability within cost and other performance requirements. Observes conduct of tests at supplier, plant, or field locations to evaluate reliability factors, such as numbers and causes of unit failures. Monitors failure data generated by customer using product to ascertain potential requirement for product improvement.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

019.081-010 MAINTAINABILITY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Analyzes engineering design of proposed product, such as aircraft, naval vessel, or electronic control or navigation system, and submits specifications for maintenance requirements, utilizing knowledge of maintainability engineering and related technologies: Analyzes customer's initial proposal for product utilization and recommends basic product specifications and techniques for satisfying customer requirements. Reviews engineering specifications and drawings during development and proposes design refinements to improve ratio of operational time to maintenance time. Participates in engineering discussions concerning design alternatives effecting product maintainability. Determines crew makeup, training requirements, and maintenance time by evaluating data from tests and maintainability programs of related products. Reviews subcontractor's technical practices for assuring maintainability of equipment and parts and submits evaluation for management decision. Specifies standardized tests or drafts new test programs for demonstrating product maintainability in company or supplier test. Observes maintainability tests at supplier and plant locations to verify operations are conducted according to standards.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

019.081-014 PHOTOGRAPHIC ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: photo-optical instrumentation engineer

Designs and constructs special-purpose photographic equipment and materials for use in scientific or industrial applications, utilizing knowledge of various engineering disciplines, chemistry, and photographic equipment and techniques. Plans setup of equipment, specific procedures, and materials needed to meet data acquisition and measurement requirements. May advise others in such fields as high speed photography, radiography, graphic arts, and aerial and space photography.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

019.081-018 POLLUTION-CONTROL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans and conducts engineering studies to analyze and evaluate pollution problems, methods of pollution control, and methods of testing pollution sources to determine physiochemical nature and concentration of contaminants: Reviews data collected by POLLUTION-CONTROL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) from pollution emission sources. Performs engineering calculations to determine pollution emissions from various industrial sources and to evaluate effectiveness of pollution control equipment. Reviews compliance schedules and inspection reports to ensure compliance with pollution control regulations. Recommends issuance or denial of permits for industries to construct or operate facilities. Advises enforcement personnel of noncompliance or unsatisfactory compliance with regulations. Develops or modifies techniques for monitoring pollution. Calibrates and adjusts pollution control monitors to ensure accurate functioning of instruments. May be designated according to specialty as Air-Pollution Engineer (profess. & kin.); Noise-Abatement Engineer (profess. & kin.); Water Quality-Control Engineer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Supervises ESTIMATORS AND DRAFTERS (utilities) in drawing up specifications, instructions, and cost estimates for installation of gas or electric-power distribution systems: Studies work orders or construction proposals and selects appropriate survey procedures and schedules work assignments. Reviews completed construction drawings and cost estimates for accuracy and conformity to standards and regulations. Confers with engineers and subordinates and assists in field surveys to resolve problems. Directs maintenance of files of blueprints, maps, construction sketches, cost estimates, and related records.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

019.161-014 TEST TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Prepares specifications for fabrication, assembly, and installation of apparatus and control instrumentation used to test experimental or prototype mechanical, electrical, electromechanical, hydromechanical, or structural products, and conducts tests and records results, utilizing engineering principles and test technology: Confers with engineering personnel to resolve fabrication problems relating to specifications and to review test plans, such as types and cycles of tests, conditions under which tests are to be conducted, and duration of tests. Fabricates precision parts for test apparatus, using metalworking machines such as lathes, milling machines, and welding equipment, or interprets specifications for workers fabricating parts. Examines parts for conformance with dimensional specifications, using precision measuring instruments. Coordinates and participates in installing unit or system to be tested in test fixtures, connecting valves, pumps, hydraulic, mechanical or electrical controls, cabling, tubing, power source, and indicating instruments. Activates controls to apply electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical power and subject test item to successive steps in test cycle. Monitors controls and instruments and records test data for engineer's use. May recommend changes in test methods or equipment for engineering review. Workers are classified according to engineering specialty or type of product tested.
GOE: 05.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

019.167-010 LOGISTICS ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: logistics specialist

Directs and coordinates program activities designed to provide subcontractors, management, and customers with logistics technology that ensures effective and economical support concerned for manufacturing or servicing of products, systems, or equipment: Analyzes contractual commitments, customer specifications, design changes, and other data to plan and develop logistic program activities from conceptual stage through life-cycle of product. Develops and implements program activities, coordinates efforts of subcontractors, production departments, and field service personnel, and resolves problems in area of logistics to ensure meeting of contractual commitments. Develops and initiates preparation of handbooks, bulletins, and information systems to provide and supply logistics support. Compiles data on standardization and interchangeability of parts to expedite logistics activities. Determines logistic support sequences and time phasing, problems arising from location of operational area, and other factors, such as environmental and human factors affecting personnel. May perform special research or technical studies critical to logistic support functions. May utilize computer techniques for analysis, simulation or information systems and documentation.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

019.167-014 PROJECT ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: chief engineer

Directs, coordinates, and exercises functional authority for planning, organization, control, integration, and completion of engineering project within area of assigned responsibility: Plans and formulates engineering program and organizes project staff according to project requirements. Assigns project personnel to specific phases or aspects of project, such as technical studies, product design, preparation of specifications and technical plans, and product testing, in accordance with engineering disciplines of staff. Reviews product design for compliance with engineering principles, company standards, customer contract requirements, and related specifications. Coordinates activities concerned with technical developments, scheduling, and resolving engineering design and test problems. Directs integration of technical activities and products. Evaluates and approves design changes, specifications, and drawing releases. Controls expenditures within limitations of project budget. Prepares interim and completion project reports.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

019.167-018 RESOURCE-RECOVERY ENGINEER (government ser.)

Plans and participates in activities concerned with study, development, and inspection of solid-waste resource recovery systems and marketability of solid-waste recovery products: Conducts studies of chemical and mechanical solid-waste recovery processes and system designs to evaluate efficiency and cost-effectiveness of proposed operations. Inspects solid-waste resource recovery facilities to determine compliance with regulations governing construction and use. Collects data on resource recovery systems and analyzes alternate plans to determine most feasible systems for specific solid-waste recovery purposes. Prepares recommendations for development of resource recovery programs, based on analysis of alternate plans and knowledge of physical properties of various solid-waste materials. Confers with design engineers, management personnel, and others concerned with recovery of solid-waste resources to discuss problems and provide technical advice. Coordinates activities of workers engaged in study of potential markets for reclaimable materials. Lectures civic and professional organizations and provides information about practices to media representatives to promote interest and participation in solid-waste recovery practices.
GOE: 05.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

019.187-010 PACKAGING ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Plans and directs activities concerned with design and development of protective packaging containers: Analyzes engineering drawings and specifications of product to determine physical characteristics of item, special-handling and safety requirements, and type of materials required for container. Consults with establishment's purchasing and production departments to determine costs and feasibility of producing proposed packaging. Develops or directs development of sketches, specifications, samples, and written analyses of proposed packaging in order to present design for approval. May confer with customers or sales representatives to draw up contracts. May advise employer or customers on efficient packing procedures, innovations in packaging materials, and utilization of sealing and fastening devices.
GOE: 05.03.09 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

019.261-010 BIOMEDICAL EQUIPMENT TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: biomedical electronics technician; biomedical engineering technician

Repairs, calibrates, and maintains medical equipment and instrumentation used in health-care delivery field: Inspects and installs medical and related technical equipment in medical and research facilities for use by physicians, nurses, scientists, or engineers involved in researching, monitoring, diagnosing, and treating physical ailments or dysfunctions. Services various equipment and apparatus, such as patient monitors, electrocardiographs, blood-gas analyzers, x-ray units, defibrillators, electrosurgical units, anesthesia apparatus, pacemakers, blood-pressure transducers, spirometers, sterilizers, diathermy equipment, in-house television systems, patient-care computers, and other related technical paraphernalia. Repairs, calibrates, and maintains equipment, using handtools, power tools, measuring devices, and knowledge of manufacturers' manuals, troubleshooting techniques, and preventive-maintenance schedules. Safety-tests medical equipment and health-care facility's structural environment to ensure patient and staff safety from electrical or mechanical hazards. Consults with medical or research staff to ascertain that equipment functions properly and safely, utilizing knowledge of electronics, medical terminology, human anatomy and physiology, chemistry, and physics. May demonstrate and explain correct operation of equipment to medical personnel. May modify or develop instruments or devices, under supervision of medical or engineering staff. May work as salesperson or service technician for equipment manufacturers or their sales representatives.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

019.261-014 ESTIMATOR AND DRAFTER (utilities) alternate titles: detail and lay-out drafter; distribution estimator; lay-out and detail drafter

Draws up specifications and instructions for installation of voltage transformers, overhead or underground cables, and related electrical equipment used to conduct electrical energy from transmission lines or high-voltage distribution lines to consumers: Studies work order request to determine type of service, such as lighting or power, demanded by installation. Visits site of proposed installation and draws rough sketch of location. Takes measurements, such as street dimensions, distances to be spanned by wire and cable, or space available in existing buildings and underground vaults which affect installation and arrangement of equipment. Estimates materials, equipment, and incidentals needed for installation. Draws master sketch showing relation of proposed installation to existing facilities. Makes other drawings, such as pertaining to wiring connections or cross sections of underground cables, as required for instructions to installation crew. Consults POWER-DISTRIBUTION ENGINEER (utilities) 003.167-046 on difficulties encountered. May draft sketches to scale [DRAFTER, ELECTRICAL (profess. & kin.) 003.281-010]. May estimate labor and material costs, using pricelists and records on previous projects. May inspect completed installation of electrical equipment and related building circuitry to verify conformance with specifications. May perform duties of LAND SURVEYOR (profess. & kin.) 018.167-018 and prepare specifications and diagrams for installation of gas distribution pipes owned by gas-electric utility.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

019.261-018 FACILITIES PLANNER (any industry) alternate titles: office-planning representative

Plans utilization of space and facilities for government agency or unit or business establishment consistent with requirements of organizational efficiency and available facilities and funds: Inspects buildings and office areas to evaluate suitability for occupancy, considering such factors as air circulation, lighting, location, and size. Measures or directs workers engaged in measurement of facilities to determine total square footage available for occupancy. Computes square footage available for each member of staff to determine whether minimum space restrictions can be met. Draws design layout, showing location of furniture, equipment, doorways, electrical and telephone outlets, and other facilities. May review real estate contracts for compliance with government specifications and suitability for occupancy of employing agency. May direct workers engaged in moving furniture and equipment and preparing facilities for occupancy.
GOE: 05.01.06 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

019.261-022 TEST TECHNICIAN (agric. equip.)

Tests experimental and production agricultural equipment, such as tractors and power mowers and components to evaluate their performance, using test equipment and recording instruments: Reads data sheet denoting operating specification for unit or component and type of evaluation required. Tests unit for conformance with operating requirements, such as resistance to vibration, specified horsepower, and tensile strength and hardness of parts, using test equipment, such as bend-fatigue machine, dynamometer, strength tester, hardness tester, analytical balance, and electronic recorder. Records data from dial readings and graphs and computes values, such as horse-power and tensile strength, using algebraic formulas. Operates unit to evaluate attachment performance, such as depth of tillage or harvesting capabilities for different types of crops. Draws sketches and describes test procedures and results in test data log.
GOE: 05.03.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


Designs and drafts plans and estimates costs for installation of fire protection systems for facilities and structures, applying knowledge of drafting, physical science, engineering principles, and fire protection codes: Analyzes blueprints and specifications prepared by ARCHITECT (profess. & kin.) 001.061-010 to determine dimensions of system to meet fire protection codes. Determines design and size of system components, using calculator or computer. Drafts detailed drawing of system to ensure conformance to specifications and applicable codes. May negotiate relocation of system components with SUPERINTENDENT, CONSTRUCTION (construction) 182.167-026 to resolve conflicts of co-location with other systems. May inspect fire-damaged structures to detect malfunctions. May specialize in one type of fire protection system, such as foam, water, dry chemical, or vaporous gas or specialize in one type of establishment, such as construction, insurance, or government.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

019.261-030 LABORATORY TECHNICIAN (auto. mfg.)

Tests chemical and physical properties of materials used in manufacturing or assembling motor vehicles: Performs standard chemical and physical tests on parts, solutions, and materials used in producing motor vehicles, using conventional and computerized machines and work aids. Conducts quantitative and qualitative analyses to determine chemical and physical properties of experimental and developmental materials [LABORATORY TESTER (any industry) 029.261-010].
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 90

019.261-034 LASER TECHNICIAN (electron. comp.; inst. & app.)

Constructs and tests prototype gas or solid-state laser devices, applying theory and principles of laser engineering and electronic circuits: Reviews project instructions, such as assembly layout, blueprints, and sketches, and confers with engineering personnel to clarify laser device specifications. Interprets production details, such as dimensions and functional requirements, for workers engaged in grinding mirror blanks, coating mirror surfaces, and machining metal parts. Installs and aligns optical parts, such as mirrors and waveplates, in laser body, using precision instruments. Turns controls of vacuum pump and gas transfer equipment to purge, evacuate, and fill laser body with specified volume and pressure of gases, such as helium, neon, or carbon dioxide, to test laser beam. Assembles completed laser body in chassis, and installs and aligns electronic components, tubing, and wiring to connect controls, such as valves, regulators, dials, and switches. Sets up precision electronic and optical instruments to test laser device, using specified electrical or optical inputs. Tests laser for gas leaks, using leak detector. Analyzes test data and reports results to engineering personnel. May prepare and write technical reports to recommend solutions to technical problems.
GOE: 05.03.05 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

019.267-010 SPECIFICATION WRITER (profess. & kin.)

Interprets architectural or engineering plans and prepares material lists and specifications to be used as standards by plant employees or contracting personnel in material processing or in manufacturing or construction activities: Analyzes plans and diagrams, or observes and makes notes on material processing, to determine material and material processing specifications, or specifications for manufacturing or construction activities. Writes technical descriptions specifying material qualities and properties, utilizing knowledge of material standards, industrial processes, and manufacturing procedures. May draw rough sketches or arrange for finished drawings or photographs to illustrate specified materials or assembly sequence. Workers usually specialize and are designated according to engineering specialization, product, or process.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

019.281-010 CALIBRATION LABORATORY TECHNICIAN (aircraft mfg.; electron. comp.) alternate titles: engineering laboratory technician; quality assurance calibrator; standards laboratory technician; test equipment certification technician

Tests, calibrates, and repairs electrical, mechanical, electromechanical, and electronic measuring, recording, and indicating instruments and equipment for conformance to established standards, and assists in formulating calibration standards: Plans sequence of testing and calibration procedures for instruments and equipment, according to blueprints, schematics, technical manuals, and other specifications. Sets up standard and special purpose laboratory equipment to test, evaluate, and calibrate other instruments and test equipment. Disassembles instruments and equipment, using handtools, and inspects components for defects. Measures parts for conformity with specifications, using micrometers, calipers, and other precision instruments. Aligns, repairs, replaces, and balances component parts and circuitry. Reassembles and calibrates instruments and equipment. Devises formulas to solve problems in measurements and calibrations. Assists engineers in formulating test, calibration, repair, and evaluation plans and procedures to maintain precision accuracy of measuring, recording, and indicating instruments and equipment.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88


This division includes occupations concerned with research pertaining to the physical universe, and the application of established mathematical and scientific laws and principles to specific problems and situations.


This group includes occupations concerned with the development of methodology in mathematics, statistics, and actuarial science; and the application of original and standardized mathematical techniques to the solution of problems in the social and physical sciences, engineering, and business.

020.067-014 MATHEMATICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research in fundamental mathematics and in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields, and solves or directs solutions to problems in various fields by mathematical methods: Conducts research in such branches of mathematics as algebra, geometry, number theory, logic, and topology, and studies and tests hypotheses and alternative theories. Conceives and develops ideas for application of mathematics to wide variety of fields, including science, engineering, military planning, electronic data processing, and management. Applies mathematics or mathematical methods to solution of problems in research, development, production, logistics, and other functional areas, utilizing knowledge of subject or field to which applied, such as physics, engineering, astronomy, biology, economics, business and industrial management, or cryptography. Performs computations, applies methods of numerical analysis, and operates or directs operation of desk calculators and mechanical and electronic computation machines, analyzers, and plotters in solving problems in support of mathematical, scientific, or industrial research activity. Acts as advisor or consultant to research personnel concerning mathematical methods and applications. May be designated according to function as Mathematician, Applied (profess. & kin.); Mathematician, Research (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

020.067-018 OPERATIONS-RESEARCH ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts analyses of management and operational problems and formulates mathematical or simulation models of problem for solution by computers or other methods: Analyzes problem in terms of management information and conceptualizes and defines problem. Studies information and selects plan from competitive proposals that affords maximum probability of profit or effectiveness in relation to cost or risk. Prepares model of problem in form of one or several equations that relates constants and variables, restrictions, alternatives, conflicting objectives and their numerical parameters. Defines data requirements and gathers and validates information applying judgment and statistical tests. Specifies manipulative or computational methods to be applied to model. Performs validation and testing of model to ensure adequacy, or determines need for reformulation. Prepares reports to management defining problem, evaluation, and possible solution. Evaluates implementation and effectiveness of research. May design, conduct, and evaluate experimental operational models where insufficient data exists to formulate model. May specialize in research and preparation of contract proposals specifying competence of organization to perform research, development, or production work. May develop and apply time and cost networks, such as Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT), to plan and control large projects. May work in association with engineers, scientists, and management personnel in business, government, health, transportation, energy, manufacturing, environmental sciences or other technologies.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

020.067-022 STATISTICIAN, MATHEMATICAL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: statistician, theoretical

Conducts research into mathematical theories and proofs that form basis of science of statistics and develops statistical methodology: Examines theories, such as those of probability and inference, to discover mathematical bases for new or improved methods of obtaining and evaluating numerical data. Develops and tests experimental designs, sampling techniques, and analytical methods, and prepares recommendations concerning their utilization in statistical surveys, experiments, and tests. Investigates, evaluates, and prepares reports on applicability, efficiency, and accuracy of statistical methods used by physical and social scientists, including STATISTICIANS, APPLIED (profess. & kin.), in obtaining and evaluating data.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

020.162-010 MATHEMATICAL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: data-reduction technician

Applies standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment and products: Confers with professional, scientific, and engineering personnel to plan project. Analyzes raw data from computer or recorded on photographic film or other media. Selects most practical and accurate combination and sequence of computational methods, using algebra, trigonometry, geometry, vector analysis and calculus to reduce raw data to meaningful and manageable terms. Selects most economical and reliable combination of manual, mechanical, or data processing methods and equipment consistent with data reduction requirements. Modifies standard formulas to conform to data processing method selected. Translates data into numerical values, equations, flow charts, graphs or other media. Analyzes processed data to detect errors. May operate calculator or computer.
GOE: 11.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

020.167-010 ACTUARY (profess. & kin.)

Applies knowledge of mathematics, probability, statistics, principles of finance and business to problems in life, health, social, and casualty insurance, annuities, and pensions: Determines mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates; constructs probability tables regarding fire, natural disasters, and unemployment, based on analysis of statistical data and other pertinent information. Designs or reviews insurance and pension plans and calculates premiums. Ascertains premium rates required and cash reserves and liabilities necessary to ensure payment of future benefits. Determines equitable basis for distributing surplus earnings under participating insurance and annuity contracts in mutual companies. May specialize in one type of insurance and be designated Actuary, Casualty (profess. & kin.); Actuary, Life (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

020.167-026 STATISTICIAN, APPLIED (profess. & kin.)

Plans data collection, and analyzes and interprets numerical data from experiments, studies, surveys, and other sources and applies statistical methodology to provide information for scientific research and statistical analysis: Plans methods to collect information and develops questionnaire techniques according to survey design. Conducts surveys utilizing sampling techniques or complete enumeration bases. Evaluates reliability of source information, adjusts and weighs raw data, and organizes results into form compatible with analysis by computers or other methods. Presents numerical information by computer readouts, graphs, charts, tables, written reports or other methods. Describes sources of information, and limitations on reliability and usability. May analyze and interpret statistics to point up significant differences in relationships among sources of information, and prepare conclusions and forecasts based on data summaries. May specialize in specific aspect of statistics or industrial activity reporting and be designated by specialty as Demographer (profess. & kin.) I; Statistician, Analytical (profess. & kin.); Statistician, Engineering And Physical Science (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

020.167-030 WEIGHT ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: weight engineer

Analyzes and calculates weight data of structural assemblies, components, and loads for purposes of weight, balance, loading, and operational functions of ships, aircraft, space vehicles, missiles, research instrumentation, and commercial and industrial products and systems: Studies weight factors involved in new designs or modifications, utilizing computer techniques for analysis and simulation. Analyzes data and prepares reports of weight distribution estimates for use in design studies. Confers with design engineering personnel in such departments as preliminary design, structures, aerodynamics, and sub-systems to ensure coordination of weight, balance, and load specifications with other phases of product development. Weighs parts, assemblies, or completed product, estimates weight of parts from engineering drawings, and calculates weight distribution to determine balance. Prepares reports or graphic data for designers when weight and balance requires engineering changes. Prepares technical reports on mass moments of inertia, static and dynamic balance, dead weight distributions, cargo and fuselage compartments, and fuel center of gravity travel. May prepare cargo and equipment loading sequences to maintain balance of aircraft or space vehicle within specified load limits. May analyze various systems, structures, and support equipment designs to obtain information on most efficient compromise between weight, operations, and cost. May conduct research and analysis to develop new techniques for weights estimating criteria.
GOE: 07.02.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the investigation of celestial phenomena to increase basic scientific knowledge, or for practical application in such fields as navigation and guidance. Also includes occupations concerned with the visual and instrumental observation of astronomical phenomena and the recording and evaluation of data.

021.067-010 ASTRONOMER (profess. & kin.)

Observes and interprets celestial phenomena and relates research to basic scientific knowledge or to practical problems, such as navigation: Studies celestial phenomena by means of optical, radio, or other telescopes, equipped with such devices as cameras, spectrometers, radiometers, photometers, and micrometers, which may either be on ground or carried above atmosphere with balloons, rockets, satellites, or space probes. Interprets information obtained in terms of basic physical laws. Determines sizes, shapes, brightness, spectra, and motions, and computes positions of sun, moon, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Calculates orbits of various celestial bodies. Determines exact time by celestial observations, and conducts research into relationships between time and space. Develops mathematical tables giving positions of sun, moon, planets, and stars at given times for use by air and sea navigators. Conducts research on statistical theory of motions of celestial bodies. Analyzes wave lengths of radiation from celestial bodies, as observed in all ranges of spectrum. Studies history, structure, extent, and evolution of stars, stellar systems, and universe. May design new and improved optical, mechanical, and electronics instruments for astronomical research. May specialize in either observational or theoretical aspects of stellar astronomy, stellar astrophysics, interstellar medium, galactic structure, extragalactic astronomy, or cosmology.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with research and development in the chemical and physical properties and compositional changes of substances. Specialization generally occurs in one or more branches of chemistry, such as organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry and analytical chemistry. Chemistry specializations within the field of environmental control are also included here. Occupations concerned with biochemistry are found in Group 041.

022.061-010 CHEMIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research, analysis, synthesis, and experimentation on substances, for such purposes as product and process development and application, quantitative and qualitative analysis, and improvement of analytical methodologies: Devises new equipment, and develops formulas, processes, and methods for solution of technical problems. Analyzes organic and inorganic compounds to determine chemical and physical properties, utilizing such techniques as chromatography, spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry. Induces changes in composition of substances by introduction of heat, light, energy, and chemical catalysts. Conducts research on manufactured products to develop and improve products. Conducts research into composition, structure, properties, relationships, and reactions of matter. Confers with scientists and engineers regarding research, and prepares technical papers and reports. Prepares standards and specifications for processes, facilities, products, and tests. May be designated according to chemistry specialty as Chemist, Analytical (profess. & kin.); Chemist, Inorganic (profess. & kin.); Chemist, Organic (profess. & kin.); Chemist Physical (profess. & k in.).
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

022.061-014 CHEMIST, FOOD (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research and analysis concerning chemistry of foods to develop and improve foods and beverages: Experiments with natural and synthetic materials or byproducts to develop new foods, additives, preservatives, anti-adulteration agents, and related products. Studies effects of various methods of processing, preservation, and packaging on composition and properties of foods, such as color, texture, aroma, taste, shelf life, and nutritive content. Tests food and beverage samples, such as starch, sugar, cereals, beer, canned and dehydrated food products, meats, vegetables, dairy foods, and other products to ensure compliance with food laws, and standards of quality and purity. May perform, or supervise workers performing, quality control tests in food processing, canning, freezing, brewing or distilling. May specialize in particular food or process.
GOE: 02.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

022.081-010 TOXICOLOGIST (pharmaceut.)

Conducts research on toxic effects of cosmetic products and ingredients on laboratory animals for manufacturer of cosmetics: Applies cosmetic ingredient or cosmetic being developed to exposed shaved skin area of test animal and observes and examines skin periodically for possible development of abnormalities, inflammation, or irritation. Injects ingredient into test animal, using hypodermic needle and syringe, and periodically observes animal for signs of toxicity. Injects antidotes to determine which antidote best neutralizes toxic effects. Tests and analyzes blood samples for presence of toxic conditions, using microscope and laboratory test equipment. Dissects dead animals, using surgical instruments, and examines organs to determine effects of cosmetic ingredients being tested. Prepares formal reports of test results.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

022.137-010 LABORATORY SUPERVISOR (profess. & kin.)

Supervises and coordinates activities of personnel engaged in performing chemical and physical tests required for quality control of processes and products: Directs and advises personnel in special test procedures to analyze components and physical properties of materials. Compiles and analyzes test information to determine operating efficiency of process or equipment and to diagnose malfunctions. Confers with scientists or engineers to conduct analyses, interpret test results, or develop nonstandard tests. Performs other duties as described under SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title. May adjust formulas and processes based on test results. May test and analyze sample products. May prepare test solutions, compounds, and reagents for use by laboratory personnel in conducting tests. May conduct research to develop custom products and investigate complaints on existing products.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

022.161-010 CHEMICAL LABORATORY CHIEF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: chief chemist; director, chemical laboratory

Plans and directs activities of chemical laboratory in industrial, research, governmental, or other organization: Plans, coordinates, and directs programs for research, product development, improvement of manufacturing processes; or for analysis and testing of substances to support criminal investigations, to detect toxins, or to verify composition of manufactured and agricultural products, and natural resources, such as air, soil, and water. Coordinates research and analysis activities according to applicable government regulations, manufacturing processes, or other considerations, and approves modification of formulas, standards, specifications, and processes. Reviews research, testing, quality control, and other operational reports to ensure that quality standards, efficiency, and schedules are met. Interprets results of laboratory activities to laboratory personnel, management, and professional and technical societies, and prepares reports and technical papers. May prepare and administer budgets. May advise and assist in obtaining patents for products, processes, or equipment.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 78

022.161-014 COLORIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: color maker; color matcher

Develops color formulas for printing textile and plastic materials and compares customer's sample with standard color card, or blends pigments into vinyl solution and compares results with sample to determine formula required to duplicate colors. Selects dyes according to properties desired by customer. Records color formula and issues formula and mixing procedure to SUPERVISOR, COLOR-PASTE MIXING (textile) for assignment to appropriate workers. Prepares color sequence chart to guide CLOTH PRINTER (any industry) in setting up printing machine. Compares printed patch with customer's sample to verify color shade and position of design. Files folder containing color patch and formula for each design for use as printing standard. Coordinates color shop activities with printing department production schedule. May inspect printed material to ensure adherence to customer and plant specifications. May mix colors. May inventory and requisition supplies.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

022.161-018 PERFUMER (chemical)

Evaluates odors of aromatic chemicals to set production standards and ensure adherence by workers engaged in compounding and finishing operations: Directs workers engaged in preparation of work orders for compounding department and reviews batch sheets prepared for distillation department to ensure compliance with formulas devised in perfume laboratory. Visits compounding and distillation areas and determines, by smelling, odor qualities of prepared materials. Approves batches for finishing, from knowledge of odor characteristics and odor blends conforming with customer or laboratory standards. Resmells sample in air-filtered room, using blotter strips dipped in aromatic chemicals to evaluate fragrances for specific characteristics, such as odor, body, harmony, strength, and permanence. Compares odor and color of current sample with samples of previous batches. Rejects batches not meeting criteria, and notifies distillation personnel to redistill product. May devise production formulas and be designated Creative Perfumer (chemical).
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

022.261-010 CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Conducts chemical and physical laboratory tests of solid materials, liquids, and gases, and analyzes test data for variety of purposes, such as research, product development, quality control, criminal investigation, and establishing standards, involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences: Sets up laboratory equipment and instrumentation required for tests, research, or process control. Tests and analyzes products, such as food, drugs, fertilizers, plastics, paints, detergents, paper, petroleum, and cement, to determine strength, stability, purity, chemical content, and other characteristics. Tests and analyzes materials and substances, such as ores, minerals, gases, soil, water, and pollutants. Documents results of tests and analyses. May prepare chemical solutions for use in processing materials, following standardized formulas or experimental procedures. May test and analyze radioactive and biological materials, applying knowledge of radiochemical procedures, emission spectrometry, and related techniques.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88


Keeps perpetual inventory of malt and barley in storage elevators and determines formulas for blending malt: Compiles continuous records of malt and barley supplies by location, amount, physical characteristics, and chemical analysis. Writes orders to malt house to produce and blend standard malt types. Notifies purchasing department of barley supplies in storage. Analyzes physical and chemical test results to classify incoming barley shipments. Selects tanks and issues orders for storing barley and malt in elevators. Analyzes customer orders to determine if special malt blends are needed. Determines blend formulas, using established chemical and mathematical procedures. Mixes sample of blend by hand, orders chemical and physical testing by laboratory, and compares results with specifications. Sends formula and sample to malt elevators and customers.
GOE: 05.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

022.261-018 CHEMIST, INSTRUMENTATION (profess. & kin.)

Conducts chemical analyses of wastewater discharges of industrial users of municipal wastewater treatment plant to determine industrial waste surcharge assessments and to ensure that users meet pollution control requirements: Conducts chemical analyses of samples, using special instrumentation, such as gas chromatograph with electron capture, flame ionization, and thermal conductivity detectors, ultraviolet-visible recording spectrophotometer with photometry attachments, and infrared spectrophotometer. Compares findings with industry declared data and legal requirements and notes variations to be used in determining industrial waste surcharge assessments and to regulate industrial waste discharges. Develops new procedures in use of equipment and procedures for analyzing samples. Directs subordinate laboratory personnel in routine tests.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

022.261-022 CHEMIST, WASTEWATER-TREATMENT PLANT (profess. & kin.)

Analyzes samples of streams, raw and treated wastewater, sludge, and other byproducts of wastewater treatment process to determine efficiency of plant processes and to ensure that plant effluent meets water pollution control requirements, using standard laboratory equipment: Conducts tests for settleable solids, suspended solids, total solids, volatile solids, volatile acids, alkalinity, pH, dissolved oxygen demand, turbidity, and other substances. Initiates changes in laboratory procedures and equipment in order to increase efficiency of laboratory. Directs laboratory personnel in prescribed laboratory techniques and performance of routine tests.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

022.281-010 ASSAYER (profess. & kin.)

Tests ores and minerals and analyzes results to determine value and properties of components, using spectrographic analysis, chemical solutions, and chemical or laboratory equipment, such as furnaces, beakers, graduates, pipettes, and crucibles: Separates metals or other components from dross materials by solution, flotation, or other liquid processes, or by dry methods, such as application of heat to form slags of lead, borax, and other impurities. Weighs residues on balance scale to determine proportion of pure gold, silver, platinum, or other metals or components. May specialize in testing and analyzing precious metals and be designated Gold-And-Silver Assayer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

022.281-014 CHEMIST, WATER PURIFICATION (waterworks)

Analyzes water in purification plant to control chemical processes which soften it or make it suitable for drinking: Analyzes samples of filtered water to ensure that quantities of solids left in suspension are below prescribed limits. Determines amounts of liquid chlorine to be used in chlorinators to destroy microbes and other harmful organisms, basing amounts on findings of MICROBIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.). Determines kinds and amounts of chemicals to be used in removing minerals, acids, salts, and other inorganic compounds from water to soften it. Tests samples extracted from various points in distribution system, such as mains, tanks, pumps, and outlets, to discover possible sources of water contamination.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

022.281-018 LABORATORY TESTER (plastic-synth.)

Examines, measures, photographs, and tests synthetic fiber samples to facilitate quality control of forming, treating, and texturing processes, performing any combination of following tasks: Dips several twisted threads in melted wax and directs stream of cold water over threads to congeal wax. Slices threads crosswise, using microtome. Dissolves wax, using solvent, and positions thread sample on microscope slide. Inserts slide in microscope and photographs sample, using standard microphotographic equipment and techniques. Develops, prints, and labels photographs. Analyzes photographs to determine whether structure and other characteristics of thread meet plant standards. Determines tensile strength of thread samples, using device that draws material between two jaws until breakage occurs. Measures cross-sectional area of thread samples, using planimeter. Immerses samples in water, corrosives, or cleaning agents to detect shrinkage or damage. Places thread samples in dye bath to evaluate permeability of dye and exposes samples to controlled light source to ascertain fade resistance. Prepares and submits reports of findings to production personnel to facilitate quality control of product.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

022.381-010 YEAST-CULTURE DEVELOPER (beverage)

Selects and cultivates yeast cells to develop pure yeast culture for brewing beer and malt liquors: Samples beer in fermenting stages to select specimens containing yeast cells having specific reproduction characteristics. Prepares cover glasses and slides with smears of yeast preparation taken from beer samples. Examines slides under microscope to isolate specific cells and record position of cells. Incubates slides to allow colonies of cells to form. Inoculates cells with hopped wort, using sterile needle to transfer cells from slides to flasks containing wort. Cultivates cells in flasks by incubation and propagates single cell cultures by transferring cells to additional flasks. Siphons developing yeast culture from flasks to tanks and pumps yeast culture from tanks to sterile barrels. Seals barrels with sterile bung and packs sealed barrels in dry ice to prevent yeast degeneration. Cleans and sterilizes equipment.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the investigation of the laws of matter and energy and their application to problems in such fields as science, engineering, medicine, environment, and production.

023.061-010 ELECTRO-OPTICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research and plans development and design of gas and solid state lasers, masers, infrared, and other light emitting and light sensitive devices: Designs electronic circuitry and optical components with specific characteristics to fit within specified mechanical limits and to perform according to specifications. Designs suitable mounts for optics and power supply systems. Incorporates methods for maintenance and repair of components and designs, and develops test instrumentation and test procedures. Confers with engineering and technical personnel regarding fabrication and testing of prototype systems, and modifies design as required. May conduct application analysis to determine commercial, industrial, scientific, medical, military, or other use for electro-optical devices. May assist with development of manufacturing, assembly, and fabrication processes.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

023.061-014 PHYSICIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research into phases of physical phenomena, develops theories and laws on basis of observation and experiments, and devises methods to apply laws and theories of physics to industry, medicine, and other fields: Performs experiments with masers, lasers, cyclotrons, betatrons, telescopes, mass spectrometers, electron microscopes, and other equipment to observe structure and properties of matter, transformation and propagation of energy, relationships between matter and energy, and other physical phenomena. Describes and expresses observations and conclusions in mathematical terms. Devises procedures for physical testing of materials. Conducts instrumental analyses to determine physical properties of materials. May specialize in one or more branches of physics and be designated Physicist, Acoustics (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Astrophysics (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Atomic, Electronic And Molecular (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Cryogenics (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Electricity And Magnetism (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Fluids (profess. & kin.). May be designated: Physicist, Light And Optics (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Nuclear (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Plasma (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Solid Earth (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Solid State (profess. & kin.); Physicist, Thermodynamics (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

023.067-010 PHYSICIST, THEORETICAL (profess. & kin.)

Designs, conceives, and interprets experiments in physics and formulates theories consistent with data obtained: Analyzes results of experiments designed to detect and measure previously unobserved physical phenomena. Applies mathematical methods to solution of physical problems.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the investigation of the composition, structure, and physical and biological history of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge in such fields as archeology, mining, construction, and environmental impact. Typical specializations are ecomonic geology, historical geology, mineralogy, mining geology, paleontology, petroleum geology, petrology, physiography, structural geology, subsurface geology.

024.061-010 CRYSTALLOGRAPHER (clock & watch)

Conducts studies of nonmetallic minerals used in horological industry. Performs experimental research concerned with projects, such as development of diamond tools and dies, fabrication of jeweled bearings, and development of grinding $T3laps III$T1 and wheels. Tests industrial diamonds and abrasives to determine grain size, pattern, crystalline orientation, goniometric features and other factors in order to appraise their suitability for use, using optical, x-ray, and other precision instruments. Repairs diamond and abrasive tools. Develops improved methods of fabricating silicon-carbide compounds into bearings and investigates substitution of other materials.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-014 GEODESIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies size, shape, and gravitational field of earth: Employs surveying and geodetic instruments, such as transits, theodolites, and other engineering instruments, in setting up and improving network of triangulation over earth's surface, in order to provide fixed points for use in making maps. Establishes bench marks (known points of elevation). Performs gravimetric surveying to determine variations in earth's gravitational field, and provides data used in determination of weight, size, and mass of earth.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-018 GEOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies composition, structure, and history of earth's crust: Examines rocks, minerals, and fossil remains to identify and determine sequence of processes affecting development of earth. Applies knowledge of chemistry, physics, biology, and mathematics to explain these phenomena and to help locate mineral, geothermal, and petroleum deposits and underground water resources. Studies ocean bottom. Applies geological knowledge to engineering problems encountered in construction projects, such as dams, tunnels, and large buildings. Studies fossil plants and animals to determine their evolutionary sequence and age. Prepares geologic reports and maps, interprets research data, and recommends further study or action. May specialize in area of study and be designated Geomorphologist (profess. & kin.); Oceanographer, Geological (profess. & kin.); Photogeologist (profess. & kin.). May conduct or participate in environmental studies and prepare environmental reports. Workers applying principles of rock and soil mechanics for engineering projects may be designated Geological Engineer (profess. & kin.). Workers applying all branches of geologic knowledge to conditions that affect planning, design, construction, operation and safety to engineering projects may be designated Engineering Geologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-022 GEOLOGIST, PETROLEUM (petrol. & gas)

Explores and charts stratigraphic arrangement and structure of earth to locate gas and oil deposits: Studies well logs, analyzes cores and cuttings from well drillings, and interprets data obtained by electrical or radioactive well logging and other subsurface surveys to identify earth strata. Examines aerial photographs, evaluates results of geophysical prospecting, and prepares surface and subsurface maps and diagrams depicting stratigraphic arrangement and composition of earth and probable deposits of gas and oil. Recommends acquisition, retention, or release of property leases or contracts. Estimates oil reserves in proven or prospective fields, and consults with PETROLEUM ENGINEERS (petrol. & gas) concerning drilling and production methods. May direct drilling of shallow exploratory wells.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-026 GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTOR (petrol. & gas)

Studies structure of subsurface rock formations to locate petroleum deposits: Conducts research, using geophysical instruments such as seismograph, gravimeter, torsion balance, and magnetometer, pendulum devices, and electrical-resistivity apparatus to measure characteristics of earth. Computes variations in physical forces existing at different locations and interprets data to reveal subsurface structures likely to contain petroleum deposits. Prepares charts, profiles or subsurface contour maps, and determines desirable locations for drilling operations. Directs field crews drilling boreholes and collecting samples of rock and soil for chemical analysis of hydrocarbon content. May specialize in particular instrumentation and be designated Electrical Prospector (petrol. & gas); Gravity Prospector (petrol. & gas); Magnetic Prospector (petrol. & gas); Seismic Prospector (petrol. & gas).
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-030 GEOPHYSICIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies physical aspects of earth, including its atmosphere and hydrosphere: Investigates and measures seismic, gravitational, electrical, thermal, and magnetic forces affecting earth, utilizing principles of physics, mathematics, and chemistry. Analyzes data obtained to compute shape of earth, estimate composition and structure of earth's interior, determine flow pattern of ocean tides and currents, study physical properties of atmosphere, and help locate petroleum and mineral deposits. Investigates origin and activity of glaciers, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Compiles data to prepare navigational charts and maps, predict atmospheric conditions, prepare environmental reports, and establish water supply and flood-control programs. May study specific aspect of geophysics and be designated Geomagnetician (profess. & kin.); Glaciologist (profess. & kin.); Oceanographer, Physical (profess. & kin.); Tectonophysicist (profess. & kin.); Volcanologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-034 HYDROLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies distribution, disposition, and development of waters of land areas, including form and intensity of precipitation, and modes of return to ocean and atmosphere: Maps and charts water flow and disposition of sediment. Measures changes in water volume due to evaporation and melting of snow. Studies storm occurrences and nature and movement of glaciers, and determines rate of ground absorption and ultimate disposition of water. Evaluates data obtained in reference to such problems as flood and drought forecasting, soil and water conservation programs, and planning water supply, water power, flood control, drainage, irrigation, crop production, and inland navigation projects.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-038 MINERALOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Examines, analyzes, and classifies minerals, gems, and precious stones: Isolates specimen from ore, rocks, or matrices. Makes microscopic examination to determine shape, surface markings, and other physical characteristics. Performs physical and chemical tests and makes x-ray examinations to determine composition of specimen and type of crystalline structure. Identifies and classifies samples. Develops data and theories on mode of origin, occurrence, and possible uses of minerals.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-042 PALEONTOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies fossilized remains of plants and animals found in geological formations to trace evolution and development of past life and identify geological formations according to nature and chronology: Recovers and assembles fossilized specimens, notes their positions, and classifies them according to their botanical or zoological family and probable age. Prepares treatises on findings for furtherance of scientific study, or as in aid to location of natural resources, such as petroleum-bearing formations. May organize scientific expeditions and supervise removal of fossils from deposits and matrix rock formations. May specialize in study of plant fossils and be designated Paleobotanist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in study of fossilized micro-organisms and be designated Micropaleontologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-046 PETROLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Investigates composition, structure, and history of rock masses forming earth's crust. Applies findings to such fields of investigation as causes of formations, breaking down and weathering, chemical composition and forms of deposition of sedimentary rocks, methods of eruption, and origin and causes of metamorphosis.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-050 SEISMOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies and interprets seismic data to locate earthquakes and earthquake faults: Reviews, analyzes, and interprets data from seismographs and geophysical instruments. Establishes existence and activity of faults, and direction, motion, and stress of earth movements before, during, and after earthquakes. Conducts research on seismic forces affecting deformative movements of earth. May issue maps or reports indicating areas of seismic risk to existing or proposed construction or development.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.061-054 STRATIGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

Studies relative position and order of succession of deposits containing or separating archaeological fossil or plant material. Studies relation of life of past ages, evolutionary changes as recorded by fossil animals and plants, and successive changes in distribution of land and sea as interpreted from character of fossil content of sedimentary rocks.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

024.161-010 ENGINEER, SOILS (profess. & kin.)

Studies and analyzes surface and subsurface soils to determine characteristics for construction, development, or land planning: Inspects proposed construction site, and sets up test equipment and drilling machinery to obtain data and soil and rock samples. Analyzes data and soil samples through field and laboratory analysis, to determine type, classification, characteristics, and stability of soil. Computes bearing weights, prepares maps, charts, and reports of test results. May make recommendations regarding foundation design, slope angles, grading or building heights. May participate in environmental studies and prepare environmental impact reports.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

024.167-010 GEOPHYSICAL-LABORATORY CHIEF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: director, geophysical laboratory; engineer, geophysical laboratory; research engineer, geophysical laboratory; superintendent, geophysical laboratory

Plans, directs, and coordinates research activities of geophysical laboratory to develop new or improved instruments and methods for measuring physical characteristics of earth's crust which provide data for petroleum or mineral exploration: Consults with management and field and laboratory technical personnel to determine specific phases of geophysical prospecting in which improved processes might be evolved by study and experimentation. Plans research programs and initiates and directs experiments to improve prospecting procedures, explore possibilities of new theories, and develop improved or new instruments. Directs and coordinates activities concerned with designing, building, and field testing experimental instruments and maintenance and repair of laboratory and prospecting instruments.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

024.267-010 GEOLOGICAL AIDE (petrol. & gas)

Examines and compiles geological information to provide technical data to GEOLOGIST, PETROLEUM (petrol. & gas) 024.061-022, using surface and subsurface maps, oil and gas well activity reports, and sand and core analysis studies: Studies geological reports to extract well data and posts data to maps and logs. Draws subsurface formation contours on charts to lay out and prepare geological cross section charts. Compiles information regarding well tests, completions, and formation tops to prepare oil or gas well records. Records net sand and sand percentage counts and calculates isopachous values to compile sand analysis data. Studies directional logs and surveys to calculate and plot formation tops. Reads well activity reports and records key well locations in drilling activity book. Assembles and distributes prepared charts, maps, and reports to geologist requesting material. Maintains file record systems and geological library. Attends SCOUT (petrol. & gas) 010.267-010 meeting to compile information on well activity. Contacts competitors to acquire oil and gas samples from wells. Operates computer terminal for input and retrieval of geological data.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

024.284-010 PROSPECTOR (any industry)

Explores likely regions to discover valuable mineral deposits, using topographical maps, surveys, reports, and knowledge of geology and mineralogy: Examines outcrops, placer, and stream channels for mineral content. Drills, dynamites, or digs trenches or pits along rock formations or creek beds to obtain rock samples. Breaks off samples and tests them for presence of minerals with heat, acid, magnifying glass, or by pulverizing and washing or panning. Assays samples for preliminary quantitative estimate. Collects data on rock formations, using geophysical instruments and devices, such as geiger counters and electronic sounding equipment, and determines feasibility of staking and developing claim. Stakes claim according to federal or state legal requirements. Develops mineral deposits by means of placer or hard rock mining. May sell interests in discovered areas.
GOE: 05.03.04 STRENGTH: H GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

024.364-010 PALEONTOLOGICAL HELPER (profess. & kin.)

Prepares, classifies, and sorts rock and fossil specimens: Records receipt of fossil and rock samples from outcroppings, quarries, oil or gas wells, boreholes, or other sources. Cleans, washes, and prepares samples, using probes, brushes, or cleaning solutions to remove extraneous matter. Separates rock and fossil specimens and classifies them into general categories of fossilization. Compiles background data of rock or fossil. Sacks and labels specimens. Mounts specimen for study or experimentation.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M2 L2 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

024.381-010 to 079.131-010

    This category includes occupations concerned with the theoretical or practical aspects of such fields of human endeavor as art, science, engineering, education, medicine, law, business relations, and administrative, managerial, and technical work. Most of these occupations require substantial educational preparation (usually at the university, junior college, or technical institute level).

024.381-010 LABORATORY ASSISTANT (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: analyst, geochemical prospecting; core analyst; laboratory tester

Tests sand, shale, and other earth materials to determine petroleum and mineral content and physical characteristics: Performs routine chemical or physical tests of earth samples in field or laboratory to determine content of hydrocarbon or other minerals indicating presence of petroleum and mineral deposits. Tests core samples brought up during well drilling to determine permeability and porosity of sample, fluid content of sand and shale, salinity of drilling mud, and other conditions affecting oil well drilling operations.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the investigation of atmospheric phenomena with specializations, such as synoptic meteorology, climatology, dynamic meteorology, physical meteorology, radar and radio meteorology, and hydrometeorology.

025.062-010 METEOROLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: weather forecaster

Analyzes and interprets meteorological data gathered by surface and upper-air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: Studies and interprets synoptic reports, maps, photographs, and prognostic charts to predict long and short range weather conditions. Operates computer graphic equipment to produce weather reports and maps for analysis, distribution to users, or for use in televised weather broadcast. Issues hurricane and other severe weather warnings. May broadcast weather forecast over television or radio. May prepare special forecasts and briefings for particular audiences, such as those involved in air and sea transportation, agriculture, fire prevention, air-pollution control, and school groups. May direct forecasting services at weather station, or at radio or television broadcasting facility. May conduct basic or applied research in meteorology. May establish and staff weather observation stations.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

025.264-010 HYDROGRAPHER (waterworks)

Analyzes hydrographic data to determine trends in movement and utilization of water: Reads meters and gauges to measure waterflow and pressure in streams, conduits, and pipelines, and records data. Measures water level in lakes, reservoirs, and tanks. Calculates seepage and evaporation rates for dams and reservoirs. Measures depth of water in wells and test holes to determine ground water level. Measures snow characteristics to evaluate water yield from snow runoff. Prepares graphs and charts to illustrate water patterns. Positions sluice gates to direct water onto spreading grounds. Installs, calibrates, and maintains metering instruments. Recommends locations for metering stations and instrument placement.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

025.267-010 OCEANOGRAPHER, ASSISTANT (military ser.)

Analyzes and records oceanographic and meteorological data to forecast changes in weather or sea condition: Collects weather and oceanographic data, using meteorological and oceanographic equipment and visual observation. Sketches surface weather charts, upper air charts, sea condition charts, and other charts and maps to indicate weather and sea conditions. Prepares and forecasts warnings of severe and hazardous weather and sea conditions and prepares briefings of current and predicted environmental conditions and their effect on military operations. Performs preventative maintenance on meteorological and oceanographic equipment.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

025.267-014 WEATHER OBSERVER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: meteorological technician

Observes and records weather conditions for use in forecasting: Periodically observes general weather, sky and visibility conditions, and reads weather instruments including thermometers, barometers, and hygrometers to ascertain elements, such as temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind velocity, and precipitation. Transmits and receives weather data from other stations over teletype machine. May collect upper-air data on temperature, humidity, and winds, using weather balloon and radiosonde equipment. May conduct pilot briefings.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with mathematics and the physical sciences.

029.067-010 GEOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

Studies nature and use of areas of earth's surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena: Conducts research on physical and climatic aspects of area or region, making direct observation of landforms, climates, soils, plants, and animals within area under study and incorporating available knowledge from related scientific fields, such as physics, geology, oceanography, meteorology, and biology. Studies human activities within given area, such as ethnic distribution, economic activity, and political organization. Acts as adviser or consultant to governments and international organizations on subjects, such as economic exploitation of regions and determination of ethnic and natural boundaries between nations or administrative areas. May use surveying equipment or meteorological instruments. May construct and interpret maps, graphs, and diagrams. May specialize in particular branch of cultural geography, such as economic, political, urban, social, or historical geography.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

029.067-014 GEOGRAPHER, PHYSICAL (profess. & kin.)

Studies origins, nature, and distribution of features of earth's surface, including landforms, climates, soils, plants, and animals: Makes surveys of physical characteristics of specific regions, conducting studies of features, such as elevations, drainage, geological formations, climate, vegetation, and access to other regions. May conduct environmental studies and prepare environmental impact reports.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

029.081-010 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: environmental scientist

Conducts research studies to develop theories or methods of abating or controlling sources of environmental pollutants, utilizing knowledge of principles and concepts of various scientific and engineering disciplines: Determines data collection methods to be employed in research projects and surveys. Plans and develops research models, using knowledge of mathematical, statistical, and physical science concepts and approaches. Identifies and analyzes sources of pollution to determine their effects. Collects and synthesizes data derived from pollution emission measurements, atmospheric monitoring, meteorological and mineralogical information, and soil or water samples. Prepares graphs, charts, and statistical models from synthesized data, using knowledge of mathematical, statistical, and engineering analysis techniques. Analyzes data to assess pollution problems, establish standards, and develop approaches for control of pollution. May be designated according to aspect of environment in which engaged as Air Pollution Analyst (profess. & kin.); Soils Analyst (profess. & kin.); Water Quality Analyst (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

029.081-014 MATERIALS SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts scientific studies for understanding, characterizing and developing materials leading to potential uses for the benefit of science and emerging technologies: Conducts programs for studying structures and properties of various materials, such as metals, alloys, ceramics, semiconductors and polymers to obtain research data. Plans experimental laboratory production of materials having special characteristics to confirm feasibility of processes and techniques for potential users. Prepares reports of materials studies for information of other scientists and requestors. May guide technical staff engaged in developing materials for specific use in projected product or device.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

029.167-010 AERIAL-PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETER (government ser.)

Analyzes aerial photographs to detect significant military, industrial, resource, or topographical data: Studies photographs to locate enemy positions, camouflaged military installations and equipment, roads, industrial centers, rivers, wooded areas, and to determine nature of terrain. Interprets photographs to evaluate enemy strength and to predict military intentions. May draw maps for use of field commanders in planning deployment of troops. May interpret photographs for timber evaluation, water shed management, construction, or mining. May request enlargement of photograph for more detailed analysis. May use computers and data banks to store, retrieve, and compare information.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


Plans, directs, and coordinates activities of staff involved in developing procedures, equipment, and techniques to solve pollution problems, using scientific research methods: Schedules and assigns duties to staff research scientists and engineers based on evaluation of their knowledge of specific disciplines. Confers with project scientists and research engineers to formulate research plan, coordinate project activities, and establish reporting procedures. Prepares environmental research project feasibility and progress reports. Coordinates activities of research personnel conducting successive phases of problem analysis, solution proposals, and testing. Reviews technical aspects of project to assist staff and assess productivity of lines of research. Reviews project operations to ensure coordination of efforts and timely submission of reports. Analyzes reports to evaluate program effectiveness and budgetary needs. Approves expenditures necessary for completion of project. Coordinates planning, testing, and operating phases to complete project. Confers with local regulatory agencies to discover local environmental quality standards, industrial practices, and new developments in pollution abatement. May provide technical assistance to agencies conducting related environmental studies.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

029.261-010 LABORATORY TESTER (any industry)

Performs laboratory tests according to prescribed standards to determine chemical and physical characteristics or composition of solid, liquid, or gaseous materials for such purposes as quality control, process control, or product development: Sets up, adjusts and operates laboratory equipment and instruments, such as microscopes, centrifuge, agitators, viscosimeter, chemical balance scales, spectrophotometer, gas chromatograph, colorimeter, and other equipment. Tests materials used as ingredients in adhesives, cement, propellants, lubricants, refractories, synthetic rubber, plastics, paint, paper, cloth, and other products for such qualities as purity, stability, viscosity, density, absorption, burning rate, and melting or flash point. Tests solutions used in processes, such as anodizing, waterproofing, cleaning, bleaching, and pickling for chemical concentration, specific gravity, or other characteristics. Tests materials for presence and content of elements or substances, such as hydrocarbons, manganese, natural grease, tungsten, sulfur, cyanide, ash, dust, or impurities. Tests samples of manufactured products to verify conformity to specifications. Records test results on standardized forms and writes test reports describing procedures used. Cleans and sterilizes laboratory equipment. May prepare graphs and charts. May prepare chemical solutions according to standard formulas. May add chemicals or raw materials to process solutions or product batches to correct or establish formulation required to meet specifications. May calibrate laboratory instruments. May be designated according to product or material tested. For testing of food products see FOOD TESTER (any industry) 029.361-014.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

029.261-014 POLLUTION-CONTROL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: environmental technician

Conducts tests and field investigations to obtain data for use by environmental, engineering, and scientific personnel in determining sources and methods of controlling pollutants in air, water, and soil, utilizing knowledge of agriculture, chemistry, meteorology, and engineering principles and applied technologies: Conducts chemical and physical laboratory and field tests according to prescribed standards to determine characteristics or composition of solid, liquid, or gaseous materials and substances, using pH meter, chemicals, autoclaves, centrifuge, spectrophotometer, microscope, analytical instrumentation, and chemical laboratory equipment. Collects samples of gases from smokestacks, and collects other air samples and meteorological data to assist in evaluation of atmospheric pollutants. Collects water samples from streams and lakes, or raw, semiprocessed or processed water, industrial waste water, or water from other sources to assess pollution problem. Collects soil, silt, or mud to determine chemical composition and nature of pollutants. Prepares sample for testing, records data, and prepares summaries and charts for review. Sets monitoring equipment to provide flow of information. Installs, operates, and performs routine maintenance on gas and fluid flow systems, chemical reaction systems, mechanical equipment, and other test instrumentation. May operate fixed or mobile monitoring or data collection station. May conduct bacteriological or other tests related to research in environmental or pollution control activity. May collect and analyze engine exhaust emissions to determine type and amount of pollutants and be designated Engine Emission Technician (profess. & kin.). May specialize in one phase or type of environmental pollution or protection and be identified according to specialty.
GOE: 05.03.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.261-018 TEST-ENGINE OPERATOR (petrol. refin.) alternate titles: research-test-engine operator

Subjects petroleum fuels and lubricants to simulated operating conditions in full-scale test engines to obtain evaluating data: Runs tests with gasoline, diesel, aviation, and supercharged research test engines, dynamometers, and other mechanical testing equipment, varying such factors as speed, temperature, load, fuel, and bearing, motor, or chassis lubricants as specified. Records horsepower ratings and other performance data. Tests fuels in standardized knock-rating test engines to obtain data for determination of octane or cetene values. Adjusts and makes minor repairs to engines during test runs.
GOE: 05.03.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.261-022 TESTER (petrol. refin.) alternate titles: crude tester; gas analyst; laboratory inspector; laboratory technician; laboratory tester; oil tester

Tests and analyzes samples of crude oil and petroleum products during processing stages, using laboratory apparatus, testing equipment, and following standard test procedures to determine physical and chemical properties and ensure products meet quality control standards: Tests samples of crude and blended oils, gases, asphalts, and pressure distillates to determine characteristics, such as boiling, vapor, freeze, condensation, flash and aniline points, viscosity, specific gravity, penetration, doctor solution, distillation, and corrosion, using test and laboratory equipment, such as hydrometers, fractionators, distillation apparatus, and analytical scales. Analyzes content of products to determine presence of gases, such as propane, iso-butane, butane, iso-pentane, and ethene. Determines hydrocarbon composition of gasolines, blending stocks and gases, using fractional distillation equipment, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometer. Operates fractionation column to separate crude oil into oils with different boiling points to determine their properties. Analyzes composition of products to determine quantitative presence of gum, sulfur, aromatics, olefins, water, and sediment. Compares color of liquid product with charts to determine processing factors measurable by color. May test air and water samples to detect industrial pollutants.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.261-026 CRIMINALIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: crime laboratory analyst; police chemist

Applies scientific principles to analysis, identification, and classification of mechanical devices, chemical and physical substances, materials, liquids, or other physical evidence related to criminology, law enforcement, or investigative work: Searches for, collects, photographs, and preserves evidence. Performs variety of analytical examinations, utilizing chemistry, physics, mechanics, and other sciences. Analyzes items, such as paint, glass, printed matter, paper, ink, fabric, dust, dirt, gases, or other substances, using spectroscope, microscope, infrared and ultraviolet light, microphotography, gas chromatograph, or other recording, measuring, or testing instruments. Identifies hair, skin, tissue, blood, bones, or human organs. Examines and classifies explosives, firearms, bullets, shells, and other weapons. Interprets laboratory findings relative to drugs, poisons, narcotics, alcohol, or other compounds ingested or injected into body. Reconstructs crime scene, preserving marks or impressions made by shoes, tires, or other objects by plaster or moulage casts. Prepares reports or presentations of findings, methods, and techniques used to support conclusions, and prepares results for court or other formal hearings. May testify as expert witness on evidence or crime laboratory techniques. Confers with experts in such specialties as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, documents, electronics, metallurgy, biochemistry, medicine, or others.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 78

029.280-010 PHOTO-OPTICS TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Sets up and operates photo-optical instrumentation to record and photograph data for scientific and engineering projects: Operates and calibrates photo-optical equipment according to formalized procedures, maintenance manuals, and schematic diagrams. Operates test equipment and performs analysis of data for engineering and scientific personnel. May install and calibrate optical and photographic data collection equipment in missiles, aircraft, weaponry, weather or communication satellites, underwater devices, or other installations. May evaluate adequacy of data obtained to determine need for future changes in instrumentation. May modify existing equipment and participate in planning and testing modified equipment and instrumentation procedures.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.361-010 BOTTLE-HOUSE QUALITY-CONTROL TECHNICIAN (beverage) alternate titles: quality-control technician

Performs physical measuring and chemical analysis tests of packaged beer and materials in quality control laboratory of brewery bottle house: Selects test samples of crowns, cans, lids, bottles, labels, and cartons from packaging lines following established procedures as to time, place, and sequence. Measures dimensions of crowns, cans, bottles, lids, and labels with scales and micrometers. Conducts abrasion tests on cans, lids, bottles, crowns, and labels with abrasion machine. Measures hardness of crowns, lids, and cans, using hardness tester. Measures bursting strength of bottles, using hydraulic bursting machine. Tests wet and dry tearing strengths of labels and cartons. Weighs filled cans and bottles to measure volume of beer. Records test results and prepares graphs and charts.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.361-014 FOOD TESTER (any industry)

Performs standardized qualitative and quantitative tests to determine physical or chemical properties of food or beverage products, or to ensure compliance with company or government quality standards: Conducts standardized tests of food, beverages, additives, and preservatives for flavor, color, texture, nutritional value, or other factors, using incubator, autoclave, ovens, balance scales, refractometer, or other equipment. Tests flavoring and spices for moisture, oil content, coloring, and pungency, using spectrophotometer, stereomicroscope, and ovens. Tests production samples of food for compliance with standards, using spectrometer, pH meter, distillation equipment, balance scales, and other equipment. Refers to tables or computes such factors as moisture, salt content, sediment, or solubility. Smells samples of food for odors or tastes for prescribed flavor. Observes sample smear, sediment disk, or agar sample through microscope to identify bacterial or extraneous matter. Compares test results with standards and records results. Cleans laboratory equipment. May mix ingredients to make reagents. May operate calculating machine to compute percentages of ingredients in finished product. May be identified according to quality or product tested.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 79

029.361-018 LABORATORY ASSISTANT (utilities) alternate titles: laboratory technician

Performs standardized physical and chemical tests on materials and supplies used throughout power system to ensure compliance with specifications: Tests water used in boilers of steam generating plant for alkalinity and silica and phosphate content, using colorimeter and spectrophotometer. Notifies POWER-PLANT OPERATOR (utilities) or AUXILIARY-EQUIPMENT OPERATOR (utilities) of amount of chemical additives required to bring water to prescribed level of purity. Tests coal to determine Btu content by burning coal samples in colorimeter. Tests oil used in circuit breakers for dielectric strength by placing sample of oil in ceramic cup positioned between two electrodes, and measuring current conducted by oil, using ohmmeter. Ascertains heat resisting qualities of insulating paints and varnishes by coating pieces of sheet metal with paint and varnish and subjecting them to high temperatures. May determine viscosity index of lubricating oils, using viscosimeter. May inspect rubber protective equipment, such as aprons, gloves, and blankets for flaws.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.381-010 CLOTH TESTER (garment; textile)

Performs standardized chemical and physical tests on samples of cloth to verify adherence to specifications: Compares test results with specimens of cloth or prepared standard cards, graphs, or tables. Examines cloth microscopically or through magnifying glass to determine number of threads per inch, whether woven, warped or knitted, and to identify type of fibers, such as wool, nylon, cotton, polyester, acrylic, or a blend. Tests cloth for weight, fastness of dye, color, type of material, tensile strength, shrinkage, absorbency, or fire retardency, using special testing devices, chemicals, water, heat, drying oven, dehumidifier and scale. May test items, such as buttons, buckles, bindings, webbing, laces, and threads. May mix and apply chemicals to remove stains from garments or fabric soiled in manufacture or transit.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

029.381-014 LABORATORY ASSISTANT (textile) alternate titles: laboratory tester

Performs standardized laboratory tests to verify chemical characteristics or composition of textile fibers, yarns, and products, and materials used in processing textiles: Tests oil and soap products to determine fitness for use in cloth and yarn finishing processes. Tests dyed goods for stripping (removing dye). Tests greige goods to determine if goods are of specified quality for dyeing, printing, and finishing. Verifies dye formulas used to develop or match colors by dyeing samples of cloth, yarn or textile fibers, and determines fastness of dyes, using laboratory equipment. Tests raw stock for moisture content with meter-equipped probe. Verifies efficiency of scouring process by testing wool samples to determine percentage of natural greases removed, using scales, solvents, and ovens. Measures tear strength and wet and dry tensile strength, using tensile-testing equipment. Determines color value by subjecting material to lights. Visually inspects yarns and finished material. May classify finished product according to quality and estimate amount of mending required.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 80

029.383-010 PILOT, SUBMERSIBLE (any industry)

Pilots submersible craft to conduct research in fields of oceanography or marine biology, test capabilities and performance of craft and auxiliary equipment, or perform underwater activities, such as exploration, mapping, photography, or construction, salvage or rescue work: Plans and develops operational procedures or techniques in order to investigate and test theories, or carry out specific underwater activities. Conducts predive operational tests on craft, life support systems, and other equipment. Pilots and controls craft to carry out mission in accordance with operational plans. Conducts scientific tests on effect of underwater life, life support systems, and habitats on human or other animals. Performs maintenance and repair on underwater facilities, well-heads, or pipelines. Carries out specific salvage or rescue operations. May perform activities outside of craft, using scuba equipment [SCUBA DIVER (any industry)]. May prepare technical reports or provide data for use by scientific or engineering personnel.
GOE: 05.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


This division includes occupations concerned with the application of computers and computer languages and the utilization of the computer in the design and solution of business, scientific, engineering and other technical problems. This division does not include workers, such as accountants, stock brokers, and secretaries, who use computers to aid them in performing their work. Occupations concerned with the mathematical statement of problems for solution by computers are included in Group 020. Occupations concerned with the application of electronics and the principles of engineering to design and develop computing equipment are included in Group 003. Occupations concerned with writing user instructions for computer application programs are included in Group 131. Occupations concerned with training workers to use new or modified information processing procedures are included in Group 166. Occupations concerned with operating and monitoring computers are included in Group 213.


This group includes occupations concerned with the analysis and evaluation of procedures and processes to design a sequence of steps for processing data by a computer. These activities may require the conversion of a sequence of steps into a computer language code which will be processed by the computer. Included are testing, locating and correcting program errors, enhancing, maintaining, and executing the coded instructions.

030.062-010 SOFTWARE ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Researches, designs, and develops computer software systems, in conjunction with hardware product development, for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, and scientific applications, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis: Analyzes software requirements to determine feasibility of design within time and cost constraints. Consults with hardware engineers and other engineering staff to evaluate interface between hardware and software, and operational and performance requirements of overall system. Formulates and designs software system, using scientific analysis and $T3mathematical models$T1 to predict and measure outcome and consequences of design. Develops and directs software system testing procedures, programming, and documentation. Consults with customer concerning maintenance of software system. May coordinate installation of software system.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

030.162-010 COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: applications programmer; programmer, business

Converts data from project specifications and statements of problems and procedures to create or modify computer programs: Prepares, or receives from SYSTEMS ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 030.167-014, detailed workflow chart and diagram to illustrate sequence of steps that program must follow and to describe input, output, and logical operations involved. Analyzes workflow chart and diagram, applying knowledge of computer capabilities, subject matter, and symbolic logic. Confers with supervisor and representatives of departments concerned with program to resolve questions of program intent, data input, output requirements, and inclusion of internal checks and controls. Converts detailed logical flow chart to language processable by computer. Enters program codes into computer system. Inputs test data into computer. Observes computer monitor screen to interpret program operating codes. Corrects program errors, using methods such as modifying program or altering sequence of program steps. Writes instructions to guide operating personnel during production runs. Analyzes, reviews, and rewrites programs to increase operating efficiency or to adapt program to new requirements. Compiles and writes documentation of program development and subsequent revisions. May train workers to use program. May assist COMPUTER OPERATOR (clerical) 213.362-010 to resolve problems in running computer program. May work with SYSTEMS ANALYST (profess. & kin.) to obtain and analyze project specifications and flow charts. May direct and coordinate work of others to write, test, and modify computer programs.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

030.162-014 PROGRAMMER-ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: applications programmer-analyst

Plans, develops, tests, and documents computer programs, applying knowledge of programming techniques and computer systems: Evaluates user request for new or modified program, such as for financial or human resource management system, clinical research trial results, statistical study of traffic patterns, or analyzing and developing specifications for bridge design, to determine feasibility, cost and time required, compatibility with current system, and computer capabilities. Consults with user to identify current operating procedures and clarify program objectives. Reads manuals, periodicals, and technical reports to learn ways to develop programs that meet user requirements. Formulates plan outlining steps required to develop program, using structured analysis and design. Submits plans to user for approval. Prepares flowcharts and diagrams to illustrate sequence of steps program must follow and to describe logical operations involved. Designs computer terminal screen displays to accomplish goals of user request. Converts project specifications, using flowcharts and diagrams, into sequence of detailed instructions and logical steps for coding into language processable by computer, applying knowledge of computer programming techniques and computer languages. Enters program codes into computer system. Enters commands into computer to run and test program. Reads computer printouts or observes display screen to detect syntax or logic errors during program test, or uses diagnostic software to detect errors. Replaces, deletes, or modifies codes to correct errors. Analyzes, reviews, and alters program to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements. Writes documentation to describe program development, logic, coding, and corrections. Writes manual for users to describe installation and operating procedures. Assists users to solve operating problems. Recreates steps taken by user to locate source of problem and rewrites program to correct errors. May use computer-aided software tools, such as flowchart design and code generation, in each stage of system development. May train users to use program. May oversee installation of hardware and software. May provide technical assistance to program users. May install and test program at user site. May monitor performance of program after implementation. May specialize in developing programs for business or technical applications.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

030.162-018 PROGRAMMER, ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC (profess. & kin.)

Converts scientific, engineering, and other technical problem formulations to format processable by computer: Resolves symbolic formulations, prepares flow charts and block diagrams, and encodes resultant equations for processing by applying extensive knowledge of branch of science, engineering, or advanced mathematics, such as differential equations or numerical analysis, and understanding of capabilities and limitations of computer. Confers with other engineering and technical personnel to resolve problems of intent, inaccuracy, or feasibility of computer processing. Enters program into computer system. Reviews results of computer runs with interested personnel to determine necessity for modifications or reruns. Develops new subroutines or expands program to simplify statement, programming, or coding of future problems. May direct and coordinate activities of COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 working as part of project team.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

030.162-022 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.)

Coordinates installation of computer operating system software and tests, maintains, and modifies software, using computer terminal: Reads loading and running instructions for system software, such as task scheduling, memory management, computer file system, or controlling computer input and output, and loads tape into tape drive or transfers software to magnetic disk. Initiates test of system program and observes readout on monitor of computer system to detect errors or work stoppage. Enters code changes into computer system to correct errors. Analyzes performance indicators, such as system's response time, number of transactions per second, and number of programs being processed at once, to ensure that system is operating efficiently. Changes system software so that system performance will meet objectives. Reviews computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations to determine if requested changes to operating system are possible. Writes description of steps taken to modify system and procedures required to implement new software. Assists users having problems with use of system software. May train users, COMPUTER OPERATOR (clerical) 213.362-010, and COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 to use system software. May prepare workflow charts and diagrams to modify system software. May visit vendors to observe demonstration of systems software. May administer and monitor computer program that controls user access to system. May review productivity reports and problem records to evaluate performance of computer system.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

030.167-010 CHIEF, COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: coordinator, computer programming

Plans, schedules, and directs preparation of programs to process data and solve problems by use of computers: Consults with managerial and systems analysis personnel to clarify program intent, identify problems, suggest changes, and determine extent of programming and coding required. Assigns, coordinates, and reviews work of programming personnel. Develops programs from workflow charts or diagrams, considering factors, such as computer storage capacity and speed, extent of peripheral equipment, and intended use of output data. Converts workflow charts to language processable by computer. Enters program codes into computer. Enters test data into computer. Analyzes test runs on computer to correct or direct correction of coded program and input data. Revises or directs revision of existing programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements. Compiles documentation of program development and subsequent revisions. Trains subordinates in programming and program coding. Prescribes standards for terms and symbols used to simplify interpretation of programs. Collaborates with computer manufacturers and other users to develop new programming methods. Prepares records and reports.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

030.167-014 SYSTEMS ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

Analyzes user requirements, procedures, and problems to automate processing or to improve existing computer system: Confers with personnel of organizational units involved to analyze current operational procedures, identify problems, and learn specific input and output requirements, such as forms of data input, how data is to be summarized, and formats for reports. Writes detailed description of user needs, program functions, and steps required to develop or modify computer program. Reviews computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations to determine if requested program or program change is possible within existing system. Studies existing information processing systems to evaluate effectiveness and develops new systems to improve production or workflow as required. Prepares workflow charts and diagrams to specify in detail operations to be performed by equipment and computer programs and operations to be performed by personnel in system. Conducts studies pertaining to development of new information systems to meet current and projected needs. Plans and prepares technical reports, memoranda, and instructional manuals as documentation of program development. Upgrades system and corrects errors to maintain system after implementation. May assist COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 in resolution of work problems related to flow charts, project specifications, or programming. May prepare time and cost estimates for completing projects. May direct and coordinate work of others to develop, test, install, and modify programs.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90


This group includes occupations concerned with the evaluation of data communications and network hardware and software, coordinating data communications activities, and the transmission and reception of data or information sent electronically. Includes providing support to users of data communications. Occupations concerned with installing, maintaining, and repairing data communications equipment are included in Group 823.

031.132-010 SUPERVISOR, NETWORK CONTROL OPERATORS (any industry) alternate titles: data communications technician supervisor

Supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in monitoring or installing data communication lines and resolving user data communication problems: Distributes work assignments and monitors daily logs of NETWORK CONTROL OPERATORS (any industry) 031.262-014, using microcomputer. Explains data communications diagnostic and monitoring procedures to operators, using computer terminal and following vendor's equipment and software instructions. Explains and demonstrates installation of data communication lines and equipment to operators, using handtools and following vendor manuals. Enters diagnostic commands into computer and determines nature of problem to assist operators to resolve data communication problems. Enters record of actions taken to resolve problem in daily log, using microcomputer. Attends staff meetings to report on and resolve recurrent data communications problems. Attends vendor seminars to learn about changes in data communications technology. Performs other duties as described under SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 07.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

031.262-010 DATA COMMUNICATIONS ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

Researches, tests, evaluates, and recommends data communications hardware and software: Identifies areas of operation which need upgraded equipment, such as modems, fiber optic cables, and telephone wires. Conducts survey to determine user needs. Reads technical manuals and brochures to determine equipment which meets establishment requirements. Visits vendors to learn about available products or services. Tests and evaluates hardware and software to determine efficiency, reliability, and compatibility with existing system, using equipment such as computer terminal and modem. Analyzes test data and recommends hardware or software for purchase. Develops and writes procedures for installation, use, and solving problems of communications hardware and software. Monitors system performance. Trains users in use of equipment. Assists users to identify and solve data communication problems. May write technical specifications to send to vendors for bid. May oversee or assist in installation of communications hardware. May perform minor equipment repairs.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

031.262-014 NETWORK CONTROL OPERATOR (any industry)

Monitors data communications network to ensure that network is available to all system users and resolves data communications problems: Receives telephone call from user with data communications problem, such as failure of data to be transmitted to another location. Reviews procedures user followed to determine if specified steps were taken. Explains user procedures necessary to transmit data. Monitors modems and display screen of terminal to mainframe computer to detect error messages that signal malfunction in communications software or hardware. Enters diagnostic commands into computer to determine nature of problem, and reads codes on screen to diagnose problem. Attaches diagnostic equipment to phone line to learn if line meets specification. Reads technical reference manuals for communications hardware and software to learn cause of problem. Instructs user to enter specified commands into computer to resolve problem. Calls service technician for service when problem cannot be resolved. Enters operating commands into computer to restart program. Records number of daily data communications transactions and number of problems and actions taken, using computer terminal. Updates documentation to record new equipment installed, new sites, and changes to computer configurations. May inspect communications wires and cables. May train staff and users to use equipment. May coordinate installation of or install communications lines.
GOE: 07.06.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 90


This group includes occupations concerned with investigating, resolving, and explaining computer-related problems to users of computer systems. Occupations concerned with support for data communications users are included in Group 031.

032.132-010 USER SUPPORT ANALYST SUPERVISOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: help desk supervisor

Supervises and coordinates activities of workers who provide problem-solving support to computer users: Assists USER SUPPORT ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 032.262.010 in solving nonroutine software, hardware, and procedure problems, using computer and manuals. Talks with staff, computer users, supervisors, and managers to determine requirements for new or modified software and hardware. Writes recommendations for management review. Coordinates installation of hardware and software, and implementation of procedure changes. Performs duties described under SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

032.262-010 USER SUPPORT ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: customer service representative; end user consultant; help desk representative; information center specialist; office automation analyst

Investigates and resolves computer software and hardware problems of users: Receives telephone calls from users having problems using computer software and hardware or inquiring how to use specific software, such as statistical, graphics, data base, printing, word processing, programming languages, electronic mail, and operating systems. Talks to user to learn procedures followed and source of error. Answers questions, applying knowledge of computer software, hardware, and procedures. Asks user with problem to use telephone and participate in diagnostic procedures, using diagnostic software, or by listening to and following instructions. Determines whether problem is caused by hardware, such as modem, printer, cables, or telephone. Talks with coworkers to research problem and find solution. Talks to programmers to explain software errors or to recommend changes to programs. Calls software and hardware vendors to request service regarding defective products. Reads trade magazines and attends computer trade shows to obtain current information about computers. May test software and hardware to evaluate ease of use and whether product will aid user in performing work. May write software and hardware evaluation and recommendation for management review. May write or revise user training manuals and procedures. May develop training materials, such as exercises and visual displays. May train users on software and hardware on-site or in classroom, or recommend outside contractors to provide training. May install microcomputers, software, and peripheral equipment, following procedures and using handtools [MICROCOMPUTER SUPPORT SPECIALIST (profess & kin.) 039.264-010]. May work as in-house consultant and research alternate approaches to existing software and hardware when standardized approaches cannot be applied. May conduct office automation feasibility studies, including work flow analysis, space design, and cost comparison analysis. May specialize by type of software, computer language, or computer operating system.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 90


This group includes occupations concerned with providing technical support for computer systems, rather than to users of computer systems. Includes the development, installation, and maintenance of computer operating systems software.

033.162-010 COMPUTER SECURITY COORDINATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: data security coordinator; information security

Plans, coordinates, and implements security measures to safeguard information in computer files against accidental or unauthorized modification, destruction, or disclosure: Confers with computer user department personnel and COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 to plan data security for new or modified software, discussing issues, such as employee data access needs and risk of data loss or disclosure. Reviews plan to ensure compatibility of planned security measures with establishment computer security system software. Modifies security data files to incorporate new software security into establishment security software, using computer terminal, or meets with SYSTEMS PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-022 to request needed programming changes. Enters commands into computer in attempt to circumvent new security measures to test system. Reviews employee violations of computer security procedures recorded by computer and reports violations to user department managers or talks with employee to ensure that violation is not repeated. Coordinates implementation of vendor-issued security software update. Develops and writes computer security department policies and procedures. May assign computer access passwords to employees [COMPUTER SECURITY SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.) 033.362-010]. May develop, coordinate implementation of, and test plan to continue establishment data processing activities at off-site location in case of emergency, such as fire, at main site [DATA RECOVERY PLANNER (profess. & kin.) 033.162-014].
GOE: 11.10.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

033.162-014 DATA RECOVERY PLANNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: disaster recovery coordinator

Develops, coordinates implementation of, and tests plan to continue establishment data processing activities at off-site location in case of emergency, such as fire, at main site: Establishes priority of data processing activities according to importance to business. Determines hardware, software, data files, safe storage facilities, and other resources required. Develops plan to meet emergency data processing needs. Identifies personnel needed to implement plan. Presents plan to management and recommends means of obtaining required facilities, such as contracting with off-site vendor. Coordinates implementation of plan. Tests emergency data processing system, using computer and test data. Writes report to document test results and updates emergency recovery procedures.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

033.162-018 TECHNICAL SUPPORT SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: project development coordinator; technical operations specialist

Performs any combination of following duties to provide technical support to workers in information processing departments: Develops work goals and department projects. Assigns and coordinates work projects, such as converting to new hardware or software. Designates staff assignments, establishes work priorities, and evaluates cost and time requirements. Reviews completed projects or computer programs to ensure that goals are met and that programs are compatible with other programs already in use. Evaluates work load and capacity of computer system to determine feasibility of expanding or enhancing computer operations. Makes recommendations for improvements in computer system. Reviews and tests programs written by PROGRAMMER-ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 030.162-014 or COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 to ensure that programs meet objectives and specifications. Consults with QUALITY ASSURANCE ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 033.262-010 to ensure that program follows establishment standards. Modifies, tests, and corrects existing programs. Evaluates and tests vendor-supplied software packages for mainframe computer or microcomputers to determine compatibility with existing system, ease of use, and if software meets user needs. Enters commands into computer to place programs in production status. Inactivates, individually or in combination, each component of computer system, such as central processing unit, tape drives, and mainframe coolers. Tests computer system to determine criticality of component loss. Prioritizes importance of components and writes recommendations for recovering losses and using backup equipment. Assists user to resolve computer-related problems, such as inoperative hardware or software. Trains workers in use of new software or hardware. Reads technical journals or manuals and attends vendor seminars to learn about new computer hardware and software. Writes project reports and documentation for new or modified software and hardware.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

033.167-010 COMPUTER SYSTEMS HARDWARE ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: computer systems engineer; information processing engineer; methods analyst, data processing

Analyzes data processing requirements to plan data processing system that will provide system capabilities required for projected work loads, and plans layout and installation of new system or modification of existing system: Confers with data processing and project managers to obtain information on limitations and capabilities of existing system and capabilities required for data processing projects and projected work load. Evaluates factors such as number of departments serviced by data processing equipment, reporting formats required, volume of transactions, time requirements and cost constraints, and need for security and access restrictions to determine hardware configurations. Analyzes information to determine, recommend, and plan layout for type of computers and peripheral equipment, or modifications to existing equipment and system, that will provide capability for proposed project or work load, efficient operation, and effective use of allotted space. May enter data into computer terminal to store, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements. May specify power supply requirements and configuration. May recommend purchase of equipment to control dust, temperature, and humidity in area of system installation. May specialize in one area of system application or in one type or make of equipment. May train users to use new or modified equipment. May monitor functioning of equipment to ensure system operates in conformance with specifications.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

033.262-010 QUALITY ASSURANCE ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

Evaluates and tests new or modified software programs and software development procedures used to verify that programs function according to user requirements and conform to establishment guidelines: Writes, revises, and verifies quality standards and test procedures for program design and product evaluation to attain quality of software economically and efficiently. Reviews new or modified program, including documentation, diagram, and flow chart, to determine if program will perform according to user request and conform to guidelines. Recommends program improvements or corrections to programmers. Reviews computer operating log to identify program processing errors. Enters instructions into computer to test program for validity of results, accuracy, reliability, and conformance to establishment standards. Observes computer monitor screen during program test to detect error codes or interruption of program and corrects errors. Identifies differences between establishment standards and user applications and suggests modifications to conform to standards. Sets up tests at request of user to locate and correct program operating error following installation of program. Conducts compatibility tests with vendor-provided programs. Monitors program performance after implementation to prevent reoccurrence of program operating problems and ensure efficiency of operation. Writes documentation to describe program evaluation, testing, and correction. May evaluate proposed software or software enhancement for feasibility. May develop utility program to test, track, and verify defects in software program. May write programs to create new procedures or modify existing procedures. May train software program users.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

033.362-010 COMPUTER SECURITY SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.)

Regulates access to computer data files, monitors data file use, and updates computer security files: Enters commands into computer to allow access to computer system for employee who forgot password. Reads computer security files to determine whether denial of data access reported by employee is justified. Modifies security files to correct error, or explains that employee authorization does not permit access. Answers employee questions about computer security. Modifies security files to add new employees, delete former employees, and change employee name, following notice received from computer user departments and personnel office. Sends printouts listing employee data authorization to computer user departments to verify or correct information in security files. Reviews data use records and compares user names listed in records with employee authorization to ensure that all employees who accessed data files were entitled to do so. Deletes data access of unauthorized users, and for users who have not used data for specified time.
GOE: 11.10.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 89


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with computers.

039.162-010 DATA BASE ADMINISTRATOR (profess. & kin.)

Coordinates physical changes to computer data bases; and codes, tests, and implements physical data base, applying knowledge of data base management system: Designs logical and physical data bases [DATA BASE DESIGN ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 039.162-014] or reviews description of changes to data base design to understand how changes to be made affect physical data base (how data is stored in terms of physical characteristics, such as location, amount of space, and access method). Establishes physical data base parameters. Codes data base descriptions and specifies identifiers of data base to data base management system or directs others in coding data base descriptions. Calculates optimum values for data base parameters, such as amount of computer memory to be used by data base, following manuals and using calculator. Specifies user access level for each segment of one or more data items, such as insert, replace, retrieve, or delete data. Specifies which users can access data bases and what data can be accessed by user. Tests and corrects errors, and refines changes to data base. Enters codes to create production data base. Selects and enters codes of utility program to monitor data base performance, such as distribution of records and amount of available memory. Directs programmers and analysts to make changes to data base management system. Reviews and corrects programs. Answers user questions. Confers with coworkers to determine impact of data base changes on other systems and staff cost for making changes to data base. Modifies data base programs to increase processing performance, referred to as performance tuning. Workers typically specialize in one or more types of data base management systems. May train users.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

039.162-014 DATA BASE DESIGN ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

Designs logical and physical data bases and coordinates data base development as part of project team, applying knowledge of data base design standards and data base management system: Reviews project request describing data base user needs. Estimates time and cost required to accomplish project. Determines if project requires creating series of new programs or modifying existing programs that access data stored in data bases. Attends specification meeting with project team workers to determine scope and limitations of project. Reviews workflow chart developed by PROGRAMMER-ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 030.162-014 to understand tasks computer will perform, such as updating records. Reviews procedures in data base management system manuals for making changes to data base, such as defining, creating, revising, and controlling data base. Revises company definition of data as defined in data dictionary (information about data, including name, description, source of data item, and key words for categorizing and searching for data item descriptions). Determines and enters changes to data dictionary descriptions, including type, structure, and intended use of data within system, using computer or assigns data entry work to programmer. Develops data model describing data elements and how they are used, following procedures and using pen and template or computer software. Creates description to enable PROGRAMMER-ANALYST (profess. & kin.) to understand how programs should access data. Writes description of how user accesses data, referred to as logical data base. Writes physical data base description, such as location, space requirements, and access method, to protect company data resources against unauthorized access and accidental destruction, according to computer industry standards and knowledge of data base management system. May specialize in adding, deleting, and modifying data items in data dictionary and be designated Data Dictionary Administrator (profess. and kin.). Workers typically specialize in one or more types of data base management systems.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

039.264-010 MICROCOMPUTER SUPPORT SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.)

Installs, modifies, and makes minor repairs to microcomputer hardware and software systems and provides technical assistance and training to system users: Inspects microcomputer equipment and reads order sheet listing user requirements to prepare microcomputer for delivery. Installs or assists service personnel in installation of hardware and peripheral components, such as monitors, keyboards, printers, and disk drives on user's premises, following design or installation specifications. Loads specified software packages, such as operating systems, word processing, or spreadsheet programs into computer. Enters commands and observes system functions to verify correct system operation. Instructs user in use of equipment, software, and manuals. Answers client's inquiries in person and via telephone concerning systems operation; diagnoses system hardware, software, and operator problems; and recommends or performs minor remedial actions to correct problems based on knowledge of system operation. Replaces defective or inadequate software packages. Refers major hardware problems to service personnel for correction. Attends technical conferences and seminars to keep abreast of new software and hardware product developments.
GOE: 05.05.05 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 90


This division includes occupations concerned with research to increase basic knowledge of living organisms, including humans and the practical application of biological and behavioral theories.


This group includes occupations concerned with the application of scientific principles to problems related to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and environmental impact. Also includes development of improved methods in cultivation, processing, handling, and storing of products; land conservation practices; pest control; landscape planning; and related activities.

040.061-010 AGRONOMIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: crop-research scientist; crop scientist

Conducts experiments or investigations in field-crop problems and develops new methods of growing crops to secure more efficient production, higher yield, and improved quality: Plans and carries out breeding studies at experiment stations or farms to develop and improve varieties of field crops, such as cotton, tobacco, or cereal with respect to characteristics, such as yield, quality, adaptation to specific soils or climates, and resistance to diseases and pests [PLANT BREEDER (profess. & kin.)]. Studies crop production to discover best methods of planting, cultivation, harvesting, and effects of various climatic conditions on crops. Develops methods for control of noxious weeds, crop diseases, and insect pests [PLANT PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)]. May specialize in specific field crop, group of field crops, or specific agronomic problem.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-014 ANIMAL SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research in selection, breeding, feeding, management, and marketing of beef and dual-purpose cattle, horses, mules, sheep, dogs, goats, and pet animals: Develops improved practices in feeding, housing, sanitation, and parasite and disease control. Controls breeding practices to improve strains of animals. May specialize in animal nutritional research and be designated Animal Nutritionist (profess. & kin.). May be designated according to animal specialty.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-018 DAIRY SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research in selection, breeding, feeding, and management of dairy cattle: Studies feed requirements of dairy animals and nutritive value of feed materials. Carries out experiments to determine effects of different kinds of feed and environmental conditions on quantity, quality, and nutritive value of milk produced. Develops improved practices in care and management of dairy herds and use of improved buildings and equipment. Studies physiology of reproduction and lactation, and carries out breeding programs to improve dairy breeds [ANIMAL BREEDER (agriculture)]. May be designated according to specialty as Dairy-Management Specialist (profess. & kin.); Dairy-Nutrition Specialist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-022 DAIRY TECHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: dairy-manufacturing technologist; dairy-products technologist

Applies principles of bacteriology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and economics to develop new and improved methods in production, preservation, and utilization of milk, cheese, ice cream, and other dairy products: Conducts experiments in such problems as preventing bacterial increase in milk during handling and processing, improving pasteurization methods, and designing better packaging materials, dairy equipment, or supplies. May specialize according to product, as ice cream or cheese, or according to functional activity, as sanitation research or storage problems.
GOE: 02.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-026 FIBER TECHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies nature, origin, use, improvement, and processing methods of plant, animal, and synthetic fibers: Analyzes wool, mohair, cashmere, camel's hair, alpaca, bristles, feathers, and similar animal and fowl fibers, plant fibers, such as cotton, linen, and jute, and synthetic fibers and products made from these fibers. Applies principles of science to improve growth and quality of fibers. Conducts experiments in blending fibers and develops improved manufacturing methods for converting fibers into articles, such as cloth, felts, rugs, mattresses, and brushes. Conducts tests on fibrous structures for quality control, such as tensile strength and stability to heat, light, and chemicals. May be identified according to fibers studied.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-030 FOREST ECOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research in environmental factors affecting forests: Carries out studies to determine what conditions account for prevalence of different varieties of trees. Studies classification, life history, light and soil requirements, and resistance to disease and insects of different species. Investigates adaptability of different species to new environmental conditions, such as changes in soil type, climate, and altitude.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-038 HORTICULTURIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts experiments and investigations to determine methods of breeding, producing, storing, processing, and transporting of fruits, nuts, berries, vegetables, flowers, bushes, and trees: Experiments to develop new or improved varieties having higher yield, quality, nutritional value, resistance to disease, or adaptability to climates, soils, uses, or processes. Determines best methods of planting, spraying, cultivating, and harvesting. May specialize in research, breeding, production, or shipping and storage of fruits, nuts, berries, vegetables, ornamental plants, or other horticultural products and be identified according to specialty. May prepare articles and give lectures on horticultural specialty.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 79

040.061-042 POULTRY SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research in breeding, feeding, and management of poultry: Examines selection and breeding practices to increase efficiency of production and improve quality of poultry products [ANIMAL BREEDER (agriculture)]. Studies nutritional requirements of various classes of poultry. Develops improved practices in incubation, brooding, feeding, rearing, housing, artificial insemination, and disease and parasite prevention and control. Studies effects of management practices and processing methods on quality of eggs and other poultry products. May specialize in artificial insemination.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-046 RANGE MANAGER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: range-management specialist

Conducts research in range problems to provide sustained production of forage, livestock, and wildlife: Studies range lands to determine best grazing seasons and number and kind of livestock that can be most profitably grazed. Plans and directs construction and maintenance of range improvements, such as fencing, corrals, reservoirs for stock watering, and structures for soil-erosion control. Develops improved practices for range reseeding. Studies forage plants and their growth requirements to determine varieties best suited to particular range. Develops methods for controlling poisonous plants, and for protecting range from fire and rodent damage. May specialize in particular area and be designated Range Conservationist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-050 SILVICULTURIST (profess. & kin.)

Establishes and cares for forest stands: Manages tree nurseries and thins forests to encourage natural growth of sprouts or seedlings of desired varieties. Conducts research in such problems of forest propagation and culture as tree growth rate, effects of thinning on forest yield, duration of seed viability, and effects of fire and animal grazing on growth, seed production, and germination of different species. Develops techniques for measuring and identifying trees.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

040.061-054 SOIL CONSERVATIONIST (profess. & kin.)

Plans and develops coordinated practices for soil erosion control, moisture conservation, and sound land use: Conducts surveys and investigations on rural or urban planning, agriculture, construction, forestry, or mining on measures needed to maintain or restore proper soil management. Plans soil management practices, such as crop rotation, reforestation, permanent vegetation, contour plowing, or terracing as related to soil and water conservation. Prepares soil conservation plans in cooperation with state, county, or local government, farmers, foresters, miners, or urban planners to provide for use and treatment of land according to needs and capability. Applies principles of two or more specialized fields of science, such as agronomy, soil science, forestry, or agriculture to achieve objectives of conservation. May develop or participate in environmental studies.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-058 SOIL SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies soil characteristics and maps soil types, and investigates responses of soils to known management practices to determine use capabilities of soils and effects of alternative practices on soil productivity: Classifies soils according to standard types. Conducts experiments on farms or experimental stations to determine best soil types for different plants. Performs chemical analysis on micro-organism content of soil to determine microbial reactions and chemical and mineralogical relationship to plant growth. Investigates responses of specific soil types to tillage, fertilization, nutrient transformations, crop rotation, environmental consequences, water, gas or heat flow, industrial waste control and other soil management practices. Advises interested persons on rural or urban land use. May specialize in one or more types of activities relative to soil management and productivity and be designated Soil Fertility Expert (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-062 WOOD TECHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research to determine composition, properties, behavior, utilization, development, treatments, and processing methods of wood and wood products: Analyzes physical, chemical, and biological properties of wood. Studies methods of curing wood to determine best and most economical procedure. Develops and improves methods of seasoning, preservation, and treating wood with substances to increase resistance to wear, fire, fungi, insects, and marine borers. Conducts tests to determine ability of wood adhesives to withstand water, oil penetration, temperature extremes, and stability, strength, hardness and crystallinity of wood under variety of conditions. Evaluates and improves effectiveness of industrial equipment and production processes. Investigates processes for converting wood into commodities, such as alcohol, veneer, plywood, wood plastics, and other uses. Determines best type of wood for specific application, and investigates methods of turning waste wood materials into useful products. May specialize in research, quality control, marketing and sales, materials engineering, management or administration, manufacturing, production, or process development.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.167-010 FORESTER (profess. & kin.)

Manages and develops forest lands and resources for economic and recreational purposes: Plans and directs forestation and reforestation projects. Maps forest areas, estimates standing timber and future growth, and manages timber sales. Plans cutting programs to assure continuous production of timber or to assist timber companies achieve production goals. Determines methods of cutting and removing timber with minimum waste and environmental damage and suggests methods of processing wood for various uses. Directs suppression of forest fires and conducts fire-prevention programs. Plans and directs construction and maintenance of recreation facilities, fire towers, trails, roads, and fire breaks. Assists in planning and implementing projects for control of floods, soil erosion, tree diseases, and insect pests in forests [ENTOMOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) 041.061-046; PLANT PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) 041.061-086; SOIL CONSERVATIONIST (profess. & kin.) 040.061-054]. Advises landowners on forestry management techniques and conducts public educational programs on forest care and conservation. May participate in environmental studies and prepare environmental reports. May supervise activities of other forestry workers [SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title]. May patrol forests, enforce laws, and fight forest fires. May administer budgets. May conduct research to improve knowledge of forest management. May specialize in one aspect of forest management. May be designated Forestry Supervisor (profess. & kin.); Woods Manager (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 03.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

040.261-010 SOIL-CONSERVATION TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Provides technical assistance to land users in planning and applying soil and water conservation practices, utilizing basic engineering and surveying tools, instruments, and techniques and knowledge of agricultural and related sciences, such as agronomy, soil conservation, and hydrology: Analyzes conservation problems of land and discusses alternative solutions to problems with land users. Advises land users in developing plans for conservation practices, such as conservation cropping systems, woodlands management, pasture planning, and engineering systems, based on cost estimates of different practices, needs of land users, maintenance requirements, and life expectancy of practices. Computes design specification for particular practices to be installed, using survey and field information technical guides, engineering field manuals, and calculator. Submits copy of engineering design specifications to land users for implementation by land user or contractor. Surveys property to mark locations and measurements, using surveying instruments. Monitors projects during and after construction to ensure projects conform to design specifications. Periodically revisits land users to view implemented land use practices and plans.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


Measures purity and potency of animal semen to develop improved methods of processing and preserving for artificial insemination: Observes sample of freshly collected semen under microscope to determine mobility of sperm cells. Measures density, using densiometer. Adds measured amounts of extender, sodium citrate, and antibiotics to dilute and preserve sample. Transfers to refrigeration unit. Records data for use in compiling history of sire. Cleans and sterilizes laboratory equipment. Performs experimental tests, as directed, for purposes such as extension of cell survival rate and development of improved preservation processes. Cultivates, isolates, and identifies pathogenic bacteria and other micro-organisms in semen.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

040.361-014 SEED ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: farm-seed specialist

Tests seed for germination, purity, and weed content: Plants definite number of seeds in box of pure soil and counts number of plants that grow to calculate percentage of germination. Inspects seed with magnifying glass or microscope for chaff, bits of wood, and weed content (any seed other than the one under consideration).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with research in the reproduction, growth and development, structure, life processes, behavior, and classification of living organisms and the application of findings to the prevention of disease in the maintenance and promotion of health in plant and animal life. Also includes investigations into economic utilization, environmental impact, or harmful aspects of specific animals and plants.

041.061-010 ANATOMIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies form and structure of animal bodies: Examines large organs and organ systems of body by systematic observation and dissection, and examines minute structure of organs, tissues, and cells, using microscope. Compares structure of one species with that of another. Determines ability of animal bodies to regenerate destroyed or damaged parts, and investigates possibility of transplanting organs and skin segments from one living body to another. Conducts research into basic laws of biological science to determine application to human medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-014 ANIMAL BREEDER (profess. & kin.)

Develops systems of breeding desirable characteristics, such as improvement in strength, maturity rate, disease resistance, and meat quality, into economically important animals: Determines generic composition of animal populations, and heritability of traits, utilizing principles of genetics. Crossbreeds animals within existing strains, or crosses strains to obtain new combinations of desirable characteristics. Selects progeny having desired strains of both parents, and continues process until acceptable result is obtained.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-018 APICULTURIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies bee culture and breeding: Conducts experiments regarding causes and controls of bee diseases and factors affecting yields of nectar and pollen on various plants visited by bees. Conducts research into various phases of pollination. Improves bee strains, utilizing selective breeding by artificial insemination.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-022 AQUATIC BIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: aquatic ecologist

Studies plants and animals living in water, and environmental conditions affecting them: Investigates salinity, temperature, acidity, light, oxygen content, and other physical conditions of water to determine their relationship to aquatic life. Examines various types of water life, such as plankton, worms, clams, mussels, and snails. May specialize in study of salt water aquatic life and be designated Marine Biologist (profess. & kin.); or fresh water aquatic life and be designated Limnologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in culture, breeding, and raising of aquatic life, such as shrimp, lobsters, clams, oysters, or fish, and commercial fish farm operations and be designated Aquaculturist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-026 BIOCHEMIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: chemist, biological

Studies chemical processes of living organisms: Conducts research to determine action of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms. Isolates, analyzes, and identifies hormones, vitamins, allergens, minerals, and enzymes and determines effects on body functions. Examines chemical aspects of formation of antibodies, and conducts research into chemistry of cells and blood corpuscles. Studies chemistry of living processes, such as mechanisms of development of normal and abnormal cells, breathing and digestion, and of living energy changes, such as growth, aging, and death. May specialize in particular area or field of work and be designated Chemist, Clinical (profess. & kin.); Chemist, Enzymes (profess. & kin.); Chemist, Proteins (profess. & kin.); Chemist, Steroids (profess. & kin.). May clean, purify, refine, and otherwise prepare pharmaceutical compounds for commercial distribution and develop new drugs and medications and be designated Chemist, Pharmaceutical (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-030 BIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies basic principles of plant and animal life, such as origin, relationship, development, anatomy, and functions: May collect and analyze biological data to determine environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water areas, record data, and inform public, state, and federal representatives regarding test results. May prepare environmental impact reports. May specialize in research centering around particular plant, animal, or aspect of biology. May teach. May specialize in wildlife research and management and be designated Wildlife Biologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

041.061-034 BIOPHYSICIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena: Conducts research to investigate dynamics in such areas as seeing and hearing; the transmission of electrical impulses along nerves and muscles, and damage to cells and tissues caused by x rays and nuclear particles; manner in which characteristics of plants and animals are carried forward through successive generations; and absorption of light by chlorophyll in photosynthesis or by pigments of eye involved in vision. Analyzes functions of electronic and human brains, such as transfer of information into brain from outside (learning), transfer and manipulation of information within brain (thinking), and storage of information (memory). Studies spatial configuration of submicroscopic molecules, such as proteins, using x ray and electron microscope. May specialize in one activity, such as use of radiation and nuclear particles for treating cancer or use of atomic isotopes to discover transformation of substances in cells.
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-038 BOTANIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies development and life processes, physiology, heredity, environment, distribution, anatomy, morphology, and economic value of plants for application in such fields as agronomy, forestry, horticulture, and pharmacology: Studies behavior of chromosomes and reproduction, internal and external structures, and examines mechanics and biochemistry of plants and plant cells, using microscopes, staining techniques, and scientific equipment. Investigates environment and plant communities and effect of rainfall, temperature, climate, soil, and elevation on plant growth from seed to mature plants. Identifies and classifies plants. May conduct environmental studies and prepare reports. May be designated according to field of specialization as Plant Ecologist (profess. & kin.); Plant Taxonomist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-042 CYTOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies plant and animal cells: Selects and sections minute particles of animal or plant tissue for microscopic study, using microtome and other equipment and employs stain techniques to make cell structures visible or to differentiate parts: Studies parts of cells and details of cell division into new cells, using microscope. Analyzes cells concerned with reproduction, and means by which chromosomes divide or unite. Studies formation of sperm and eggs in animal sex glands and origin of blood and tissue cells. Conducts research in physiology of unicellular organisms, such as protozoa, to ascertain physical and chemical factors involved in growth. Studies influence of physical and chemical factors upon malignant and normal cells. Evaluates exfoliated, asperated, or abraded cells to assess hormonal status and presence of atypical or malignant changes. May be designated according to specialty as Animal Cytologist (profess. & kin.); Plant Cytologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-046 ENTOMOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies insects and their relation to plant and animal life: Identifies and classifies species of insects and allied forms, such as mites and spiders. Aids in control and elimination of agricultural, structural, and forest pests by developing new and improved pesticides and cultural and biological methods, including use of natural enemies of pests. Studies insect distribution and habitat and recommends methods to prevent importation and spread of injurious species.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-050 GENETICIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies inheritance and variation of characteristics in forms of life: Performs experiments to determine laws, mechanisms, and environmental factors in origin, transmission, and development of inherited traits. Analyzes determinants responsible for specific inherited traits, such as color differences, size, and disease resistance to improve or to understand relationship of heredity to maturity, fertility, or other factors. Devises methods for altering or producing new traits, making use of chemicals, heat, light, or other means. May specialize in particular branch of genetics, such as molecular genetics or population genetics. May perform human genetic counseling or medical genetics.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-054 HISTOPATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: histologist

Studies human or animal tissue to provide data to delineate cause and progress of disease that impairs body function: Trains and oversees laboratory personnel in preparing tissue sections or prepares tissue sections from surgical and diagnostic cases and autopsies. Examines tissue under microscope to detect characteristics of cell structure indicative of disease and writes diagnostic reports. Devises and directs use of special stains and methods for isolating, identifying, and studying function, morphology, and pathology of obscure or difficult-to-identify cells, tissues, and connecting fibers. May conduct autopsies to select tissue specimens for study. May engage in research to develop techniques for diagnosing and identifying pathological conditions. May study anatomy of body tissues, formation of organs, and related problems to obtain data on body functions.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

041.061-058 MICROBIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: bacteriologist

Studies growth, structure, development, and general characteristics of bacteria and other micro-organisms: Isolates and makes cultures of significant bacteria or other micro-organisms in prescribed or standard inhibitory media, controlling factors, such as moisture, aeration, temperature, and nutrition. Identifies micro-organisms by microscopic examination of physiological, morphological, and cultural characteristics. Observes action of micro-organisms upon living tissues of plants, higher animals, and other micro-organisms and on dead organic matter. Makes chemical analyses of substances, such as acids, alcohols, and enzymes, produced by bacteria and other micro-organisms on organic matter. May specialize in study of viruses and rickettsiae and be designated Virologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in particular material or product field and be designated Bacteriologist, Dairy (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Fishery (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Food (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Industrial (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Medical (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Pharmaceutical (profess. & kin.); or Bacteriologist, Soil (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-062 MYCOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies mechanism of life processes of edible, poisonous, and parasitic fungi to discover those that are useful to medicine, agriculture, and industry: Studies structure, affinities, classification, genetics, physiology, and growth of fungi. Applies findings to agriculture, medicine, and industry for development of drugs, medicines, molds, and yeasts. May specialize in research and development in such fields as antibiotics or fabric deterioration. May develop improved methods of propagating and growing edible fungi, as mushrooms and be designated Mushroom-Spawn Maker (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-066 NEMATOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies nematodes (roundworms) that are plant parasitic, transmit diseases, attack insects, or attack soil, fresh water, or marine nematodes: Identifies and classifies nematodes and studies structure, behavior, biology, ecology, physiology, nutrition, culture, and distribution. Studies reactions of plants to parasitic nematodes and associations with other plant disease agents. Develops methods and apparatus for securing representative soil samples containing nematodes, and for isolating, mounting, counting, and identifying specimens. Investigates and develops pest management and control measures, such as chemical, hot water and steam treatments, soil fumigation, biological crop rotations, and cultural practices. See PARASITOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) for scientists who specialize in study of nematodes that are parasitic in man or animals.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-070 PARASITOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies characteristics, habits, and life cycles of animal parasites, such as protozoans, tapeworms, roundworms, flukes, and other parasitic organisms, to determine manner in which they attack human beings and animals and effects produced: Investigates modes of transmission from host to host. Develops methods and agents to combat parasites. May specialize in study of one variety of parasite, such as animal parasites that attack man, and be designated Medical Parasitologist (profess. & kin.); of parasitic worms and be designated Helminthologist (profess. & kin.); of one celled free living and parasitic organisms and be designated Protozoologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-074 PHARMACOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies effects of drugs, gases, dusts, and other materials on tissue and physiological processes of animals and human beings: Experiments with animals, such as rats, guinea pigs, and mice, to determine reactions of drugs and other substances on functioning of organs and tissues, noting effects on circulation, respiration, digestion, or other vital processes. Standardizes drug dosages or methods of immunizing against industrial diseases by correlating results of animal experiments with results obtained from clinical experimentation on human beings. Investigates preventative methods and remedies for diseases, such as silicosis and lead, mercury, and ammonia poisoning. Analyzes food preservatives and colorings, vermin poisons, and other materials to determine toxic or nontoxic properties. Standardizes procedures for manufacture of drugs and medicinal compounds.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-078 PHYSIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research on cellular structure and organ-system functions of plants and animals: Studies growth, respiration, circulation, excretion, movement, reproduction, and other functions of plants and animals under normal and abnormal conditions. Performs experiments to determine effects of internal and external environmental factors on life processes and functions, using microscope, x-ray equipment, spectroscope, and other equipment. Studies glands and their relationship to bodily functions. May specialize in physiology of particular body area, function, or system. May specialize in physiology of animals and be designated Animal Physiologist (profess. & kin.); of plants and be designated Plant Physiologist (profess. & kin.); of human organisms and be designated Medical Physiologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-082 PLANT BREEDER (profess. & kin.)

Plans and carries out breeding studies to develop and improve varieties of crops: Improves specific characteristics, such as yield, size, quality, maturity, and resistance to frost, drought, disease and insect pests in plants, utilizing principles of genetics and knowledge of plant growth. Develops variety and selects most desirable plants for crossing. Breeds plants, using methods such as inbreeding, crossbreeding, backcrossing, outcrossing, mutating, or interspecific hybridization and selection. Selects progeny having desired characteristics and continues breeding and selection process to reach desired objectives.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-086 PLANT PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research in nature, cause, and control of plant diseases and decay of plant products: Studies and compares healthy and diseased plants to determine symptoms of diseased condition. Inoculates healthy plants with culture of suspected agents taken from diseased plants and studies effects to determine agents responsible for disease. Isolates disease-causing agent, studies habits and life cycle, and devises methods of destroying or controlling agent [MICROBIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)]. Tests possible control measures under laboratory and field conditions for comparative effectiveness, practicality, and economy. Investigates comparative susceptibility of different varieties of plants and develops varieties immune to disease [PLANT BREEDER (profess. & kin.)]. Studies rates of spread and intensity of disease under different conditions of soil, climate, and geography, and predicts outbreaks of plant diseases. Determines kinds of plants and insects that harbor or transmit disease. Studies losses from deterioration of perishable plant products in transit or storage and develops practices to prevent or reduce losses. Determines presence of disease producing agents in seed stocks to reduce losses from seed borne diseases. May specialize in type of plant affected, such as cereal crops, fruit, or forest trees, or by type of disease, such as bacterial, virus, fungus, mycoplasma, or nematode. May inspect flower and vegetable seeds and flowering bulbs for diseases, infections, and insect injuries.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-090 ZOOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies origin, interrelationships, classification, life histories, habits, life processes, diseases, relation to environment, growth and development, genetics, and distribution of animals: Studies animals in natural habitat and collects specimens for laboratory study. Dissects and examines specimens under microscope and uses chemicals and various types of scientific equipment to carry out experimental studies. Prepares collections of preserved specimens or microscopic slides for such purposes as identification of species, study of species development, and study of animal diseases. May raise specimens for experimental purposes. May specialize in one aspect of animal study, such as functioning of animal as an organism, or development of organism from egg to embryo stage. May specialize in study of reptiles, frogs, and salamanders and be designated Herpetologist (profess. & kin.); of fish and fishlike forms and be designated Ichthyologist (profess. & kin.); of sponges, jellyfish, and protozoa and be designated Invertebrate Zoologist (profess. & kin.); of birds and be designated Ornithologist (profess. & kin.); of mammals and be designated Mammalogist (profess. & kin.). May study animals for purposes of identification and classification and be designated Animal Taxonomist (profess. & kin.); or study effects of environment on animals and be designated Animal Ecologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-094 STAFF TOXICOLOGIST (government ser.)

Studies effects of toxic substances on physiological functions of human beings, animals, and plants to develop data for use in consumer protection and industrial safety programs: Designs and conducts studies to determine physiological effects of various substances on laboratory animals, plants, and human tissue, using biological and biochemical techniques. Interprets results of studies in terms of toxicological properties of substances and hazards associated with misuse of products containing substances. Provides information concerning toxicological properties of products and materials to regulatory agency personnel and industrial firms. Reviews toxicological data submitted by others for adequacy, and suggests amendment or expansion of data to clarify or correct information. Confers with governmental and industrial personnel to provide advice on precautionary labeling for hazardous materials and products and on nature and degree of hazard in cases of accidental exposure or ingestion. Prepares and maintains records of studies for use as toxicological resource material. Testifies as expert witness on toxicology in hearings and court proceedings.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

041.067-010 MEDICAL COORDINATOR, PESTICIDE USE (government ser.)

Studies human health-and-safety aspects of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals: Studies long-term health implications of low-dose pesticide exposure and determines safe worker reentry intervals. Reviews and provides recommendations on medical regulations governing use of pesticides. Reviews information and recommendations pertaining to safe levels of pesticide residues on agricultural products. Recommends specifications for safe working conditions for workers exposed to pesticides or their residues, and makes recommendations on public safety aspects of pesticide exposure. Confers with health department personnel to develop programs to improve ability of physicians and other medical personnel to diagnose, treat, and report pesticide-related illnesses. Confers with government agency representatives, physicians, university staff members, and other research workers to develop health and safety standards related to pesticide exposure. Advises industry representatives on organization of adequate medical supervision programs for employers. Prepares reports on research studies. Addresses interested groups as requested.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 86

041.081-010 FOOD TECHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: food scientist

Applies scientific and engineering principles in research, development, production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and utilization of foods: Conducts basic research, and new product research and development of foods. Develops new and improved methods and systems for food processing, production, quality control, packaging, and distribution. Studies methods to improve quality of foods, such as flavor, color, texture, nutritional value, convenience, or physical, chemical, and microbiological composition of foods. Develops food standards, safety and sanitary regulations, and waste management and water supply specifications. Tests new products in test kitchen and develops specific processing methods in laboratory pilot plant, and confers with process engineers, flavor experts, and packaging and marketing specialists to resolve problems. May specialize in one phase of food technology, such as product development, quality control, or production inspection, technical writing, teaching, or consulting. May specialize in particular branch of food technology, such as cereal grains, meat and poultry, fats and oils, seafood, animal foods, beverages, dairy products, flavors, sugars and starches, stabilizers, preservatives, colors, and nutritional additives, and be identified according to branch of food technology.
GOE: 02.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

041.167-010 ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGIST (government ser.)

Plans, directs, and conducts studies concerned with incidence of disease in industrial settings and effects of industrial chemicals on health: Confers with industry representatives to select occupational groups for study and to arrange for collection of data concerning work history of individuals and disease concentration and mortality rates among groups. Plans methods of conducting epidemiological studies and provides detailed specifications for collecting data to personnel participating in studies. Develops codes to facilitate computer input of demographic and epidemiological data for use by data processing personnel engaged in programming epidemiological statistics. Compares statistics on causes of death among members of selected working populations with those among general population, using life-table analyses. Analyzes data collected to determine probable effects of work settings and activities on disease and mortality rates, using valid statistical techniques and knowledge of epidemiology. Presents data in designated statistical format to illustrate common patterns among workers in selected occupations. Initiates and maintains contacts with statistical and data processing managers in other agencies to maintain access to epidemiological source materials. Evaluates materials from all sources for addition to or amendment of epidemiological data bank. Plans and directs activities of clerical and statistical personnel engaged in tabulation and analysis of epidemiological information to ensure accomplishment of objectives.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

041.261-010 PUBLIC-HEALTH MICROBIOLOGIST (government ser.)

Conducts experiments to detect presence of harmful or pathogenic bacteria in water, food supply, or general environment of community and to control or eliminate sources of possible pollution or contagion: Makes periodic laboratory counts of bacteria in water supply. Analyzes samples of sewage for harmful micro-organisms and for rate of sludge purification by aerobic bacteria. Examines milk, shellfish, and other food items for micro-organisms constituting menace to public health. Cooperates with hospitals and clinical laboratories in identifying micro-organisms taken from diseased persons to determine presence of bacteria causing contagious or epidemic diseases. May inoculate members of community against contagious diseases.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

041.381-010 BIOLOGY SPECIMEN TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Prepares and embeds in plastic, biological specimens of plant and animal life for use as instructional aids: Selects plant or animal specimen in preserved or dried state. Dissects animal and cleans all matter from skeletal structures. Prepares slices or cross sections of small animals, embryos, or cross sections of animal organs, such as glands, kidneys, hearts, or eyes. Selects, trims, and stains a variety of stalks, flowers, and leaves to show plant structure and systems. Selects different stains to clearly indicate support structure, circulatory system, or other feature of plant or animal. Assembles and positions components of specimen in mold, using pins and holding devices. Mixes polylite plastic or other material and completes embedding by varied molding techniques. Works with plants, animals, mollusks, insects, and other classes of plants and animals. Identifies type and age of specimen, date of preparation, and type of embedding material used. May operate incubator to grow chicken eggs for embryo specimens. May prepare ecological kits which demonstrate polluting conditions in water, soil, or air.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

041.384-010 HERBARIUM WORKER (profess. & kin.)

Fumigates, presses, and mounts plant specimens, and maintains collection records of herbarium maintained by botanical garden, museum, or other institution: Records identification information concerning incoming plants. Places specimens in fumigation cabinet and turns valves to release toxic fumes that destroy insects, fungus, or parasites adhering to specimens. Arranges specimens between sheets of unsized paper so that upper and under portions of leaves, blossoms, and other components are visible, and pads paper with layers of felt and newsprint to protect specimens and form stacks. Places specified number of stacks in pressing frame and writes identification information on top layer of paper on each stack. Secures frame around stacks by tightening frame section with screws, fastening with leather straps, or tying with twine, to compress stacks and press and dry specimens in desired configuration. Mounts dried specimens on heavy paper, using glue, adhesive strips, or needle and thread, taking care to prevent distortion or breakage of specimens. Writes identification information on papers and inserts mounted specimens in labeled envelopes or folders. Files folders in drawers or cabinets according to standard botanical classification system. Maintains card files of specimens in herbarium collection and records of acquisitions, loans, exchanges, or sales of specimens.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 86


This group includes occupations concerned with the collection, interpretation, and application of scientific data relating to human behavior and mental processes. Activities are in either applied fields of psychology or in basic science fields and research.

045.061-010 PSYCHOLOGIST, DEVELOPMENTAL (profess. & kin.)

Investigates problems concerning growth and development of emotional, mental, physical, and social aspects of individuals, to increase understanding of origins of behavior and processes of human growth and decline: Formulates hypothesis or research problem and selects or develops method of investigation to test hypothesis. Studies behavior of children to analyze processes of learning, development of language in children, and parents' influence on children's behavior. Administers intelligence and performance tests to establish and measure patterns of intellectual and psychological growth, development, and decline in children and adults. Observes and records behavior of infants to establish patterns of social, motor, and sensory development. Analyzes growth of social values and attitudes, using information obtained from observation, questionnaires, and interviews. Formulates theories based on research findings for application in such fields as juvenile delinquency, education and guidance of children, parent education, and welfare of aged. Experiments with animals [PSYCHOLOGIST, EXPERIMENTAL (profess. & kin.)], to make comparative studies across species lines to contribute to understanding of human behavior. May specialize in study and treatment of children and be designated Child Psychologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

045.061-014 PSYCHOLOGIST, ENGINEERING (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: human factors specialist

Conducts research, development, application, and evaluation of psychological principles relating human behavior to characteristics, design, and use of environments and systems within which human beings work and live: Collaborates with equipment designers in design, development, and utilization of man-machine systems to obtain optimum efficiency in terms of human capabilities. Advises on human factors to be considered in design of man-machine systems, military equipment, and industrial products. Participates in solving such problems as determining numbers and kinds of workers required to operate machines, allocation of functions to machines and operators, and layout and arrangement of work sites. Analyzes jobs to establish requirements for use in classification, selection, placement, and training of personnel [JOB ANALYST (profess. & kin.)]. Develops training methods and materials, such as curriculums, lectures, and films, and prepares handbooks of human engineering data for use by equipment and system designers. May conduct research to develop psychological theories concerning such subjects as effects of physical factors (temperature, humidity, vibration, noise, and illumination) on worker's behavior; functional design of dials, scales, meters, and other instruments to minimize sensory requirements; specifications for optimal size, shape, direction and speed of motion, and location of equipment controls; and effects of environmental, organismic, and task or job variables on work behavior and life quality.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.061-018 PSYCHOLOGIST, EXPERIMENTAL (profess. & kin.)

Plans, designs, conducts, and analyzes results of experiments to study problems in psychology: Formulates hypotheses and experimental designs to investigate problems of perception, memory, learning, personality, and cognitive processes. Designs and constructs equipment and apparatus for laboratory study. Selects, controls, and modifies variables in laboratory experiments with humans or animals, and observes and records behavior in relation to variables. Analyzes test results, using statistical techniques, and evaluates significance of data in relation to original hypothesis. Collaborates with other scientists in such fields as physiology, biology, and sociology in conducting interdisciplinary studies of behavior and formulating theories of behavior. Writes papers describing experiments and interpreting test results for publication or for presentation at scientific meetings. May specialize in aesthetics, memory, learning, autonomic functions, electroencephalography, feeling and emotion, motivation, motor skills, perception, or higher order cognitive processes. May conduct experiments to study relationship of behavior to various bodily mechanisms and be designated Psychologist, Physiological (profess. & kin.). May specialize in study of animal behavior to develop theories of animal and human behavior and be designated Psychologist, Comparative (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.067-010 PSYCHOLOGIST, EDUCATIONAL (profess. & kin.)

Investigates processes of learning and teaching and develops psychological principles and techniques applicable to educational problems to foster intellectual, social, and emotional development of individuals: Conducts experiments to study importance of motivation in learning, implications of transfer of training in teaching, and nature and causes of individual differences in mental abilities to promote differentiated educational procedures to meet individual needs of students. Analyzes characteristics and adjustment needs of superior and inferior students and recommends educational program to promote maximum adjustment. Formulates achievement, diagnostic, and predictive tests to aid teachers in planning methods and content of instruction. Administers standardized tests to diagnose disabilities and difficulties among students and to develop special methods of remedial instruction. Investigates traits and attitudes of teachers to study conditions that contribute to or detract from optimal mental health of teachers. Studies effects of teachers' feelings and attitudes upon pupils, and characteristics of successful teachers to aid school administrators in selection and adjustment of teachers. Collaborates with education specialists in developing curriculum content and methods of organizing and conducting classroom work. May specialize in educational measurement, school adjustment, school learning, or special education.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.067-014 PSYCHOLOGIST, SOCIAL (profess. & kin.)

Investigates psychological aspects of human interrelationships to gain understanding of individual and group thought, feeling, and behavior, utilizing behavioral observation, experimentation, or survey techniques: Evaluates individual and group behavior, developing such techniques as rating scales and sampling methods to collect and measure data. Conducts surveys and polls to measure and analyze attitudes and opinions as basis for predicting economic, political, and other behavior, using interviews, questionnaires, and other techniques, and adhering to principles of statistical sampling in selecting people. Observes and analyzes relations of individuals to religious, racial, political, occupational, and other groups to evaluate behavior of individuals toward one another in groups, attitudes that exist in groups, and influence of group on individual. Investigates social behavior of individuals to study such problems as origin and nature of prejudice and stereotyping, transmission of values and attitudes in child rearing, and contribution of factors in social environment to individual mental health and illness. Conducts experimental studies on motivation, morale, and leadership, and prepares reports on findings.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.067-018 PSYCHOMETRIST (profess. & kin.)

Administers, scores, and interprets intelligence, aptitude, achievement, and other psychological tests to provide test information to teachers, counselors, students, or other specified entitled party: Gives paper and pencil tests or utilizes testing equipment, such as picture tests and dexterity boards, under standard conditions. Times tests and records results. Interprets test results in light of standard norms, and limitations of test in terms of validity and reliability.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

045.107-010 COUNSELOR (profess. & kin.)

Counsels individuals and provides group educational and vocational guidance services: Collects, organizes, and analyzes information about individuals through records, tests, interviews, and professional sources, to appraise their interests, aptitudes, abilities, and personality characteristics, for vocational and educational planning. Compiles and studies occupational, educational, and economic information to aid counselees in making and carrying out vocational and educational objectives. Refers students to placement service. Assists individuals to understand and overcome social and emotional problems. May engage in research and follow-up activities to evaluate counseling techniques. May teach classes. May be designated according to area of activity as Academic Counselor (education); Career Placement Services Counselor (education); Employment Counselor (government ser.); Guidance Counselor (education); Vocational Adviser (education).
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

045.107-014 COUNSELOR, NURSES' ASSOCIATION (medical ser.)

Offers vocational, educational, and professional counseling to registered professional nurses, licensed practical nurses, and prospective professional and practical nurse students: Compiles credentials and prepares biographies of counselees. Provides information relative to qualifications required, opportunities for placement and advancement, wages, hours, and other data pertaining to selected field of work to assist nurses in determining educational and vocational objectives. Refers qualified nurses to employers for placement. Assists in establishing personnel policies relative to placement. Aids applicants in obtaining vocational, health, or other assistance from community agencies. May assist in recruitment.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.107-018 DIRECTOR OF COUNSELING (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: counseling-center manager; director, counseling bureau; director, vocational counseling; head counselor

Directs personnel engaged in providing educational and vocational guidance for students and graduates: Assigns and evaluates work of personnel. Conducts in-service training program for professional staff. Coordinates counseling bureau with school and community services. Analyzes counseling and guidance procedures and techniques to improve quality of service. Counsels individuals and groups relative to personal and social problems, and educational and vocational objectives. Addresses community groups and faculty members to interpret counseling service. Supervises maintenance of occupational library for use by counseling personnel. Directs activities of testing and occupational service center. May supervise auxiliary services, such as student learning center. May supervise in-service training programs in counseling, testing, or occupational information for graduate students. May teach graduate courses in psychology, guidance, and related subjects. May participate in appraising qualifications of candidates for faculty positions and eligibility of students for admission to medical, nursing, and engineering schools.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.107-022 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: psychologist, clinical

Diagnoses or evaluates mental and emotional disorders of individuals, and administers programs of treatment: Interviews patients in clinics, hospitals, prisons, and other institutions, and studies medical and social case histories. Observes patients in play or other situations, and selects, administers, and interprets intelligence, achievement, interest, personality, and other psychological tests to diagnose disorders and formulate plans of treatment. Treats psychological disorders to effect improved adjustments utilizing various psychological techniques, such as milieu therapy, psychodrama, play therapy and hypnosis. Selects approach to use in individual therapy, such as directive, nondirective, and supportive therapy, and plans frequency, intensity, and duration of therapy. May collaborate with PSYCHIATRIST (medical ser.) 070.107-014, and other specialists in developing treatment programs for patients. May instruct and direct students serving psychological internships in hospitals and clinics. May develop experimental designs and conduct research in fields of personality development and adjustment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. May serve as consultant to industrial, social, educational, welfare, and other agencies on individual cases or in evaluation, planning, and development of mental health programs. May specialize in behavior problems and therapy, crime and delinquency, group therapy, individual diagnosis and therapy, mental deficiency, objective tests, projective techniques, or speech pathology.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

045.107-026 PSYCHOLOGIST, COUNSELING (profess. & kin.)

Provides individual and group counseling services in universities and colleges, schools, clinics, rehabilitation centers, Veterans Administration hospitals, and industry, to assist individuals in achieving more effective personal, social, educational, and vocational development and adjustment: Collects data about individual through use of interview, case history, and observational techniques. Selects and interprets psychological tests designed to assess individual's intelligence, aptitudes, abilities, and interests, applying knowledge of statistical analysis. Evaluates data to identify causes of problem of individuals and to determine advisability of counseling or referral to other specialists or institutions. Conducts counseling or therapeutic interviews to assist individual to gain insight into personal problems, define goals, and plan action reflecting interests, abilities, and needs. Provides occupational, educational, and other information to enable individual to formulate realistic educational and vocational plans. Follows up results of counseling to determine reliability and validity of treatment used. May engage in research to develop and improve diagnostic and counseling techniques. May administer and score psychological tests.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Develops and applies psychological techniques to personnel administration, management, and marketing problems: Observes details of work and interviews workers and supervisors to establish physical, mental, educational, and other job requirements. Develops interview techniques, rating scales, and psychological tests to assess skills, abilities, aptitudes, and interests as aids in selection, placement, and promotion. Organizes training programs, applying principles of learning and individual differences, and evaluates and measures effectiveness of training methods by statistical analysis of production rate, reduction of accidents, absenteeism, and turnover. Counsels workers to improve job and personal adjustments. Conducts research studies of organizational structure, communication systems, group interactions, and motivational systems, and recommends changes to improve efficiency and effectiveness of individuals, organizational units, and organization. Investigates problems related to physical environment of work, such as illumination, noise, temperature, and ventilation, and recommends changes to increase efficiency and decrease accident rate. Conducts surveys and research studies to ascertain nature of effective supervision and leadership and to analyze factors affecting morale and motivation. Studies consumer reaction to new products and package designs, using surveys and tests, and measures effectiveness of advertising media to aid in sale of goods and services. May advise management on personnel policies and labor-management relations. May adapt machinery, equipment, workspace, and environment to human use. May specialize in development and application of such techniques as job analysis and classification, personnel interviewing, ratings, and vocational tests for use in selection, placement, promotion, and training of workers and be designated Psychologist, Personnel (profess. & kin.). May apply psychological principles and techniques to selection, training, classification, and assignment of military personnel and be designated Psychologist, Military Personnel (profess. & kin.). May conduct surveys and tests to study consumer reaction to new products and package design and to measure effectiveness of advertising media to aid manufacturers in sale of goods and services and be designated Market-Research Analyst (profess. & kin.) II.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.107-034 PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL (profess. & kin.)

Evaluates needs of average, gifted, handicapped, and disturbed children within educational system or school, and plans and carries out programs to enable children to attain maximum achievement and adjustment: Conducts diagnostic studies to identify child's needs, limitations, and potentials, observing child in classroom and at play, studying school records, consulting with parents and school personnel, and administering and interpreting diagnostic findings. Plans special placement or other treatment programs. Counsels pupils individually and in groups, using psychodrama, play therapy, personal interviews, and other psychological methods to assist pupils to achieve personal, social, and emotional adjustment. Carries out research to aid in introduction of programs in schools to meet current psychological, educational, and sociological needs of children. Advises teachers and other school personnel on methods to enhance school and classroom atmosphere to provide motivating educational environment. Refers individuals to community agencies to secure medical, vocational, or social services for child or family. Participates in planning of remedial classes and testing programs designed to meet needs of students. Serves as consultant to school board, superintendent, administrative committees, and parent-teacher groups in matters involving psychological services within educational system or school.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.107-038 RESIDENCE COUNSELOR (education) alternate titles: counselor, dormitory; dormitory supervisor; head resident, dormitory

Provides individual and group guidance services relative to problems of scholastic, educational, and personal-social nature to dormitory students: Suggests remedial or corrective actions and assists students in making better adjustments and in planning intelligent life goals. Plans and directs program to orient new students and assists in their integration into campus life. Initiates and conducts group conferences to plan and discuss programs and policies related to assignment of quarters, social and recreational activities, and dormitory living. Supervises dormitory activities. Investigates reports of misconduct and attempts to resolve or eliminate causes of conflict. May interview all dormitory students to determine need for counseling.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

045.107-042 VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION COUNSELOR (government ser.) alternate titles: counselor, vocational rehabilitation

Counsels handicapped individuals to provide vocational rehabilitation services: Interviews and evaluates handicapped applicants, and confers with medical and professional personnel to determine type and degree of handicap, eligibility for service, and feasibility of vocational rehabilitation. Accepts or recommends acceptance of suitable candidates. Determines suitable job or business consistent with applicant's desires, aptitudes, and physical, mental, and emotional limitations. Plans and arranges for applicant to study or train for job. Assists applicant with personal adjustment throughout rehabilitation program. Aids applicant in obtaining medical and social services during training. Promotes and develops job openings and places qualified applicant in employment. May specialize in type of disability, such as mental illness, alcohol abuse, hearing and visual impairment, or readjustment after prison release.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

045.107-046 PSYCHOLOGIST, CHIEF (profess. & kin.)

Plans psychological service programs and directs, coordinates, and participates in activities of personnel engaged in providing psychological services to clients in psychiatric center or hospital: Reviews reports, case management reviews, and psychiatric center's or hospital's procedural manual to assess need for psychological services. Plans psychological treatment programs that meet standards of accreditation. Plans utilization of available staff, assigns staff to treatment units, and recruits professional and nonprofessional psychological staff. Develops, directs, and participates in training programs. Directs testing and evaluation of new admissions and re-evaluation of present clients. Participates in staff conferences to evaluate and plan treatment programs. Interviews clients that present difficult and complex diagnostic problems and assesses their psychological status. Reviews management of cases, assignments, case problems, issues, and methods of treatment. Works with community agencies to develop effective corrective programs and to arrange to provide psychological services. Plans and supervises psychological research. Collaborates with psychiatrists and other professional staff to help develop comprehensive program of therapy, evaluation, and treatment.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

045.107-050 CLINICAL THERAPIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: clinical counselor

Counsels individuals or groups regarding psychological or emotional problems, such as stress, substance abuse, or family situations, using evaluative techniques, and develops and implements therapeutic treatment plan in medical setting: Interviews patient to obtain information concerning medical history or other pertinent information. Observes client to detect indications of abnormal physical or mental behavior. Selects and administers various tests, such as psychological tests, personality inventories, and intelligence quotient tests, to identify behavioral or personality traits and intelligence levels, and records results. Reviews results of tests to evaluate client needs. Plans and administers therapeutic treatment, such as behavior modification and stress management therapy, using biofeedback equipment, to assist patient in controlling disorders and other problems. Changes method and degree of therapy when indicated by client reactions. Discusses progress toward goals with client, such as controlling weight, stress, or substance abuse. Consults with medical doctor or other specialists concerning treatment plan and amends plan as directed. Conducts relaxation exercises, peer counseling groups, and family counseling during clinical therapy sessions. Refers client to supportive services to supplement treatment and counseling. May conduct research in treatment and test validation. May develop evaluative studies of therapy and therapy outcome.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

045.107-054 COUNSELOR, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY (profess. & kin.)

Provides individual, marital, and family counseling services to adults and children, to assist clients to identify personal and interactive problems, and to achieve effective personal, marital, and family development and adjustment: Collects information about clients (individuals, married couples, or families), using interview, case history, and observation techniques, $T3funnel approach$T1, and appraisal and assessment methods. Analyzes information collected to determine advisability of counseling or referral to other specialists or institutions. Reviews notes and information collected to identify problems and concerns. Consults reference material, such as textbooks, manuals, and journals, to identify symptoms, make diagnoses, and develop therapeutic or treatment plan. Counsels clients, using counseling methods and procedures, such as psychotherapy and hypnosis, to assist clients in gaining insight into personal and interactive problems, to define goals, and to plan action reflecting interests, abilities, and needs. Evaluates results of counseling methods to determine reliability and validity of treatment used. Interacts with other professionals to discuss therapy or treatment, new resources or techniques, and to share information.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

045.107-058 SUBSTANCE ABUSE COUNSELOR (profess. & kin.)

Counsels and aids individuals and families requiring assistance dealing with substance abuse problems, such as alcohol or drug abuse: Interviews clients, reviews records, and confers with other professionals to evaluate condition of client. Formulates program for treatment and rehabilitation of client, using knowledge of drug and alcohol abuse problems and counseling and treatment techniques. Counsels clients individually and in group sessions to assist client in overcoming alcohol and drug dependency. Counsels family members to assist family in dealing with and providing support for client. Refers client to other support services as needed, such as medical evaluation and treatment, social services, and employment services. Monitors condition of client to evaluate success of therapy, and adapts treatment as needed. Prepares and maintains reports and case histories. May formulate and conduct programs to promote prevention of alcohol and drug abuse. May prepare documents for presentation in court and accompany client to court as needed.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 78

045.117-010 DIRECTOR OF GUIDANCE IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS (education) alternate titles: supervisor, counseling and guidance; supervisor of guidance and testing; supervisor of research

Organizes, administers, and coordinates guidance program in public school system: Formulates guidance policies and procedures. Plans and conducts in-service training program for guidance workers and selected teachers. Plans and supervises testing program in school system and devises and directs use of records, reports, and other material essential to program. Supervises school placement service. Establishes and supervises maintenance of occupational libraries in schools. Coordinates guidance activities with community agencies and other areas of school system. Conducts or supervises research studies to evaluate effectiveness of guidance program. May counsel students on referral basis relative to educational and vocational objectives and personal and social problems.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with the application of theoretical or practical aspects of life science.

049.127-010 PARK NATURALIST (government ser.)

Plans, develops, and conducts programs to inform public of historical, natural, and scientific features of national, state, or local park: Confers with park staff to determine subjects to be presented and program schedule. Surveys park to determine forest conditions and distribution and abundance of fauna and flora. Interviews specialists in desired fields to obtain and develop data for programs. Takes photographs and motion pictures to illustrate lectures and publications and to develop displays. Plans and develops audiovisual devices, prepares and presents illustrated lectures, constructs visitor-center displays, and conducts field trips to point out scientific, historic, and natural features of park. Performs emergency duties to protect human life, government property, and natural features of park. May plan, organize, and direct activities of seasonal staff members. May maintain official photographic and informational files for department.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

049.364-010 FEED-RESEARCH AIDE (agriculture)

Feeds rations of experimental feeds to animals, such as poultry, dogs, and cows, and compiles data on growth, productivity, and health of animals: Weighs feed rations and livestock and gathers eggs and milks cows. Observes livestock to note changes in health and preference for certain foods. Records data for evaluation by professional personnel. Waters stock and cleans pens.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R3 M2 L2 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

049.364-014 VECTOR CONTROL ASSISTANT (government ser.)

Assists public health staff in activities concerned with identification, prevention, and control of vectors (disease-carrying insects and rodents): Carries and sets up field equipment to be used in surveys of number and type of vectors in area. Sets traps and cuts through brush and weeds to obtain specimens of vector population for use in laboratory tests, using sweep. Prepares, mounts, and stores specimens, following instructions of supervisor. Prepares reports of field surveys and laboratory tests based upon information obtained from personnel involved in specific activities, for use in planning and carrying out projects for prevention and control of vectors.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

049.364-018 BIOLOGICAL AIDE (agriculture)

Assists research workers in experiments in biology, bacteriology, plant pathology, mycology, and related agricultural sciences: Sets up laboratory and field equipment, performs routine tests, and keeps records of plant growth, experimental plots, greenhouse activity, use of insecticides, bee hives, and other agricultural experimentation. Cleans and maintains field and laboratory equipment.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


This division includes occupations concerned with human society and its characteristic elements, such as origin, race, or state; and with economic and social relations and institutions involved in man's existence as a member of an organized community.


This group includes occupations concerned with research and application of economic principles relating to sources of income, expenditures, development of natural resources, and production and consumption of goods. Includes developing theories based on research data and formulating plans to aid in the solution of economic problems in such fields as agriculture, credit and financing, taxation, industry, international trade, and labor supply.

050.067-010 ECONOMIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: economic analyst

Plans, designs, and conducts research to aid in interpretation of economic relationships and in solution of problems arising from production and distribution of goods and services: Studies economic and statistical data in area of specialization, such as finance, labor, or agriculture. Devises methods and procedures for collecting and processing data, utilizing knowledge of available sources of data and various econometric and sampling techniques. Compiles data relating to research area, such as employment, productivity, and wages and hours. Reviews and analyzes economic data in order to prepare reports detailing results of investigation, and to stay abreast of economic changes. Organizes data into report format and arranges for preparation of graphic illustrations of research findings. Formulates recommendations, policies, or plans to aid in market interpretation or solution of economic problems, such as recommending changes in methods of agricultural financing, domestic, and international monetary policies, or policies that regulate investment and transfer of capital. May supervise and assign work to staff. May testify at regulatory or legislative hearings to present recommendations. May specialize in specific economic area or commodity and be designated Agricultural Economist (profess. & kin.); Commodity-Industry Analyst (profess. & kin.); Financial Economist (profess. & kin.); Industrial Economist (profess. & kin); International-Trade Economist (profess. & kin.); Labor Economist (profess. & kin.); Price Economist (profess. & kin.); Tax Economist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

050.067-014 MARKET-RESEARCH ANALYST I (profess. & kin.)

Researches market conditions in local, regional, or national area to determine potential sales of product or service: Establishes research methodology and designs format for data gathering, such as surveys, opinion polls, or questionnaires. Examines and analyzes statistical data to forecast future marketing trends. Gathers data on competitors and analyzes prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. Collects data on customer preferences and buying habits. Prepares reports and graphic illustrations of findings.
GOE: 11.06.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


Directs activities of personnel engaged in compiling, analyzing, and presenting data on employment problems, unemployment compensation benefits, and labor market activities: Plans and directs research projects and surveys to develop data for administration of federal or state laws governing employment service activities. Directs analysis of statistical data for implementing employment service programs and for supplying information to legislative bodies in revising employment legislation. Confers with government officials, employers, labor leaders, and other parties to disseminate and secure information on employment problems and assist in formulating policies to meet demonstrated needs. Advises legislators on implications of employment and training planning and program activities.
GOE: 11.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with research in the origin, development, and organization of formal and informal political entities. Includes developing theories based on research data; and making recommendations for the solution of problems in such fields as organization and administration of national and local governments, international organizations and relations, governmental policies in foreign and domestic matters, and the relations between governments and special interest groups.

051.067-010 POLITICAL SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies phenomena of political behavior, such as origin, development, operation, and interrelationships of political institutions, to formulate and develop political theory: Conducts research into political philosophy and theories of political systems, utilizing information available on political phenomena, such as governmental institutions, public laws and administration, political party systems, and international law. Consults with government officials, civic bodies, research agencies, and political parties. Analyzes and interprets results of studies, and prepares reports detailing findings, recommendations or conclusions. May organize and conduct public opinion surveys and interpret results. May specialize in specific geographical, political, or philosophical aspect of political behavior.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with recording past or current events dealing with some phase of human activity, either in terms of individuals or social, ethnic, political, or geographic groups. Includes occupations in biography and genealogy.

052.067-010 BIOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

Specializes in reconstruction in narrative form of career or phase in life of individual: Assembles biographical material from sources, such as news accounts, diaries, personal papers and correspondence, written accounts of events in which subject participated, and consultation with associates and relatives of subject. Portrays character and behavior of subject on basis of historical environment and application of psychological analysis, relating subject's activities to pertinent events during subject's lifetime [WRITER, PROSE, FICTION AND NONFICTION (profess. & kin.)].
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

052.067-014 DIRECTOR, STATE-HISTORICAL SOCIETY (profess. & kin.)

Directs activities of state historical society: Directs and coordinates activities of research staff. Reviews publications and exhibits prepared by staff prior to public release in order to ensure historical accuracy of presentations. Speaks before various groups, organizations, and clubs to promote society aims and activities. Consults with or advises other individuals on historical authenticity of various materials. Conducts historical research on subjects or topics of import to society. Performs administrative duties, such as budget preparation, employee evaluation, and program planning. May edit society publications. May conduct campaigns to raise funds for society programs and projects.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

052.067-018 GENEALOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research into genealogical background of individual or family in order to establish descent from specific ancestor or to discover and identify forebears of individual or family: Consults American and foreign genealogical tables and publications and documents, such as church and court records, for evidence of births, baptisms, marriages, deaths, and legacies in order to trace lines of descent or succession. Constructs chart showing lines of descent and family relationships. Prepares history of family in narrative form or writes brief sketches emphasizing points of interest in family background.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

052.067-022 HISTORIAN (profess. & kin.)

Prepares in narrative, brief, or outline form chronological account or record of past or current events dealing with some phase of human activity, either in terms of individuals, or social, ethnic, political, or geographic groupings: Assembles historical data by consulting sources of information, such as historical indexes and catalogs, archives, court records, diaries, news files, and miscellaneous published and unpublished materials. Organizes and evaluates data on basis of authenticity and relative significance. Acts as adviser or consultant, and performs research for individuals, institutions, and commercial organizations on subjects, such as technological evolution within industry or manners and customs peculiar to certain historical period. May trace historical development within restricted field of research, such as economics, sociology, or philosophy.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

052.067-026 HISTORIAN, DRAMATIC ARTS (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research to authenticate details, such as customs, costumes, manners of speech, architectural styles, modes of transportation, and other items peculiar to given historical period or specific locality, to avoid anachronisms and inaccuracies in presentation of stage or radio dramas or motion pictures. Reads written historical texts and documents and pictorial material in libraries and museums, consults experts or witnesses of historical events, and visits and observes peculiarities of areas to be used as locale of drama to procure information.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

052.167-010 DIRECTOR, RESEARCH (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

Directs activities of motion picture or television production research department, and conducts research on various subjects to ensure historical authenticity of productions: Researches specific period, locality or historical event to obtain authentic background for production, such as customs, speech characteristics, or dress, and architectural style of era. Advises members of production staff on matters relating to historical details of subject being photographed or recorded. Reviews and collects data, such as books, pamphlets, periodicals, and rare newspapers, to provide source material for research. Approves or recommends purchase of library reference materials for department, and coordinates activities of workers engaged in cataloging and filing materials. May translate or request translation of reference materials.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with research on the development, structure, and processes of society, its institutions and cultures, and the behavior of human beings as members of collectivities and of social systems; on development and consequences of expected and deviant behavior; and on economic, political, and other differences in customs and institutions among cultures. Occupations in social work are included in Group 195.

054.067-010 RESEARCH WORKER, SOCIAL WELFARE (profess. & kin.)

Plans, organizes, and conducts research for use in understanding social problems and for planning and carrying out social welfare programs: Develops research designs on basis of existing knowledge and evolving theory. Constructs and tests methods of data collection. Collects information and makes judgments through observation, interview, and review of documents. Analyzes and evaluates data. Writes reports containing descriptive, analytical, and evaluative content. Interprets methods employed and findings to individuals within agency and community. May direct work of statistical clerks, statisticians, and others. May collaborate with research workers in other disciplines. May be employed in voluntary or governmental social welfare agencies, community welfare councils, and schools of social work.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

054.067-014 SOCIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research into development, structure, and behavior of groups of human beings and patterns of culture and social organization which have arisen out of group life in society. Collects and analyzes scientific data concerning social phenomena, such as community, associations, social institutions, ethnic minorities, social classes, and social change. May teach sociology, direct research, prepare technical publications, or act as consultant to lawmakers, administrators, and other officials dealing with problems of social policy. May specialize in research on relationship between criminal law and social order in causes of crime and behavior of criminals and be designated Criminologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on punishment for crime and control and prevention of crime, management of penal institutions, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders and be designated Penologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on group relationships and processes in an industrial organization and be designated Industrial Sociologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on rural communities in contrast with urban communities and special problems occasioned by impact of scientific and industrial revolutions on rural way of life and be designated Rural Sociologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on interrelations between physical environment and technology in spatial distribution of people and their activities and be designated Social Ecologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on social problems arising from individual or group deviation from commonly accepted standards of conduct, such as crime and delinquency, or social problems and racial discrimination rooted in failure of society to achieve its collective purposes and be designated Social Problems Specialist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on origin, growth, structure, and demographic characteristics of cities and social patterns and distinctive problems that result from urban environment and be designated Urban Sociologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on social factors affecting health care, including definition of illness, patient and practitioner behavior, social epidemiology, and delivery of health care, and be designated Medical Sociologist (profess. & kin.). May plan and conduct demographic research, surveys, and experiments to study human populations and affecting trends and be designated Demographer (profess. & kin.) II.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

054.107-010 CLINICAL SOCIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Develops and implements corrective procedures to alleviate group dysfunctions: Confers with individuals and groups to determine nature of group dysfunction. Observes group interaction and interviews group members to identify problems related to factors such as group organization, authority relationships, and role conflicts. Develops approaches to solution of group's problems, based on findings and incorporating sociological research and study in related disciplines. Develops intervention procedures, utilizing techniques such as interviews, consultations, role playing, and participant observation of group interaction, to facilitate resolution of group problems. Monitors group interaction and role affiliations to evaluate progress and to determine need for additional change.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 86


This group includes occupations concerned with research to determine the origin and development of the human race by comparing physical characteristics of fossilized human remains with those of existing racial groups; and research in the cultural and social development of civilization from data previously recorded or from the study of relics and ruins encountered in excavations.

055.067-010 ANTHROPOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Makes comparative studies in relations to distribution, origin, evolution, and races of humans, cultures they have created, and their distribution and physical characteristics: Gathers, analyzes, and reports data on human physique, social customs, and artifacts, such as weapons, tools, pottery, and clothing. May apply anthropological data and techniques to solution of problems in human relations in fields, such as industrial relations, race and ethnic relations, social work, political administration, education, public health, and programs involving transcultural or foreign relations. May specialize in application of anthropological concepts to current problems and be designated Applied Anthropologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in study of relationships between language and culture and socialinguistic studies and be designated Anthropological Linguist (profess. & kin.); or in study of relationship between individual personality and culture and be designated Psychological Anthropologist (profess. & kin.); or in study of complex, industrialized societies and be designated Urban Anthropologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

055.067-014 ANTHROPOLOGIST, PHYSICAL (profess. & kin.)

Studies meanings and causes of human physical differences and interrelated effects of culture, heredity, and environment on human form: Studies human fossils and their meaning in terms of long-range human evolution. Observes and measures bodily variations and physical attributes of existing human types. Studies physical and physiological adaptations to differing environments and hereditary characteristics of living populations. Studies growth patterns, sexual differences, and aging phenomena of human groups, current and past. May study museum collections of skeletal remains. May specialize in measurement of body or skeleton and be designated Anthropometrist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in epidemiology and nutritional studies, especially in developing or preliterate societies, and be designated Medical Anthropologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

055.067-018 ARCHEOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Reconstructs record of extinct cultures, especially preliterate cultures: Studies, classifies, and interprets artifacts, architectural features, and types of structures recovered by excavation in order to determine age and cultural identity. Establishes chronological sequence of development of each culture from simpler to more advanced levels. May specialize in study of literate periods of major civilizations in Near and Middle East and be designated Archeologist, Classical (profess. & kin.). May specialize in study of past Columbian history of the Americas and be designated Historical Archeologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

055.067-022 ETHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Makes comparative studies of cultures or of selected aspects of cultures of living peoples and of peoples no longer in existence in order to determine historical relations, arrive at typological classifications, and make generalizations concerning cultural process and human behavior: Studies cultures of societies, particularly preindustrial and non-Western societies, including social and political organization, religion, economics, mythology and traditions, and intellectual and artistic life. May formulate general laws of cultural development, general rules of social and cultural behavior, or general value orientations. May specialize in description of details of custom and belief and their interrelations in one culture at a time and be designated Ethnographer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

055.381-010 CONSERVATOR, ARTIFACTS (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: preservationist

Cleans, restores, and preserves archeological specimens and historical artifacts according to accepted chemical and physical techniques and training in archeological science: Cleans and repairs or reinforces specimens, such as weapons, mummified remains, and pottery, using handtools and prescribed chemical agents. Restores artifacts by polishing, joining together broken fragments, or other procedures, using handtools, power tools, and acid, chemical, or electrolytic corrosion-removal baths. Treats specimens to prevent or minimize deterioration, according to accepted procedures. Records treatment of each artifact. Prepares reports of activities. May plan and conduct research to improve methods of restoring and preserving specimen.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with the application of the theoretical or practical aspects of social sciences.

059.067-010 PHILOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies structure and development of specific language or language group: Traces origin and evolution of words and syntax through comparative analysis of ancient parent languages and modern language groups, studying word and structural characteristics, such as morphology, semantics, phonology, accent, grammar, and literature. Identifies and classifies obscure languages, both ancient and modern, according to family and origin. Reconstructs and deciphers ancient languages from examples found in archeological remains of past civilizations. May specialize in study of origin, history, and development of words and be designated Etymologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M1 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

059.067-014 SCIENTIFIC LINGUIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: linguist

Studies components, structure, and relationships within specified language to provide comprehension of its social functioning: Prepares description of sounds, forms, and vocabulary of language. Contributes to development of linguistic theory. Applies linguistic theory to any of following areas: development of improved methods in translation, including computerization; teaching of language to other than native speakers; preparation of language-teaching materials, dictionaries, and handbooks; reducing previously unwritten languages to standardized written form; preparation of literacy materials; preparation of tests for language-learning aptitudes and language proficiency; consultation with government agencies regarding language programs; or preparation of descriptions of comparative languages to facilitate improvement of teaching and translation.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

059.167-010 INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.)

Plans and directs research into proposed problem solutions or courses of action to determine feasibility of military planning alternatives: Confers with military leaders and supporting personnel to determine dimensions of problem and discuss proposals for solution. Develops plans for predicting such factors as cost and probable success of each alternative, according to accepted operations research techniques and mathematical or computer formulations. Evaluates results of research and prepares recommendations for implementing or rejecting proposed solutions or plans. May be designated according to nature of research conducted as Air Intelligence Specialist (profess. & kin.); Combat Operations Research Specialist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

059.267-010 INTELLIGENCE SPECIALIST (government ser.)

Evaluates data concerning subversive activities, enemy propaganda, and military or political conditions in foreign countries to facilitate counteraction by United States, according to familiarity with geography, cultural traditions, and social, political, and economic structure of countries under consideration.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

059.267-014 INTELLIGENCE SPECIALIST (military ser.)

Collects, records, analyzes, and disseminates tactical, strategic, or technical intelligence information: Segregates and records incoming intelligence data according to type of data to facilitate comparison, study, and accessibility. Prepares and analyzes information concerning strength, equipment, location, disposition, organization, and movement of enemy forces. Assists intelligence officers in analysis and selection of aerial bombardment targets. Compiles intelligence information to be used in preparing situation maps, charts, visual aids, briefing papers, reports, and publications. Briefs and debriefs ground or aviation personnel prior to and after missions. Maintains intelligence libraries, including maps, charts, documents, and other items. Plans or assists superiors in planning and supervising intelligence activities of unit assigned. May examine source materials and compile terrain intelligence, such as condition of travel routes over land, port facilities, and sources of water, sand, gravel, rock, and timbers.
GOE: 04.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This division includes occupations concerned with the health care of humans or animals in the fields of medicine, surgery, and dentistry; and in related patient-care areas, such as nursing, therapy, dietetics, prosthetics, rehabilitation, diagnostic imaging, and pharmacy. Also includeed are occupations in sanitation, environmental and public health, and in laboratories and other health facilities. Many occupations in this category require licensing or registration to practice or use a specific title.


This group includes occupations concerned with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries; and research in the causes, transmission, and control of diseases and other ailments.

070.061-010 PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: medical pathologist

Studies nature, cause, and development of diseases, and structural and functional changes caused by them: Diagnoses, from body tissue, fluids, secretions, and other specimens, presence and stage of disease, utilizing laboratory procedures. Acts as consultant to other medical practitioners. Performs autopsies to determine nature and extent of disease, cause of death, and effects of treatment. May direct activities of pathology department in medical school, hospital, clinic, medical examiner's office, or research institute. May be designated according to specialty as Clinical Pathologist (medical ser.); Forensic Pathologist (medical ser.); Neuropathologist (medical ser.); Surgical Pathologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-010 ANESTHESIOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Administers anesthetics to render patients insensible to pain during surgical, obstetrical, and other medical procedures: Examines patient to determine degree of surgical risk, and type of anesthetic and sedation to administer, and discusses findings with medical practitioner concerned with case. Positions patient on operating table and administers local, intravenous, spinal, caudal, or other anesthetic according to prescribed medical standards. Institutes remedial measures to counteract adverse reactions or complications. Records type and amount of anesthetic and sedation administered and condition of patient before, during, and after anesthesia. May instruct medical students and other personnel in characteristics and methods of administering various types of anesthetics, signs and symptoms of reactions and complications, and emergency measures to employ.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-014 CARDIOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: heart specialist

Diagnoses and treats diseases of heart and its functions: Examines patient for symptoms indicative of heart disorders, using medical instruments and equipment. Studies diagnostic images and electrocardiograph recordings to aid in making diagnoses. Prescribes medications, and recommends dietary and activity program, as indicated. Refers patient to SURGEON (medical ser.) 070.101-094 specializing in cardiac cases when need for corrective surgery is indicated. May engage in research to study anatomy of and diseases peculiar to heart.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 87

070.101-018 DERMATOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: skin specialist

Diagnoses and treats diseases of human skin: Examines skin to determine nature of disease, taking blood samples and smears from affected areas, and performing other laboratory procedures. Examines specimens under microscope, and makes various chemical and biological analyses and performs other tests to identify disease-causing organisms or pathological conditions. Prescribes and administers medications, and applies superficial radiotherapy and other localized treatments. Treats abscesses, skin injuries, and other skin infections, and surgically excises cutaneous malignancies, cysts, birthmarks, and other growths. Treats scars, using dermabrasion.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-022 GENERAL PRACTITIONER (medical ser.) alternate titles: physician, general practice

Diagnoses and treats variety of diseases and injuries in general practice: Examines patients, using medical instruments and equipment. Orders or executes various tests, analyses, and diagnostic images to provide information on patient's condition. Analyzes reports and findings of tests and of examination, and diagnoses condition. Administers or prescribes treatments and drugs. Inoculates and vaccinates patients to immunize patients from communicable diseases. Advises patients concerning diet, hygiene, and methods for prevention of disease. Provides prenatal care to pregnant women, delivers babies, and provides postnatal care to mother and infant [OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) 070.101-054]. Reports births, deaths, and outbreak of contagious diseases to governmental authorities. Refers patients to medical specialist or other practitioner for specialized treatment. Performs minor surgery. May make house and emergency calls to attend to patients unable to visit office or clinic. May conduct physical examinations to provide information needed for admission to school, consideration for jobs, or eligibility for insurance coverage. May provide care for passengers and crew aboard ship and be designated Ship's Doctor (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-026 FAMILY PRACTITIONER (medical ser.) alternate titles: family physician

Provides comprehensive medical services for members of family, regardless of age or sex, on continuing basis: Examines patients, using medical instruments and equipment. Elicits and records information about patient's medical history. Orders or executes various tests, analyses, and diagnostic images to provide information on patient's condition. Analyzes reports and findings of tests and examination, and diagnoses condition of patient. Administers or prescribes treatments and medications. Promotes health by advising patients concerning diet, hygiene, and methods for prevention of disease. Inoculates and vaccinates patients to immunize patients from communicable diseases. Provides prenatal care to pregnant women, delivers babies, and provides postnatal care to mothers and infants [OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) 070.101-054]. Performs surgical procedures commensurate with surgical competency. Refers patients to medical specialist for consultant services when necessary for patient's well-being.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-034 GYNECOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of female genital, urinary, and rectal organs: Examines patient to determine medical problem, utilizing physical findings, diagnostic images, laboratory test results, and patient's statements as diagnostic aids. Discusses problem with patient, and prescribes medication and exercise or hygiene regimen, or performs surgery as needed to correct malfunctions or remove diseased organ. May care for patient throughout pregnancy and deliver babies [OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) 070.101-054].
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-042 INTERNIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: internal medicine specialist

Diagnoses and treats diseases and injuries of human internal organ systems: Examines patient for symptoms of organic or congenital disorders and determines nature and extent of injury or disorder, referring to diagnostic images and tests, and using medical instruments and equipment. Prescribes medication and recommends dietary and activity program, as indicated by diagnosis. Refers patient to medical specialist when indicated.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-046 PUBLIC HEALTH PHYSICIAN (medical ser.)

Plans and participates in medical care or research program in hospital, clinic, or other public medical facility: Provides medical care for eligible persons, and institutes program of preventive health care in county, city, or other government or civic division. Gives vaccinations, imposes quarantines, and establishes standards for hospitals, restaurants, and other areas of possible danger. May conduct research in particular areas of medicine to aid in cure and control of disease. May be designated Medical Officer (government ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-050 NEUROLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: nerve specialist

Diagnoses and treats organic diseases and disorders of nervous system: Orders and studies results of chemical, microscopic, biological, and bacteriological analyses of patient's blood and cerebro-spinal fluid to determine nature and extent of disease or disorder. Identifies presence of pathological blood conditions or parasites and prescribes and administers medications and drugs. Orders and studies results of electroencephalograms or x rays to detect abnormalities in brain wave patterns, or indications of abnormalities in brain structure. Advises patient to contact other medical specialist, as indicated.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-054 OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.)

Treats women during prenatal, natal, and postnatal periods: Examines patient to ascertain condition, utilizing physical findings, laboratory results, and patient's statements as diagnostic aids. Determines need for modified diet and physical activities, and recommends plan. Periodically examines patient, prescribing medication or surgery, if indicated. Delivers infant, and cares for mother for prescribed period of time following childbirth. Performs cesarean section or other surgical procedure as needed to preserve patient's health and deliver infant safely. May treat patients for diseases of generative organs [GYNECOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-034].
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-058 OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: eye specialist; oculist

Diagnoses and treats diseases and injuries of eyes: Examines patient for symptoms indicative of organic or congenital ocular disorders, and determines nature and extent of injury or disorder. Performs various tests to determine vision loss. Prescribes and administers medications, and performs surgery, if indicated. Directs remedial activities to aid in regaining vision, or to utilize sight remaining, by writing prescriptions for corrective glasses, and instructing patient in eye exercises.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-062 OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: otorhinolaryngologist

Diagnoses and treats diseases of ear, nose, and throat: Examines affected organs, using equipment such as audiometers, prisms, nasoscopes, microscopes, x-ray machines, and fluoroscopes. Determines nature and extent of disorder, and prescribes and administers medications, or performs surgery. Performs tests to determine extent of loss of hearing due to aural or other injury, and speech loss as result of diseases or injuries to larynx. May specialize in treating throat, ear, or nose and be designated Laryngologist (medical ser.); Otologist (medical ser.); Rhinologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 87

070.101-066 PEDIATRICIAN (medical ser.)

Plans and carries out medical care program for children from birth through adolescence to aid in mental and physical growth and development: Examines patients to determine presence of disease and to establish preventive health practices. Determines nature and extent of disease or injury, prescribes and administers medications and immunizations, and performs variety of medical duties.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-070 PHYSIATRIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: physical medicine specialist

Specializes in clinical and diagnostic use of physical agents and exercises to provide physiotherapy for physical, mental, and occupational rehabilitation of patients: Examines patient, utilizing electrodiagnosis and other diagnostic procedures to determine need for and extent of therapy. Prescribes and administers treatment, using therapeutic methods and procedures, such as light therapy, diathermy, hydrotherapy, iontophoresis, and cryotherapy. Instructs PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) 076.121-014 and other personnel in nature and duration or dosage of treatment, and determines that treatments are administered as specified. Prescribes exercises designed to develop functions of specific anatomical parts or specific muscle groups. Recommends occupational therapy activities for patients with extended convalescent periods and for those whose disability requires change of occupation.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-078 PHYSICIAN, OCCUPATIONAL (medical ser.) alternate titles: company doctor; physician, industrial

Diagnoses and treats work-related illnesses and injuries of employees, and conducts fitness-for-duty physical examinations: Attends patients in plant or hospital, and reexamines disability cases periodically to verify progress. Oversees maintenance of case histories, health examination reports, and other medical records. Formulates and administers health programs. Inspects plant and makes recommendations regarding sanitation and elimination of health hazards.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-082 POLICE SURGEON (medical ser.) alternate titles: surgeon, chief

Examines and treats members of municipal police force for duty-related injuries and illnesses and gives first-aid treatment to civilians under arrest: Examines and reports physical condition of applicants for police force. Maintains records of sick personnel. Examines officers who claim disability and, upon proof of such disability, issues required certificate. Reports charges against officers who feign illness or injury to evade duty or whose illness or injury results from improper conduct, intemperance, or habits. Prepares annual report on activities and evaluation of physical condition of police force.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-086 PROCTOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of anus, rectum, and colon: Diagnoses diseases and disorders utilizing techniques, such as discussion of symptoms and medical history with patient, instrumental inspection of rectum and colon, examination of diagnostic images of affected parts, and evaluation of laboratory test results. Treats diseases and disorders by surgical removal or repair of diseased or malfunctioning parts, or by prescription of medication and suggestions for adaptation of patient's living habits.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-090 RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Diagnoses and treats diseases of human body, using x-ray and radioactive substances: Examines internal structures and functions of organ systems, making diagnoses after correlation of x-ray findings with other examinations and tests. Treats benign and malignant internal and external growths by exposure to radiation from x-rays, high energy sources, and natural and manmade radioisotopes directed at or implanted in affected areas of body. Administers radiopaque substances by injection, orally, or as enemas to render internal structures and organs visible on x-ray films or fluoroscopic screens. May specialize in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology. May diagnose and treat diseases of human body, using radioactive substances, and be certified in Nuclear Radiology or Nuclear Medicine.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-094 SURGEON (medical ser.)

Performs surgery to correct deformities, repair injuries, prevent diseases, and improve function in patients: Examines patient to verify necessity of operation, estimate possible risk to patient, and determine best operational procedure. Reviews reports of patient's general physical condition, reactions to medications, and medical history. Examines instruments, equipment, and surgical setup to ensure that antiseptic and aseptic methods have been followed. Performs operations, using variety of surgical instruments and employing established surgical techniques appropriate for specific procedures. May specialize in particular type of operation, as on nervous system, and be designated Neurosurgeon (medical ser). May specialize in repair, restoration, or improvement of lost, injured, defective, or misshapen body parts and be designated Plastic Surgeon (medical ser.). May specialize in correction or prevention of skeletal abnormalities, utilizing surgical, medical, and physical methodologies, and be designated Orthopedic Surgeon (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 88

070.101-098 UROLOGIST (medical ser.)

Diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of genitourinary organs and tract: Examines patient, using x-ray machine, fluoroscope, and other equipment to aid in determining nature and extent of disorder or injury. Treats patient, using diathermy machine, catheter, cystoscope, radium emanation tube, and similar equipment. Performs surgery, as indicated. Prescribes and administers urinary antiseptics to combat infection.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 88

070.101-102 ALLERGIST-IMMUNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: allergist; allergy specialist

Diagnoses and treats diseases and conditions with allergic or immunologic causes: Examines patient, utilizing medical instruments and equipment, patch tests, and blood tests as diagnostic aids. Elicits and records information about patient's history. Analyses reports and test results and prescribes treatment or medication for conditions, such as bronchial asthma, dermatological disorders, connective tissue syndromes, transplantation, and autoimmunity. Refers patients to ancillary and consultant services when indicated.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 88

070.107-014 PSYCHIATRIST (medical ser.)

Diagnoses and treats patients with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders: Organizes data concerning patient's family, medical history, and onset of symptoms obtained from patient, relatives, and other sources, such as NURSE, GENERAL DUTY (medical ser.) 075.364-010 and SOCIAL WORKER, PSYCHIATRIC (profess. & kin.) 195.107-034. Examines patient to determine general physical condition, following standard medical procedures. Orders laboratory and other special diagnostic tests and evaluates data obtained. Determines nature and extent of mental disorder, and formulates treatment program. Treats or directs treatment of patient, utilizing variety of psychotherapeutic methods and medications.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88


This group includes occupations concerned with the application of manipulative procedures in treating patients, in addition to the other accepted methods of medical care. Includes diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries; research in the causes, transmission, and control of disease and other ailments.

071.101-010 OSTEOPATHIC PHYSICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: doctor, osteopathic; osteopath

Diagnoses and treats diseases and injuries of human body, relying upon accepted medical and surgical modalities: Examines patient to determine symptoms attributable to impairments in musculoskeletal system. Corrects disorders and afflictions of bones, muscles, nerves, and other body systems by medicinal and surgical procedures and, when deemed beneficial, manipulative therapy. Employs diagnostic images, drugs, and other aids to diagnose and treat bodily impairments. May practice medical or surgical speciality.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89


This group includes occupations concerned with examination, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of ailments or abnormalities of gums ,jaws, soft tissue, and teeth. Includes oral surgery.

072.061-010 ORAL PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Studies nature, cause, and development of diseases associated with mouth: Examines patient's mouth, jaw, face, and associated areas and obtains specimen, using medical instruments. Examines specimen from patient's mouth or associated area to determine pathological conditions, such as tumors and lesions, using microscope and other laboratory equipment and applying knowledge of medical pathology and dentistry. Discusses diagnosis with patient and referring practitioner.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-010 DENTIST (medical ser.)

Diagnoses and treats diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums, and related oral structures: Examines patient to determine nature of condition, utilizing x rays, dental instruments, and other diagnostic procedures. Cleans, fills, extracts, and replaces teeth, using rotary and hand instruments, dental appliances, medications, and surgical implements. Provides preventive dental services to patient, such as applications of fluoride and sealants to teeth, and education in oral and dental hygiene.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-014 ENDODONTIST (medical ser.)

Examines, diagnoses, and treats diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting vitality of teeth: Examines teeth, gums, and related tissues to determine condition, using dental instruments, x ray, and other diagnostic equipment. Diagnoses condition and plans treatment. Treats exposure of pulp by pulp capping or removal of pulp from pulp chamber and root canal, using dental instruments. Performs partial or total removal of pulp, using surgical instruments. Treats infected root canal and related tissues, and fills pulp chamber and canal with endodontic materials. Removes pathologic tissue at apex of tooth, surgically. Reinserts teeth that have been knocked out of mouth by accident. Bleaches discolored teeth to restore natural color.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-018 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGEON (medical ser.) alternate titles: oral surgeon

Performs surgery on mouth, jaws, and related head and neck structure: Executes difficult and multiple extraction of teeth. Removes tumors and other abnormal growths. Performs preprosthetic surgery to prepare mouth for insertion of dental prosthesis. Corrects abnormal jaw relations by mandibular or maxillary revision. Treats fractures of jaws. Administers general and local anesthetics. May treat patients in hospital.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-022 ORTHODONTIST (medical ser.)

Examines, diagnoses, and treats abnormalities in development of jaws, position of teeth, and other dental-facial structures: Plans treatment, using cephalometric, height, and weight records, dental x rays, and front and lateral dental photographs. Designs and fabricates appliances, such as space maintainers, retainers, and labial and lingual arch wires, to alter position and relationship of teeth and jaws, and to realign teeth to produce and maintain normal function.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-026 PEDIATRIC DENTIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: pedodontist

Provides dental care for infants, children, and adolescents: Fabricates space maintainers designed for patients. Treats primary and secondary teeth and constructs and places bridges, dentures, and obturating appliances suitable for growing arches. Manages patients with behavioral problems or handicapping conditions. Counsels and advises patients and family on growth and development dental problems of patient. Provides preventive services through use of fluorides and sealants and instructs patient and family members on dental care.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

072.101-030 PERIODONTIST (medical ser.)

Diagnoses and treats inflammatory and destructive diseases of investing and supporting tissue of teeth: Cleans and polishes teeth, eliminates irritating margins of fillings, and corrects occlusions. Performs surgical procedures to remove diseased tissue, using dental instruments. Establishes recall treatment program to monitor oral health practices.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-034 PROSTHODONTIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: prosthetic dentist

Restores and maintains oral functions: Records physiologic position of jaws to determine shape and size of dental prostheses, using face bows, dental articulators, and other recording devices. Replaces missing teeth and associated oral structures with artificial teeth to improve chewing, speech, and appearance. Corrects natural and acquired deformation of mouth and jaws through use of prosthetic appliances.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-038 PUBLIC-HEALTH DENTIST (medical ser.)

Plans, organizes, and maintains dental health program of public health agency: Analyzes dental needs of community to determine changes and trends in patterns of dental disease. Instructs community, school, and other groups on preventive oral health care services. Produces and evaluates dental health educational materials. Provides clinical and laboratory dental care and services. Instigates methods for evaluating changes in dental health status and needs of community.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.117-010 DIRECTOR, DENTAL SERVICES (medical ser.)

Administers dental program in hospital and directs departmental activities in accordance with accepted national standards and administrative policies: Confers with hospital administrators to formulate policies and recommend procedural changes. Establishes training program to advance knowledge and clinical skill levels of resident dentists studying for dental specializations. Implements procedures for hiring of professional staff and approves hiring and promotion of staff members. Establishes work schedules and assigns staff members to duty stations to maximize efficient use of staff. Observes and assists staff members at work to ensure safe and ethical practices and to solve problems and demonstrate techniques. Confers with hospital administrator to submit budget and statistical reports used to justify expenditures for equipment, supplies, and personnel.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89


This group includes occupations concerned with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of animal disorders. Includes occupations in veterinary bacteriology, epidemiology, virology, pathology, and pharmacology.


Examines, diagnoses, and treats diseases of laboratory animals to ensure health of animals used in scientific research and to comply with regulations governing their humane and ethical treatment: Examines animals to detect indications of disease or injury, and treats animals when indications are found, to prevent spread of disease to other animals or workers. Discusses research projects with associates to plan procedures and selects animals for specific research based on knowledge of species and research principles and techniques. Participates in research projects. Oversees activities concerned with feeding, care, and maintenance of animal quarters to ensure compliance with laboratory regulations.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

073.061-014 VETERINARY ANATOMIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies form and structure of animals, both gross and microscopic. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.061-018 VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies biology, ecology, etiology, bacteriology, virology, and immunology of micro-organisms causing diseases in animals: Prepares laboratory cultures of micro-organisms taken from body fluids and tissues of diseased animals and identifies them by microscopic examination and bacteriological tests. Tests virulence of pathogenic organisms by observing effects of inoculations on laboratory and other animals. Investigates efficiency of vaccines, antigens, antibiotics, and other materials in prevention, diagnosis, and control of animal diseases. May specialize in bacteria causing animal diseases and be known as Veterinary Bacteriologist (profess & kin.). May specialize in study of viruses and rickettsiae and be known as Veterinary Virologist (profess. & kin.). May be required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

073.061-022 VETERINARY EPIDEMIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies factors influencing existence and spread of diseases among humans and animals, particularly those diseases transmissible from animals to humans. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.061-026 VETERINARY PARASITOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies animal parasites that attack domestic animals and poultry: Conducts research to determine control and preventive measures, utilizing chemicals, heat, electricity, and other methods. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.061-030 VETERINARY PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: clinical veterinarian

Studies nature, cause, and development of animal diseases, and structural and functional changes resulting from them: Conducts tests, performs biopsies, and analyzes body tissue, fluids and other specimens to diagnose presence and stage of disease in animals, and probable source of contamination or infection. Conducts further research to expand scope of findings, or recommends treatment to consulting veterinary personnel. May direct activities of veterinary pathology department in educational institution or industrial establishment.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

073.061-034 VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies drugs, including materia medica and therapeutics, as related to veterinary medicine. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.061-038 VETERINARY PHYSIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Studies function and mechanism of systems and organs in healthy and diseased animals. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.101-010 VETERINARIAN (medical ser.)

Diagnoses, and treats diseases and injuries of pets, such as dogs and cats, and farm animals, such as cattle or sheep: Examines animal to determine nature of disease or injury and treats animal surgically or medically. Tests dairy herds, horses, sheep, and other animals for diseases and inoculates animals against rabies, brucellosis, and other disorders. Advises animal owners about sanitary measures, feeding, and general care to promote health of animals. May engage in research, teaching, or production of commercial products. May specialize in prevention and control of communicable animal diseases and be designated Veterinarian, Public Health (medical ser.). May specialize in diagnosis and treatment of animal diseases, using roentgen rays and radioactive substances, and be designated Veterinary Radiologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

073.101-014 VETERINARIAN, POULTRY (agriculture)

Advises individual poultry raisers on poultry problems: Gathers from owner information on care, condition, performance, and action of birds. Inspects flocks, pens, and housing. Diagnoses disease and prescribes treatment. Culls undesirable birds from flock. Suggests feed changes to increase egg production or growth of fowls.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.101-018 ZOO VETERINARIAN (medical ser.)

Plans, directs, and participates in health care program of veterinary clinic in zoo: Establishes and conducts effective quarantine and testing procedures for all incoming animals to ensure health of collection, prevent spread of disease, and comply with government regulations. Conducts regularly scheduled immunization and preventive care programs to maintain health of animals and guard against communicable diseases. Provides immediate medical attention to diseased or traumatized animals. Participates with other personnel in planning and executing nutrition and reproduction programs for animals in zoo. Develops special programs to encourage reproduction among animals designated as endangered species, based on knowledge of native habitat and instincts. Participates in employee training in handling and care of animals. Conducts postmortem studies and analyses. Cooperates with zoo and aquarium personnel to exchange information concerning care of animals, to arrange transfer, sale, or trade of animals, and to maintain nationwide inventory of animals of every species, including notation of live births. Acts as consultant to veterinarians in general practice seeking advice in treatment of exotic animals.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

073.161-010 VETERINARY LIVESTOCK INSPECTOR (government ser.)

Inspects animals for presence of disease: Performs standard clinical tests and submits specimens of tissues and other parts for laboratory analysis. Reports existence of disease conditions to state and federal authorities. Advises livestock owners of economic aspects of disease eradication and advises consumers of public health implications of diseases transmissible from animals to humans. May institute and enforce quarantine or other regulations governing import, export, and interstate movement of livestock. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

073.261-010 VETERINARY VIRUS-SERUM INSPECTOR (government ser.)

Inspects establishments where serums, toxins, and similar products, used in treatment of animals, are manufactured to enforce state or federal standards of sanitation, purity, labeling, and storage. Examines animals used in production process to determine if diseases are present. Inspects production areas to determine that standards of sanitation are being maintained. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

073.264-010 VETERINARY MEAT-INSPECTOR (government ser.) alternate titles: veterinary medical officer

Inspects establishments engaged in slaughtering livestock and processing meat intended for intrastate, interstate, and foreign shipment to enforce municipal, state, or federal standards: Examines animal and carcass before and after slaughtering to detect evidence of disease or other abnormal conditions. Determines that ingredients used in processing and marketing meat and meat products comply with standards of purity and grading, and that products are not adulterated or misbranded. Inspects processing areas to ensure sanitary conditions are maintained. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. May specialize in inspecting establishments engaged in processing milk and milk products and be designated Veterinary Milk-Specialist (government ser.); or inspecting establishments engaged in processing poultry and edible poultry products and be designated Veterinary-Poultry Inspector (government ser.).
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 78


This group includes occupations concerned with compounding prescriptions of physicians, dentists, and other practitioners; and the bulk selection, compounding, dispensing, and preservation of drugs and medicines.

074.161-010 PHARMACIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: druggist

Compounds and dispenses prescribed medications, drugs, and other pharmaceuticals for patient care, according to professional standards and state and federal legal requirements: Reviews prescriptions issued by physician, or other authorized prescriber to assure accuracy and determine formulas and ingredients needed. Compounds medications, using standard formulas and processes, such as weighing, measuring, and mixing ingredients. Directs pharmacy workers engaged in mixing, packaging, and labeling pharmaceuticals. Answers questions and provides information to pharmacy customers on drug interactions, side effects, dosage and storage of pharmaceuticals. Maintains established procedures concerning quality assurance, security of controlled substances, and disposal of hazardous waste drugs. Enters data, such as patient name, prescribed medication and cost, to maintain pharmacy files, charge system, and inventory. May assay medications to determine identity, purity, and strength. May instruct interns and other medical personnel on matters pertaining to pharmacy, or teach in college of pharmacy. May work in hospital pharmacy and be designated Pharmacist, Hospital (medical ser.)
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

074.161-014 RADIOPHARMACIST (medical ser.)

Prepares and dispenses radioactive pharmaceuticals used for patient diagnosis and therapy, applying principles and practices of pharmacy and radiochemistry: Receives radiopharmaceutical prescription from physician and reviews prescription to determine suitability of radiopharmaceutical for intended use. Verifies that specified radioactive substance and reagent will give desired results in examination or treatment procedures, utilizing knowledge of radiopharmaceutical preparation and principles of drug biodistribution. Calculates volume of radioactive pharmaceutical required to provide patient with desired level of radioactivity at prescribed time, according to established rates of radioisotope decay. Compounds radioactive substances and reagents to prepare radiopharmaceutical, following radiopharmacy laboratory procedures. Assays prepared radiopharmaceutical, using measuring and analysis instruments and equipment, such as ionization chamber, pulse-height analyzer, and radioisotope dose calibrator, to verify rate of drug disintegration and to ensure that patient receives required dose. Consults with physician following patient treatment or procedure to review and evaluate quality and effectiveness of radiopharmaceutical. Conducts research to develop or improve radiopharmaceuticals. Prepares reports for regulatory agencies to obtain approval for testing and use of new radiopharmaceuticals. Maintains control records for receipt, storage, preparation, and disposal of radioactive nuclei. Occasionally conducts training for students and medical professionals concerning radiopharmacy use, characteristics, and compounding procedures.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

074.167-010 DIRECTOR, PHARMACY SERVICES (medical ser.)

Directs and coordinates, through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities and functions of hospital pharmacy: Plans and implements procedures in hospital pharmacy according to hospital policies and legal requirements. Directs pharmacy personnel programs, such as hiring, training, and intern programs. Confers with computer personnel to develop computer programs for pharmacy information management systems, patient and department charge systems, and inventory control. Analyzes records to indicate prescribing trends and excessive usage. Prepares pharmacy budget and department reports required by hospital administrators. Attends staff meetings to advise and inform hospital medical staff of drug applications and characteristics. Observes pharmacy personnel at work and develops quality assurance techniques to ensure safe, legal, and ethical practices. Oversees preparation and dispensation of experimental drugs.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

074.381-010 PHARMACIST ASSISTANT (military ser.)

Mixes and dispenses prescribed medicines and pharmaceutical preparations in absence of or under supervision of PHARMACIST (medical ser.): Compounds preparations according to prescriptions issued by medical, dental, or veterinary officers. Pours, weighs, or measures dosages and grinds, heats, filters, or dissolves and mixes liquid or soluble drugs and chemicals. Procures, stores, and issues pharmaceutical materials and supplies. Maintains files and records and submits required pharmacy reports.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

074.382-010 PHARMACY TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: pharmacy clerk

Performs any combination of following duties to assist PHARMACIST (medical ser.) 074.161-010 in hospital pharmacy or retail establishment: Mixes pharmaceutical preparations, fills bottles with prescribed tablets and capsules, and types labels for bottles. Assists PHARMACIST (medical ser.) to prepare and dispense medication. Receives and stores incoming supplies. Counts stock and enters data in computer to maintain inventory records. Processes records of medication and equipment dispensed to hospital patient, computes charges, and enters data in computer. Prepares intravenous (IV) packs, using sterile technique, under supervision of hospital pharmacist. Cleans equipment and sterilizes glassware according to prescribed methods.
GOE: 05.09.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 87


This group includes occupations concerned with administering nursing care to the ill or injured. Includes nursing administration and instruction; and public health, industrial, private duty, and surgical nursing. Licensing or registration is required.

075.117-010 CONSULTANT, EDUCATIONAL, STATE BOARD OF NURSING (government ser.) alternate titles: director, educational board of nurse examiners

Directs activities concerned with maintaining educational standards established by board of nursing or other legally authorized agency: Participates in development and implementation of philosophy, purpose, policies, and plans of board of agency, and consults with and advises administrators of nursing schools in regard to curricula and facilities for instruction. Plans and conducts surveys of nursing schools and advises institutions desiring to establish schools on policies and procedures. Maintains current and comprehensive records and reports and keeps informed on trends and developments within the profession. May assist with administrative functions.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-014 DIRECTOR, COMMUNITY-HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: director, public-health nursing

Administers nursing service in community health agency: Coordinates and evaluates nursing activities in agency to ensure balanced and adequate program, and to formulate progressive program designed to meet changing needs of community. Directs collection, analysis, and interpretation of statistics significant to program planning and budget preparation. Prepares and submits budget estimates for nursing activities. Participates in establishing programs for guidance and professional development of nursing staff, and in establishing personnel policies, qualifications, and salaries. Recruits, selects, and assigns personnel for nursing services. Plans nursing consulting services. Participates in community planning concerning health and social welfare problems. Consults with advisory committee in establishment of medical policies of community health agency.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-018 DIRECTOR, EDUCATIONAL, COMMUNITY-HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: director, educational, public-health nursing

Plans and directs educational program for community health agency: Develops educational plans for in-service education and orientation of health personnel. Confers with supervisors and staff to ensure efficiency of program. Cooperates with nursing specialists and supervisors to organize educational programs for staff and community. Obtains educational materials for use in teaching and demonstrating nursing and other health related activities. Confers with administrative personnel to determine procedures and techniques for patient care and to implement new programs. Assists in selecting nursing candidates and in orienting new employees. Cooperates with nursing schools and colleges in providing supervised field instruction for students to gain work experience and observe nursing techniques. Conducts surveys and analyses to determine adequacy of educational materials and effectiveness of program.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-022 DIRECTOR, NURSING SERVICE (medical ser.)

Administers nursing program in hospital, nursing home, or other medical facility to maintain standards of patient care, and advises medical staff, department heads, and administrators in matters related to nursing service: Recommends establishment or revision of policies and develops organizational structure and standards of performance. Interprets policies and objectives of nursing service to staff and community groups. Promotes working relationships with community agencies and with other establishment departments. Assists in preparation of departmental budget. Establishes personnel qualification requirements, drafts procedure manuals, initiates in-service programs, installs record and reporting system, and performs other personnel management tasks. Initiates studies to evaluate effectiveness of nursing services in relation to their objectives and costs. May assist nursing schools with curricular problems.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

075.117-026 DIRECTOR, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: director, industrial nursing

Plans with management, medical director, and legal counsel scope and objectives of nursing service in industrial establishment, and directs nursing activities: Determines qualifications, duties, and responsibilities of nursing staff, and assists in selection. Arranges for orientation of newly appointed nursing staff in company policy and nursing procedures. Prepares and maintains nursing policy and procedure manual. Evaluates nursing service and assists in evaluation of total health service. Establishes system of records and reports. Advises management in development and maintenance of plant sanitation and housekeeping practices. Develops nursing procedures for emergency and followup care of occupational and nonoccupational injuries and illnesses. Provides for health counseling and health education on individual or group basis. Interprets nursing functions in interdepartmental planning and coordination of health and welfare benefit programs. May visit branches and subsidiaries of company periodically to evaluate nursing service.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-030 DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: dean, school of nursing

Directs and administers educational program in school of nursing: Assists in preparation of budget, and administers program within budgetary limitations. Defines and interprets aims and policies of school. Interviews and appoints faculty and administrative staff. Participates in planning curriculums and schedule of instruction. Participates in establishing qualifications for faculty, staff, and students and in recruiting eligible candidates. Arranges with hospital and other institutions and agencies for students to use their facilities, under faculty supervision, for clinical experience. Maintains student records of educational experience and achievement. May arrange student living accommodations, and social and recreational opportunities. May advise institutions on educational problems.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-034 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, NURSES' ASSOCIATION (medical ser.) alternate titles: executive secretary, nurses' association

Administers program of professional nurses' association, as formulated by board of directors and association members: Participates in establishing objectives and policies of association, and interprets program to members and general public at general and professional meetings. Assists in organizing committees and aids in attaining objectives in such matters as legislation affecting nursing, employment conditions, health programs, and research designed to facilitate professional growth and efficiency. Publicizes program of association through various media.
GOE: 11.05.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.124-010 NURSE, SCHOOL (medical ser.)

Provides health care services to students: Plans school health program, in cooperation with medical authority and administrative school personnel. Participates in medical examinations and reviews findings to evaluate health status of pupils and progress of program. Instructs classes in subjects, such as child care, first aid, and home nursing, and establishes nursing policies to meet emergencies. Cooperates with school personnel in identifying and meeting social, emotional, and physical needs of school children. Administers immunizations, provides first-aid, and maintains health records of students. Counsels students in good health habits. Works with community agencies in planning facilities to meet needs of children outside school situation. May assist in program for care of handicapped children. May work in college and be designated Nurse, College (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

075.124-014 NURSE, STAFF, COMMUNITY HEALTH (medical ser.) alternate titles: public-health nurse

Instructs individuals and families in health education and disease prevention in community health agency: Visits homes to determine patient and family needs, develops plan to meet needs, and provides nursing services. Instructs family in care and rehabilitation of patient, and in maintenance of health and prevention of disease for family members. Gives treatments to patient following physician's instructions. Assists community members and health field personnel to assess, plan for, and provide needed health and related services. Refers patients with social and emotional problems to other community agencies for assistance. Teaches home nursing, maternal and child care, and other subjects related to individual and community welfare. Participates in programs to safeguard health of children, including child health conferences, school health, group instruction for parents, and immunization programs. Assists in preparation of special studies and in research programs. Directs treatment of patient by NURSE, LICENSED PRACTICAL (medical ser.) 079.374-014 and HOME ATTENDANT (personal ser.) 354.377-014. Cooperates with families, community agencies, and medical personnel to arrange for convalescent and rehabilitative care of sick or injured persons. May specialize in one phase of community health nursing, such as clinical pediatrics or tuberculosis.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.124-018 NURSE, INSTRUCTOR (medical ser.)

Demonstrates and teaches patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students and instructs students in principles and application of physical, biological, and psychological subjects related to nursing: Lectures to students, conducts and supervises laboratory work, issues assignments, and directs seminars and panels. Supervises student nurses and demonstrates patient care in clinical units of hospital. Prepares and administers examinations, evaluates student progress, and maintains records of student classroom and clinical experience. Participates in planning curriculum, teaching schedule, and course outline. Cooperates with medical and nursing personnel in evaluating and improving teaching and nursing practices. May specialize in specific subject, such as anatomy, chemistry, psychology, or nutrition, or in type of nursing activity, such as nursing of medical or surgical patients. May conduct classes for patients in health practices and procedures.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

075.127-010 INSTRUCTOR, PSYCHIATRIC AIDE (education)

Provides clinical and academic instruction in psychiatric nursing methods and procedures for PSYCHIATRIC AIDES (medical ser.): Plans curricular content and sequence. Prepares schedules and arranges for lectures given by members of hospital staff, or prepares orientation course for psychiatric aide trainees. Prepares study material and presents lectures and demonstrations. Observes student progress, conducts examinations, and compiles records. Confers with students and evaluates performances at end of training course. Assists with assignment of students to units.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.127-014 NURSE, CONSULTANT (medical ser.)

Advises hospitals, schools of nursing, industrial organizations, and public health groups on problems related to nursing activities and health services: Reviews and suggests changes in nursing organization and administrative procedures. Analyzes nursing techniques and recommends modifications. Aids schools in planning nursing curriculums, and hospitals and public health nursing services in developing and carrying out staff education programs. Provides assistance in developing guides and manuals for specific aspects of nursing services. Prepares educational materials and assists in planning and developing health and educational programs for industrial and community groups. Advises in services available through community resources. Consults with nursing groups concerning professional and educational problems. Prepares or furnishes data for articles and lectures. Participates in surveys and research studies.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.127-026 NURSE, SUPERVISOR, COMMUNITY-HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: supervisor, public-health nursing

Supervises and coordinates activities of nursing personnel in community health agency: Serves as liaison between staff and administrative personnel. Develops standards and procedures for providing nursing care and for evaluating service. Provides orientation, teaching, and guidance to staff to improve quality and quantity of service. Evaluates performance of personnel and interprets nursing standards to staff, advisory boards, nursing committees, and community groups. Recommends duty assignment of nursing personnel and coordinates services with other health and social agencies to render program more effective. Reviews, evaluates, and interprets nursing records, vital statistics, and other data affecting health service in order to assess community needs and to plan and implement programs to meet these needs. Assists in planning educational programs for nurses, related professional workers, and community groups to meet needs of personnel and practitioners. Assists in preparation of agency budget. May plan for and participate in field research related to community health nursing.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.127-030 NURSE, SUPERVISOR, EVENING-OR-NIGHT (medical ser.)

Plans, organizes, and directs activities for evening or night shift of hospital nursing department: Establishes policies and procedures for nursing department, following directions of hospital administrators. Observes techniques of and services rendered by nursing staff to ensure adherence to hospital guidelines. Demonstrates techniques for nursing students and new personnel to provide training and direction. Identifies problem areas in nursing department, such as understaffing, absenteeism, and wastefulness, and takes corrective action. Monitors use of supplies and equipment to avoid abuses and requisitions supplies. Responds to various departments requesting emergency assistance and assigns staff accordingly during emergencies. Prepares work schedule and assigns duties to nursing staff in department for efficient use of personnel.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

075.127-034 NURSE, INFECTION CONTROL (medical ser.)

Directs and coordinates infection control program in hospital: Compares laboratory reports with communicable diseases list to identify conditions that require infection control procedures. Advises and consults with physicians, nurses, and hospital personnel concerning precautions to be taken to protect patients, staff, and other persons from possible contamination or infection. Investigates infection control problems and arranges for follow-up care for persons exposed to infection or disease. Instructs hospital personnel in universal and specific infection control procedures.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

075.137-010 NURSE, SUPERVISOR, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse supervisor, industrial nursing

Directs employee health services of industrial organization: Interprets plant and departmental health policies and regulations to nursing staff and employees. Coordinates activities of personnel rendering assistance to physician and nursing care to employees. Trains nursing staff in techniques of industrial nursing. Participates in planning and executing health information programs designed to improve efficiency and reduce absentee and accident rates. Assists workers in securing medical or other aid. Establishes work schedules for nursing staff and requisitions supplies. May conduct classes in first aid and home nursing for employees. May recommend appointment of nursing personnel.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.137-014 NURSE, HEAD (medical ser.)

Supervises and coordinates nursing activities in hospital unit: Assigns duties and coordinates nursing service. Evaluates nursing activities to ensure patient care, staff relations, and efficiency of service. Observes nursing care and visits patients to ensure that nursing care is carried out as directed, and treatment administered in accordance with physician's instructions. Directs preparation and maintenance of patients' clinical records. Inspects rooms and wards for cleanliness and comfort. Accompanies physician on rounds, and keeps informed of special orders concerning patients. Participates in orientation and training of personnel. Orders, or directs ordering of drugs, solutions, and equipment, and maintains records on narcotics. Investigates and resolves complaints, or refers unusual problems to superior.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

075.167-010 NURSE, SUPERVISOR (medical ser.)

Directs, through head nurses, activities of nursing staff: Plans and organizes activities in nursing services, such as obstetrics, pediatrics, or surgery, or for two or more patient-care units to ensure patient needs are met in accordance with instructions of physician and hospital administrative procedures. Coordinates activities with other patient care units. Consults with NURSE, HEAD (medical ser.) 075.137-014 on nursing problems and interpretation of hospital policies to ensure patient needs are met. Plans and organizes orientation and in-service training for unit staff members, and participates in guidance and educational programs. Assists in formulating budget. Engages in studies and investigations related to improving nursing care.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

075.167-014 QUALITY ASSURANCE COORDINATOR (medical ser.)

Interprets and implements quality assurance standards in hospital to ensure quality care to patients: Reviews quality assurance standards, studies existing hospital policies and procedures, and interviews hospital personnel and patients to evaluate effectiveness of quality assurance program. Writes quality assurance policies and procedures. Reviews and evaluates patients' medical records, applying quality assurance criteria. Selects specific topics for review, such as problem procedures, drugs, high volume cases, high risk cases, or other factors. Compiles statistical data and writes narrative reports summarizing quality assurance findings. May review patient records, applying utilization review criteria, to determine need for admission and continued stay in hospital. May oversee personnel engaged in quality assurance review of medical records.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

075.264-010 NURSE PRACTITIONER (medical ser.) alternate titles: primary care nurse practitioner

Provides general medical care and treatment to patients in medical facility, such as clinic, health center, or public health agency, under direction of physician: Performs physical examinations and preventive health measures within prescribed guidelines and instructions of physician. Orders, interprets, and evaluates diagnostic tests to identify and assess patient's clinical problems and health care needs. Records physical findings, and formulates plan and prognosis, based on patient's condition. Discusses case with physician and other health professionals to prepare comprehensive patient care plan. Submits health care plan and goals of individual patients for periodic review and evaluation by physician. Prescribes or recommends drugs or other forms of treatment such as physical therapy, inhalation therapy, or related therapeutic procedures. May refer patients to physician for consultation or to specialized health resources for treatment. May be designated according to field of specialization as Pediatric Nurse Practitioner (medical ser.). Where state law permits, may engage in independent practice.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

075.264-014 NURSE-MIDWIFE (medical ser.)

Provides medical care and treatment to obstetrical patients under supervision of OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.), delivers babies, and instructs patients in prenatal and postnatal health practices: Participates in initial examination of obstetrical patient, and is assigned responsibility for care, treatment, and delivery of patient. Examines patient during pregnancy, utilizing physical findings, laboratory test results, and patient's statements to evaluate condition and ensure that patient's progress is normal. Discusses case with OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) to assure observation of specified practices. Instructs patient in diet and prenatal health practices. Stays with patient during labor to reassure patient and to administer medication. Delivers infant and performs postpartum examinations and treatments to ensure that patient and infant are responding normally. When deviations from standard are encountered during pregnancy or delivery, administers stipulated emergency measures, and arranges for immediate contact of OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.). Visits patient during postpartum period in hospital and at home to instruct patient in care of self and infant and examine patient. Maintains records of cases for inclusion in establishment file. Conducts classes for groups of patients and families to provide information concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and family orientation. May direct activities of other workers. May instruct in midwifery in establishment providing such training.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M5 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.364-010 NURSE, GENERAL DUTY (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse, staff

Provides general nursing care to patients in hospital, nursing home, infirmary, or similar health care facility: Administers prescribed medications and treatments in accordance with approved nursing techniques. Prepares equipment and aids physician during treatments and examinations of patients. Observes patient, records significant conditions and reactions, and notifies supervisor or physician of patient's condition and reaction to drugs, treatments, and significant incidents. Takes temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and other vital signs to detect deviations from normal and assess condition of patient. May rotate among various clinical services of institution, such as obstetrics, surgery, orthopedics, outpatient and admitting, pediatrics, and psychiatry. May prepare rooms, sterile instruments, equipment and supplies, and hand items to SURGEON (medical ser.) 070.101-094; OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) 070.101-054, or other medical practitioner. May make beds, bathe, and feed patients. May serve as leader for group of personnel rendering nursing care to number of patients.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

075.371-010 NURSE ANESTHETIST (medical ser.)

Administers local, inhalation, intravenous, and other anesthetics prescribed by ANESTHESIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-010 to induce total or partial loss of sensation or consciousness in patients during surgery, deliveries, or other medical and dental procedures: Fits mask to patient's face, turns dials and sets gauges of equipment to regulate flow of oxygen and gases to administer anesthetic by inhalation method, according to prescribed medical standards. Prepares prescribed solutions and administers local, intravenous, spinal, or other anesthetic, following specified methods and procedures. Notes patient's skin color and dilation of pupils and observes video screen and digital display of computerized equipment to monitor patient's vital signs during anesthesia. Initiates remedial measures to prevent surgical shock or other adverse conditions. Informs physician of patient's condition during anesthesia.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

075.374-014 NURSE, OFFICE (medical ser.)

Cares for and treats patients in medical office, as directed by physician: Prepares patient for and assists with examinations. Administers injections and medications, dresses wounds and incisions, interprets physician's instructions to patients, assists with emergency and minor surgery, and performs related tasks as directed. Maintains records of vital statistics and other pertinent data of patient. Cleans and sterilizes instruments and equipment, and maintains stock of supplies. May conduct specified laboratory tests. May record and develop electrocardiograms. May act as receptionist, perform secretarial duties, and prepare monthly statements.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

075.374-018 NURSE, PRIVATE DUTY (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse, special

Contracts independently to render nursing care, usually to one patient, in hospital or private home: Administers medications, treatments, dressings, and other nursing services, according to physician's instructions and condition of patient. Observes, evaluates, and records symptoms. Applies independent emergency measures to counteract adverse developments and notifies physician of patient's condition. Directs patient in good health habits. Gives information to family in treatment of patient and maintenance of healthful environment. Maintains equipment and supplies. Cooperates with community agencies furnishing assistance to patient. May supervise diet when employed in private home. May specialize in one field of nursing, such as obstetrics, psychiatry, or tuberculosis.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.374-022 NURSE, STAFF, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse, staff, industrial

Provides nursing service and first aid to employees or persons who become ill or injured on premises of department store, industrial plant, or other establishment: Takes patient's vital signs, treats wounds, evaluates physical condition of patient, and contacts physician and hospital to arrange for further medical treatment, when needed. Maintains record of persons treated, and prepares accident reports and insurance forms. Develops employee programs, such as health education, accident prevention, alcohol abuse counseling, curtailment of smoking, and weight control regimens. May assist physician in physical examination of new employees.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87


This group includes occupations concerned with the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with physical or mental disabilities or disorders, to develop or restore functions, prevent loss of physical capacities, and maintain optimum performance. Includes occupations utilizing means, such as exercise, massage, heat, light, water, electricity, and specific therapeutic apparatus, usually as prescribed by a physician; or participation in medically oriented rehabilitative programs, including educational, occupational, and recreational activities.

076.101-010 AUDIOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Determines type and degree of hearing impairment and implements habilitation and rehabilitation services for patient: Administers and interprets variety of tests, such as air and bone conduction, and speech reception and discrimination tests, to determine type and degree of hearing impairment, site of damage, and effects on comprehension and speech. Evaluates test results in relation to behavioral, social, educational, and medical information obtained from patients, families, teachers, SPEECH PATHOLOGISTS (profess. & kin.) 076.107-010 and other professionals to determine communication problems related to hearing disability. Plans and implements prevention, habilitation, or rehabilitation services, including hearing aid selection and orientation, counseling, auditory training, lip reading, language habilitation, speech conservation, and other treatment programs developed in consultation with SPEECH PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) and other professionals. May refer patient to physician or surgeon if medical treatment is determined necessary. May conduct research in physiology, pathology, biophysics, or psychophysics of auditory systems, or design and develop clinical and research procedures and apparatus. May act as consultant to educational, medical, legal, and other professional groups. May teach art and science of audiology and direct scientific projects.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

076.104-010 VOICE PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

Diagnoses and treats voice disorders, such as those associated with professional use of voice: Develops and implements perceptual evaluation procedures and psychophysical methods for voice assessment. Collects diagnostic data on individuals, such as output pressures, airflow, chestwall movements, and articular and laryngeal displacement, using scopes and other measuring instruments. Analyzes and interprets diagnostic data and consults with OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-062 and other professionals to determine method of treatment, such as surgery, vocal modification, or voice therapy. Plans and conducts voice therapy sessions, applying auditory, visual, kinematic, and biofeedback techniques. Plans and conducts voice hygiene workshops. Calibrates equipment. May teach voice science to associates and direct research in area of voice. May establish procedures and direct operation of laboratory specializing in diagnosing and treating voice disorders and be designated Director, Bio-Communications Laboratory (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

076.107-010 SPEECH PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: speech clinician; speech therapist

Specializes in diagnosis and treatment of speech and language problems, and engages in scientific study of human communication: Diagnoses and evaluates speech and language skills as related to educational, medical, social, and psychological factors. Plans, directs, or conducts habilitative and rehabilitative treatment programs to restore communicative efficiency of individuals with communication problems of organic and nonorganic etiology. Provides counseling and guidance and language development therapy to handicapped individuals. Reviews individual file to obtain background information prior to evaluation to determine appropriate tests and to ensure that adequate information is available. Administers, scores, and interprets specialized hearing and speech tests. Develops and implements individualized plans for assigned clients to meet individual needs, interests, and abilities. Evaluates and monitors individuals, using audio-visual equipment, such as tape recorders, overhead projectors, filmstrips, and demonstrative materials. Reviews treatment plan, and assesses individual performance to modify, change, or write new programs. Maintains records as required by law, establishment's policy, and administrative regulations. Attends meetings and conferences and participates in other activities to promote professional growth. Instructs individuals to monitor their own speech and provides ways to practice new skills. May act as consultant to educational, medical, and other professional groups. May conduct research to develop diagnostic and remedial techniques. May serve as consultant to classroom teachers to incorporate speech and language development activities into daily schedule. May teach manual sign language to student incapable of speaking. May instruct staff in use of special equipment designed to serve handicapped. See AUDIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 076.101-010 for one who specializes in diagnosis of, and provision of rehabilitative services for, auditory problems.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.117-010 COORDINATOR OF REHABILITATION SERVICES (medical ser.) alternate titles: director of rehabilitative services

Plans, administers, and directs operation of health rehabilitation programs, such as physical, occupational, recreational, and speech therapies: Consults with medical and professional staff of other departments and personnel from associated health care fields to plan and coordinate joint patient and management objectives. Conducts staff conferences and plans training programs to maintain proficiency of staff in therapy techniques and use of new methods and equipment to meet patients' needs. Allocates personnel on basis of work load, space, and equipment available. Analyzes operating costs and prepares department budget. Recommends patient fees for therapy based on use of equipment and therapy staff. May coordinate research projects to develop new approaches to rehabilitative therapy. May serve as rehabilitative therapy consultant to employers, educational institutions, and community organizations.
GOE: 11.07.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

076.121-010 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Plans, organizes, and conducts occupational therapy program in hospital, institution, or community setting to facilitate development and rehabilitation of mentally, physically, or emotionally handicapped: Plans program involving activities, such as manual arts and crafts; practice in functional, prevocational, vocational, and homemaking skills, and activities of daily living; and participation in sensorimotor, educational, recreational, and social activities designed to help patients or handicapped persons develop or regain physical or mental functioning or adjust to handicaps. Consults with other members of rehabilitation team to select activity program consistent with needs and capabilities of individual and to coordinate occupational therapy with other therapeutic activities. Selects constructive activities suited to individual's physical capacity, intelligence level, and interest to upgrade individual to maximum independence, prepare individual for return to employment, assist in restoration of functions, and aid in adjustment to disability. Teaches individuals skills and techniques required for participation in activities and evaluates individual's progress. Designs and constructs special equipment for individual and suggests adaptation of individual's work-living environment. Requisitions supplies and equipment. Lays out materials for individual's use and cleans and repairs tools at end of sessions. May conduct training programs or participate in training medical and nursing students and other workers in occupational therapy techniques and objectives. May plan, direct, and coordinate occupational therapy program and be designated Director, Occupational Therapy (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.121-014 PHYSICAL THERAPIST (education; medical ser.) alternate titles: physiotherapist

Plans and administers medically prescribed physical therapy treatment for patients suffering from injuries, or muscle, nerve, joint and bone diseases, to restore function, relieve pain, and prevent disability: Reviews physician's referral (prescription) and patient's condition and medical records to determine physical therapy treatment required. Tests and measures patient's strength, motor development, sensory perception, functional capacity, and respiratory and circulatory efficiency, and records findings to develop or revise treatment programs. Plans and prepares written treatment program based on evaluation of patient data. Administers manual exercises to improve and maintain function. Instructs, motivates, and assists patient to perform various physical activities, such as nonmanual exercises, ambulatory functional activities, daily-living activities, and in use of assistant and supportive devices, such as crutches, canes, and prostheses. Administers treatments involving application of physical agents, using equipment, such as hydrotherapy tanks and whirlpool baths, moist packs, ultraviolet and infrared lamps, and ultrasound machines. Evaluates effects of treatment at various stages and adjusts treatments to achieve maximum benefit. Administers massage, applying knowledge of massage techniques and body physiology. Administers traction to relieve pain, using traction equipment. Records treatment, response, and progress in patient's chart or enters information into computer. Instructs patient and family in treatment procedures to be continued at home. Evaluates, fits, and adjusts prosthetic and orthotic devices and recommends modification to ORTHOTIST (medical ser.) 078.261-018. Confers with physician and other practitioners to obtain additional patient information, suggest revisions in treatment program, and integrate physical therapy treatment with other aspects of patient's health care. Orients, instructs, and directs work activities of assistants, aides, and students. May plan and conduct lectures and training programs on physical therapy and related topics for medical staff, students, and community groups. May plan and develop physical therapy research programs and participate in conducting research. May write technical articles and reports for publications. May teach physical therapy techniques and procedures in educational institutions. May limit treatment to specific patient group or disability or specialize in conducting physical therapy research. In facilities where assistants are also employed, may primarily administer complex treatment, such as certain types of manual exercises and functional training, and monitor administration of other treatments. May plan, direct, and coordinate physical therapy program and be designated Director, Physical Therapy (medical ser.). Must comply with state requirement for licensure.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.121-018 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Develops, implements, and coordinates exercise programs and administers medical tests, under physician's supervision, to program participants to promote physical fitness: Explains program and test procedures to participant. Interviews participant to obtain vital statistics and medical history and records information. Records heart activity, using electrocardiograph (EKG) machine, while participant undergoes stress test on treadmill, under physician's supervision. Measures oxygen consumption and lung functioning, using spirometer. Measures amount of fat in body, using such equipment as hydrostatic scale, skinfold calipers, and tape measure, to assess body composition. Performs routine laboratory test of blood samples for cholesterol level and glucose tolerance, or interprets test results. Schedules other examinations and tests, such as physical examination, chest x ray, and urinalysis. Records test data in patient's chart or enters data into computer. Writes initial and follow-up exercise prescriptions for participants, following physician's recommendation, specifying equipment, such as treadmill, track, or bike. Demonstrates correct use of exercise equipment and exercise routines. Conducts individual and group aerobic, strength, and flexibility exercises. Observes participants during exercise for signs of stress. Teaches behavior modification classes, such as stress management, weight control, and related subjects. Orders material and supplies and calibrates equipment. May supervise work activities of other staff members.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

076.124-010 MANUAL-ARTS THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Instructs patients in prescribed manual arts activities to prevent anatomical and physiological deconditioning, and to assist in maintaining, improving, or developing work skills: Collaborates with other members of rehabilitation team in planning and organizing work activities consonant with patients' capabilities and disabilities. Teaches, by means of actual or simulated work situations, activities, such as woodworking, photography, metalworking, agriculture, electricity, and graphic arts. Prepares reports showing development of patient's work tolerance, and emotional and social adjustment to aid medical personnel in evaluating patient's progress and ability to meet physical and mental demands of employment.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

076.124-014 RECREATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: therapeutic recreation worker

Plans, organizes, and directs medically approved recreation program for patients in hospitals and other institutions: Directs and organizes such activities as sports, dramatics, games, and arts and crafts to assist patients to develop interpersonal relationships, to socialize effectively, and to develop confidence needed to participate in group activities. Regulates content of program in accordance with patients' capabilities, needs and interests. Instructs patients in relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, concentration, and other activities, to reduce stress and tension. Instructs patients in calisthenics, stretching and limbering exercises, and individual and group sports. Counsels and encourages patients to develop leisure activities. Organizes and coordinates special outings and accompanies patients on outings, such as ball games, sightseeing, or picnics to make patients aware of available recreational resources. Prepares progress charts and periodic reports for medical staff and other members of treatment team, reflecting patients' reactions and evidence of progress or regression. May supervise and conduct in-service training of other staff members, review their assessments and program goals, and consult with them on selected cases. May train groups of volunteers and students in techniques of recreation therapy. May serve as consultant to employers, educational institutions, and community health programs. May prepare and submit requisition for needed supplies.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

076.124-018 HORTICULTURAL THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Plans, coordinates, and conducts therapeutic gardening program to facilitate rehabilitation of physically and mentally handicapped patients: Confers with medical staff and patients to determine patients' needs. Evaluates patients' disabilities to determine gardening programs. Conducts gardening sessions to rehabilitate, train, and provide recreation for patients. Revises gardening program, based on observations and evaluation of patients' progress.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

076.127-010 ART THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Plans and conducts art therapy programs in public and private institutions to rehabilitate mentally and physically disabled clients: Confers with members of medically oriented team to determine physical and psychological needs of client. Devises art therapy program to fulfill physical and psychological needs. Instructs individuals and groups in use of various art materials, such as paint, clay, and yarn. Appraises client's art projections and recovery progress. Reports findings to other members of treatment team and counsels on client's response until art therapy is discontinued. Maintains and repairs art materials and equipment.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.127-014 MUSIC THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Plans, organizes, and directs medically prescribed music therapy activities as part of mental and physical health care and treatment of patients to influence behavioral and psychological changes leading to restoration, maintenance, and improvement of health and increased comprehension of self, environment, and physical ability: Collaborates with other members of rehabilitation team in planning music activities in accordance with patients' physical or psychological needs, capabilities, and interests. Develops treatment plan, using individualized needs assessment, depending on focus of therapy, such as hospice, psychiatric, or obstetrics. Directs and participates in instrumental and vocal music activities designed to meet patients' physical or psychological needs, such as solo or group singing, rhythmic and other creative music activities, music listening, or attending concerts. Instructs patients individually or in groups in prescribed instrumental or vocal music and music projective techniques, such as guided imagery, progressive relaxation, awareness of conscious feelings, or musically intergraded Lamaze Method. Studies and analyzes patients' reactions to various experiences and prepares reports describing symptoms indicative of progress or regression. Submits periodic reports to treatment team or physician to provide clinical data for evaluation. May oversee practicum and approved internships.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.127-018 DANCE THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Plans, organizes, and leads dance and body movement activities to improve patients' mental outlooks and physical well-beings: Observes and evaluates patient's mental and physical disabilities to determine dance and body movement treatment. Confers with patient and medical personnel to develop dance therapy program. Conducts individual and group dance sessions to improve patient's mental and physical well-being. Makes changes in patient's program based on observation and evaluation of progress. Attends and participates in professional conferences and workshops to enhance efficiency and knowledge.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

076.167-010 INDUSTRIAL THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Arranges salaried, productive employment in actual work environment for mentally ill patients, to enable patients to perform medically prescribed work activities, and to motivate and prepare patients to resume employment outside hospital environment: Determines work activities for greatest therapeutic value for particular patient within limits of patient's disability. Plans work activities in coordination with other members of rehabilitation team. Assigns patient to work activity and evaluates patient's progress. Processes payroll records and salary distribution.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

076.224-010 PHYSICAL THERAPIST ASSISTANT (medical ser.) alternate titles: physical therapy assistant; physical therapy technician

Administers physical therapy treatments to patients, working under direction of and as assistant to PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) 076.121-014: Administers active and passive manual therapeutic exercises, therapeutic massage, and heat, light, sound, water, and electrical modality treatments, such as ultrasound, electrical stimulation, ultraviolet, infrared, and hot and cold packs. Administers traction to relieve neck and back pain, using intermittent and static traction equipment. Instructs, motivates, and assists patients to learn and improve functional activities, such as preambulation, transfer, ambulation, and daily-living activities. Observes patients during treatments and compiles and evaluates data on patients' responses to treatments and progress and reports orally or in writing to PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.). Fits patients for, adjusts, and trains patients in use and care of orthopedic braces, prostheses, and supportive devices, such as crutches, canes, walkers, and wheelchairs. Confers with members of physical therapy staff and other health team members, individually and in conference, to exchange, discuss, and evaluate patient information for planning, modifying, and coordinating treatment programs. Gives orientation to new PHYSICAL THERAPIST ASSISTANTS (medical ser.) and directs and gives instructions to PHYSICAL THERAPY AIDES (medical ser.) 355.354-010. Performs clerical duties, such as taking inventory, ordering supplies, answering telephone, taking messages, and filling out forms. May measure patient's range-of-joint motion, length and girth of body parts, and vital signs to determine effects of specific treatments or to assist PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) to compile data for patient evaluations. May monitor treatments administered by PHYSICAL THERAPY AIDES (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 87

076.224-014 ORIENTATION AND MOBILITY THERAPIST FOR THE BLIND (education; medical ser.; nonprofit org.) alternate titles: counselor, orientation and mobility; instructor of blind; orientor; orientation therapist for blind; therapist for blind

Assists blind and visually impaired clients to achieve personal adjustment and maximum independence through training in techniques of daily living: Interviews clients, analyzes client's lifestyle, and administers assessment tests to determine present and required or desired orientation and mobility skills. Trains clients in awareness of physical environment through sense of smell, hearing, and touch, and to travel alone, with or without cane, through use of variety of actual or simulated travel situations and exercises. Teaches clients personal and home management skills, and communication skills, such as eating, grooming, dressing, coin and money identification, cooking, and use of telephone and bathroom facilities. Teaches clients to protect body, using hands and arms to detect obstacles. Instructs clients in arts, crafts, and recreational skills, such as macrame, leatherworking, sewing, ceramics, and playing piano to improve sense of touch, coordination, and motor skills. Teaches clients to read and write Braille. Instructs client in use of reading machines and common electrical devices, and in development of effective listening techniques. Instructs clients in group activities, such as swimming, dancing, or playing modified sports activities to encourage and increase capacity for social participation and improve general health. Prepares progress report to allow members of rehabilitation team to evaluate clients' ability to perform varied activities essential to daily living. May develop and implement individualized orientation and mobility instructional program for blind and visually impaired and be designated Orientation And Mobility Instructor (education).
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 80


Conducts physical integration program to improve client's muscular function and flexibility: Determines client's medical history regarding accidents, operations, or chronic health complaints to plan objectives of program, using questionnaire. Photographs client to obtain different views of client's posture to facilitate treatment, using camera. Instructs client to demonstrate arm and leg movement and flexion of spine to evaluate client against established program norms. Determines program treatment procedures and discusses goals of program with client. Applies skin lubricant to section of body specified for treatment and massages muscles to release subclinical adhesions either manually or using hand held tool, utilizing knowledge of anatomy. Demonstrates and directs client's participation in specific exercises designed to fatigue desired muscle groups and release tension. Observes client's progress during program through such factors as increased joint movement, improved posture, or coordination. Records client's treatment, response, and progress.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M1 L2 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

076.361-010 CORRECTIVE THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Provides medically prescribed program of physical exercises and activities designed to prevent muscular deterioration resulting from long convalescence or inactivity due to chronic illness: Collaborates with other members of rehabilitation team in organizing patients' course of treatment. Establishes rapport with patients to motivate them, choosing exercises and activities in accordance with prescription. Utilizes any or combination of resistive, assistive, or free movement exercises, utilizing bars, or hydrogymnastics. Instructs patients in use, function, and care of prostheses and devices, such as braces, crutches, or canes and in use of manually controlled vehicles. Directs blind persons in foot travel. Prepares progress reports of patient's emotional reactions to and progress in training by observing patient during exercises to provide clinical data for diagnosis and prognosis by rehabilitation team. Directs patients in techniques of personal hygiene to compensate for permanent disabilities.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

076.361-014 RESPIRATORY THERAPIST (medical ser.)

Administers respiratory therapy care and life support to patients with deficiencies and abnormalities of cardiopulmonary system, under supervision of physician and by prescription: Reads prescription, measures arterial blood gases, and reviews patient information to assess patient condition and determine requirements for treatment, such as type and duration of therapy, and medication and dosages. Determines most suitable method of administering inhalants, precautions to be observed, and modifications which may be needed that will be compatible with physician's orders. Sets up and operates devices, such as mechanical ventilators, therapeutic gas administration apparatus, environmental control systems, and aerosol generators. Operates equipment to ensure specified parameters of treatment, such as volume, gas concentration, humidity, and temperature, and to administer medicinal gases and aerosol drugs to patients. Monitors patient's physiological responses to therapy, such as vital signs, arterial blood gases, and blood chemistry changes. Performs bronchopulmonary drainage and assists patient in performing breathing exercises. Performs pulmonary function tests to be used by physician in diagnosis of case. Observes equipment function and adjusts equipment to obtain optimum results to therapy. Consults with physician in event of adverse reactions. Maintains patient's chart that contains pertinent identification and therapy information. Inspects and tests respiratory therapy equipment to ensure equipment is functioning safely and efficiently. Orders repairs when needed. Demonstrates respiratory care procedures to trainees and other health care personnel.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

076.364-010 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ASSISTANT (medical ser.) alternate titles: educational/development assistant

Assists OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) 076.121-010 in administering occupational therapy program in hospital, related facility, or community setting for physically, developmentally, mentally retarded, or emotionally handicapped clients: Assists in evaluation of clients daily living skills and capacities to determine extent of abilities and limitations. Assists in planning and implementing educational, vocational, and recreational programs and activities established by registered OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.), designed to restore, reinforce, and enhance task performances, diminish or correct pathology, and to promote and maintain health and self-sufficiency. Designs and adapts equipment and working-living environment. Fabricates splints and other assistant devices. Reports information and observations to supervisor. Carries out general activity program for individuals or groups. Assists in instructing patient and family in home programs as well as care and use of adaptive equipment. Prepares work materials, assists in maintenance of equipment, and orders supplies. May be responsible for maintaining observed information in client records and preparing reports. May teach basic living skills to institutionalized, mentally retarded adults. May assist EDUCATIONAL SPECIALIST (education) 099.167-022 or CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) 045.107-022 in administering situational or diagnostic tests to measure client's abilities or progress.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86


This group includes occupations concerned with the application of the principles of nutrition to plan and supervise the preparation and serving of meals. Includes planning menus and diets for special nutritional requirements; participating in research; or instructing in the field of nutrition.

077.061-010 DIETITIAN, RESEARCH (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: research nutritionist

Conducts nutritional research to expand knowledge in one or more phases of dietetics: Plans, organizes, and conducts programs in nutrition, foods, and food service systems, evaluating and utilizing appropriate methodology and tools to carry out program. Studies and analyzes recent scientific discoveries in nutrition for application in current research, for development of tools for future research, and for interpretation to public. Communicates findings through reports and publications.
GOE: 02.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

077.117-010 DIETITIAN, CHIEF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: dietitian, administrative; director, dietetics department

Directs activities of institution department providing quantity food service and nutritional care: Administers, plans, and directs activities of department providing quantity food service. Establishes policies and procedures, and provides administrative direction for menu formulation, food preparation and service, purchasing, sanitation standards, safety practices, and personnel utilization. Selects professional dietetic staff, and directs departmental educational programs. Coordinates interdepartmental professional activities, and serves as consultant to management on matters pertaining to dietetics.
GOE: 11.05.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

077.124-010 DIETETIC TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

Provides services in assigned areas of food service management, teaches principles of food and nutrition, and provides dietary consultation, under direction of DIETITIAN, CLINICAL (profess. & kin.) 077.127-014: Plans menus based on established guidelines. Standardizes recipes and tests new products for use in facility. Supervises food production and service. Obtains and evaluates dietary histories of individuals to plan nutritional programs. Guides individuals and families in food selection, preparation, and menu planning, based upon nutritional needs. Assists in referrals for continuity of patient care. May select, schedule, and conduct orientation and in-service education programs. May develop job specifications, job descriptions, and work schedules. May assist in implementing established cost control procedures.
GOE: 05.05.17 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

077.127-010 COMMUNITY DIETITIAN (profess. & kin.)

Plans, organizes, coordinates, and evaluates nutritional component of health care services for organization: Develops and implements plan of care based on assessment of nutritional needs and available sources and correlates plan with other health care. Evaluates nutritional care and provides followup continuity of care. Instructs individuals and families in nutritional principles, diet, food selection, and economics and adapts teaching plans to individual life style. Provides consultation to and works with community groups. Conducts or participates in in-service education and consultation with professional staff and supporting personnel of own and related organizations. Plans or participates in development of program proposals for funding. Plans, conducts, and evaluates dietary studies and participates in nutritional and epidemiologic studies with nutritional component. Evaluates food service systems and makes recommendation for conformance level that will provide optional nutrition and quality food if associated with group care institutions. May be employed by public health agency and be designated Nutritionist, Public Health (government ser.).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

077.127-014 DIETITIAN, CLINICAL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: dietitian, therapeutic

Plans therapeutic diets and implements preparation and service of meals for patients in hospital, clinic, or other health care facility: Consults with physician and other health care personnel to determine nutritional needs and diet restrictions, such as low fat or salt free, of patients. Formulates menus for therapeutic diets based on medical and physical condition of patients and integrates patient's menus with basic institutional menus. Inspects meals served for conformance to prescribed diets and for standards of palatability and appearance. Instructs patients and their families in nutritional principles, dietary plans, food selection, and preparation. May supervise activities of workers engaged in food preparation and service. May engage in research [DIETITIAN, RESEARCH (profess. & kin.) 077.061-010]. May teach nutrition and diet therapy to medical students and hospital personnel [DIETITIAN, TEACHING (profess. & kin.) 077.127-022].
GOE: 05.05.17 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

077.127-018 DIETITIAN, CONSULTANT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: institutional-nutrition consultant

Advises and assists personnel in public and private establishments, such as hospitals, health-related facilities, child-care centers, and schools, in food service systems and nutritional care of clients: Evaluates and monitors all aspects of food service operation, making recommendations for conformance level that will provide nutritionally adequate, quality food. Plans, organizes, and conducts orientation and in-service educational programs for food service personnel. Develops menu patterns. Assesses, develops, implements, and evaluates nutritional-care plans and provides for followup, including written reports. Consults with health care team concerning nutritional care of client. Confers with designers, builders, and equipment personnel in planning for building or remodeling food service units.
GOE: 05.05.17 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

077.127-022 DIETITIAN, TEACHING (profess. & kin.)

Plans, organizes, and conducts educational programs in dietetics, nutrition, and institution management for DIETETIC INTERNS (profess. & kin.), nursing students, and other medical personnel: Develops curriculum and prepares manuals, visual aids, course outlines, and other material used in teaching. Lectures students on composition and values of foods, principles of nutrition, menu planning, diet therapy, food cost control, marketing, and administration of dietary department. May engage in research.
GOE: 11.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the application of technical knowledge in fields of medicine or dentistry for examination and treatment of patients or for research. Occupations occur in a doctor's or dentist's office, hospital, or laboratory.


Teaches one or more phases of medical technology to students of medicine, medical technology, or nursing arts, or to INTERNS (medical ser.): Organizes and directs medical technology training program. Formulates curriculums, outlines course materials, and establishes criteria in other matters affecting education and welfare of students. Develops educational policies concerning teaching methods. Supervises other instructors. May act as liaison officer between college or university and laboratory or hospital to coordinate academic and clinical training. May specialize in teaching one phase of medical technology.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

078.131-010 CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST, NUCLEAR MEDICINE (medical ser.) alternate titles: chief, nuclear medicine technologist

Supervises and coordinates activities of NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGISTS (medical ser.) 078.361-018 engaged in preparing, administering, and measuring radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies: Assigns workers to prepare radiopharmaceuticals, perform nuclear medicine studies, and conduct laboratory tests, and monitors activities to ensure efficiency and accuracy of procedures. Writes computer protocols for diagnostic studies. Develops protocols for new and revised procedures and trains department workers in overall operation of department and use of equipment. Administers radiopharmaceuticals under direction of physician or other qualified medical personnel. Implements and supervises radiation safety policies and procedures to ensure safety of personnel and legal requirements are met for handling and disposing of radioactive materials. Assists in coordinating activities with other departments and in resolving operating problems. Performs duties of NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) as needed.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

078.161-010 MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST, CHIEF (medical ser.) alternate titles: medical laboratory manager

Directs and coordinates activities of workers engaged in performing chemical, microscopic, and bacteriologic tests to obtain data for use in diagnosis and treatment of diseases: Assigns workers to duties and oversees performance of tests in fields of microbiology, chemistry, histology, hematology, immunohematology, and serology. Purchases or directs purchase of laboratory equipment and supplies. Reviews test results to ensure quality control. Coordinates and conducts education and training programs for medical technology students and personnel.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89


Coordinates activities of CARDIOPULMONARY TECHNOLOGISTS (medical ser.) 078.362-030 engaged in performing diagnostic testing and treatment of patients with heart, lung, and blood vessel disorders: Establishes methods for conducting tests and treatments, applying knowledge of medical requirements and laboratory procedures. Schedules patients for tests and treatment by staff members. Reviews reports to ensure compliance with test and treatment procedures. Develops and modifies training program for assigned personnel. Evaluates worker performances and recommends promotions, transfers, and dismissals.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

078.162-010 RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGIST, CHIEF (medical ser.) alternate titles: chief, radiology

Directs and coordinates activities of radiology or diagnostic imaging department in hospital or other medical facility: Reviews work schedules and assigns duties to workers to maintain patient flow and achieve production goals. Oversees staff in operation of imaging equipment, such as x-ray machine, fluoroscope, CT (computerized tomography) scanner, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) equipment, evaluates accuracy and quality of images, and provides technical assistance. Demonstrates new techniques, equipment, and procedures to staff. Implements and monitors radiation safety measures to ensure safety of patients and staff and compliance with government regulatory requirements. Recommends personnel actions, such as performance evaluations, promotions, and disciplinary measures. Coordinates purchase of supplies and equipment and makes recommendations concerning department operating budget.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

078.261-010 BIOCHEMISTRY TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: medical technologist, chemistry; technologist, biochemistry

Performs qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of body fluids and exudates, following instructions, to provide information used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases: Tests specimens, such as urine, blood, spinal fluid, and gastric juices, for presence and quantity of sugar, albumin, drugs, toxins, and blood gases such as oxygen. Prepares solutions used in chemical analysis. Calibrates and maintains manual and computer-controlled analyzers, spectrophotometers, colorimeters, flame photometers, and other equipment used in quantitative and qualitative analysis. May take blood samples.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.261-014 MICROBIOLOGY TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: medical technologist, microbiology

Cultivates, isolates, and assists in identifying bacteria and other microbial organisms, and performs various bacteriological, mycological, virological, mycobacteriological, and parasitological tests: Receives human or animal body materials from autopsy or diagnostic cases, or collects specimens directly from patients, under supervision of laboratory director. Examines materials for evidence of microbial organisms. Makes parasitological tests of specimens. May instruct medical laboratory students and other medical personnel in laboratory procedures. May supervise other technologists and be known as Supervisor, Microbiology Technologists (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

078.261-018 ORTHOTIST (medical ser.)

Provides care to patients with disabling conditions of limbs and spine by fitting and preparing orthopedic braces, under direction of and in consultation with physician: Assists in formulation of specifications for braces. Examines and evaluates patient's needs in relation to disease and functional loss. Formulates design of orthopedic brace. Selects materials, making cast measurements, model modifications, and layouts. Performs fitting, including static and dynamic alignments. Evaluates brace on patient and makes adjustments to assure fit, function, and quality of work. Instructs patient in use of orthopedic brace. Maintains patient records. May supervise ORTHOTICS ASSISTANTS (medical ser.) 078.361-022 and other support personnel. May supervise laboratory activities relating to development of orthopedic braces. May lecture and demonstrate to colleagues and other professionals concerned with orthotics. May participate in research. May perform functions of PROSTHETIST (medical ser.) 078.261-022 and be designated Orthotist-Prosthetist (medical ser.).
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

078.261-022 PROSTHETIST (medical ser.)

Provides care to patients with partial or total absence of limb by planning fabrication of, writing specifications for, and fitting prosthesis under guidance of and in consultation with physician: Assists physician in formulation of prescription. Examines and evaluates patient's prosthetic needs in relation to disease entity and functional loss. Formulates design of prosthesis and selects materials and components. Makes casts, measurements, and model modifications. Performs fitting, including static and dynamic alignments. Evaluates prosthesis on patient and makes adjustments to assure fit, function, comfort, and quality. Instructs patient in prosthesis use. Maintains patient records. May supervise PROSTHETICS ASSISTANTS (medical ser.) 078.361-026 and other personnel. May supervise laboratory activities relating to development of prosthesis. May lecture and demonstrate to colleagues and other professionals concerned with practice of prosthetics. May participate in research. May also perform functions of ORTHOTIST (medical ser.) 078.261-018.
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

078.261-026 CYTOGENETIC TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Prepares, examines, and analyzes chromosomes found in biological specimens, such as amniotic fluids, bone marrow, and blood, to aid in diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases: Selects and prepares specimen and media for cell culture, using aseptic technique, knowledge of medium components, and cell nutritional requirements. Harvests cell culture at optimum time sequence based on knowledge of cell cycle differences and culture conditions. Prepares slide of cell culture, selects banding technique, and stains slide to make chromosomes visible under microscope, following standard laboratory procedures. Views slide through photomicroscope to count and identify chromosome number and presence of structural abnormality. Photographs slide and prints picture. Cuts images of chromosomes from photograph, identifies number and types of chromosomes, and arranges and attaches chromosomes in numbered pairs on karyotype chart, using standard genetics laboratory practices and nomenclature to identify normal or abnormal chromosomes. Communicates with physicians, family members, and researchers requesting technical information or test results. May supervise subordinate laboratory personnel and be known as Supervisor, Cytogenetic Laboratory (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

078.261-030 HISTOTECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: histologic technologist; tissue technologist

Prepares histologic slides from tissue sections for microscopic examination and diagnosis by PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.061-010: Prepares sections of human or animal tissue for immediate examination, using rapid tissue processing and frozen section technique to freeze, cut, mount and stain tissue specimen received from surgery. Operates computerized laboratory equipment to fix, dehydrate, and infiltrate with wax, tissue specimens to be preserved for study by PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.). Prepares slides of specimens, using specified stain, to enhance visibility under microscope. Examines slides under microscope to ensure tissue preparation meets laboratory requirements. May study slides under microscope to detect deviations from norm and report abnormalities for further study. May supervise activities of laboratory personnel and be known as Supervisor, Histology (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 87

078.261-034 MEDICAL RADIATION DOSIMETRIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: dosimetrist

Measures and calculates radiation dose and develops optimum arrangement of radiation fields and exposures to treat patient: Studies prescription, x rays showing area to be treated, and requirements for dose calculation. Selects beam energy, optimum multiple beam arrangement, beam modifying devices, and other factors, using computer, manuals, and guides. Develops several possible treatment arrangements that meet physician's criteria and submits arrangements for selection by physician. Measures and calculates prescribed radiation dose based upon field sizes, depth of tumor, treatment unit, beam modifying devices, and other information, using manuals, guides, and computer. Calculates and records daily prescribed radiation dose. Explains treatment plan to RADIATION-THERAPY TECHNOLOGISTS (medical ser.) 078.361-034. May operate x-ray equipment to obtain diagnostic x ray of patient in treatment position. May simulate treatment procedure to assist in planning treatment.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

078.261-038 MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Performs medical laboratory tests, procedures, experiments, and analyses to provide data for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease: Conducts chemical analyses of body fluids, such as blood, urine, and spinal fluid, to determine presence of normal and abnormal components. Studies blood cells, their numbers, and morphology, using microscopic technique. Performs blood group, type, and compatibility tests for transfusion purposes. Analyzes test results and enters findings in computer. Engages in medical research under direction of MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST, CHIEF (medical ser.) 078.161-010. May train and supervise students. May specialize in area such as hematology, blood-bank, serology, immunohematology, bacteriology, histology, or chemistry.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

078.261-042 PHERESIS SPECIALIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: hemotherapist

Collects blood components and provides therapeutic treatments, such as replacement of plasma, or removal of white blood cells or platelets, to patients, using blood cell separator equipment: Compiles and evaluates donor information to ensure that donor meets screening criteria. Connects and installs tubing, transfer pack units, saline solution unit, other solution packs, and collection and separation containers to set up blood cell separator equipment. Explains procedures to donor or patient to reduce anxieties and obtain cooperation of donor or patient. Performs venipuncture on donor or patient to connect donor or patient to tubing of equipment to prepare for procedure. Sets controls and starts equipment that collects specific blood component or adds, reduces, or replaces blood component, and replaces remaining blood in vein of patient or donor. Monitors operation of equipment and observes trouble lights indicating equipment problems. Talks to and observes donor or patient for signs of distress or side effects such as pallor, nausea, fainting, or other problems during procedure. Forwards collection bag to laboratory for testing or further processing. Records information following collection or treatment procedures, such as flow rate, body site at which needle was inserted, anticoagulant rate, amount of fluids used, volume processed, red cells lost, and other information.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.261-046 IMMUNOHEMATOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Performs immunohematology tests, recommends blood problem solutions to doctors, and serves as consultant to blood bank and community: Visually inspects blood in specimen tubes for hemolysis. Centrifuges blood specimen to separate red cells from serum and tests separated serum to detect presence of antibodies. Interprets reactions observed to devise experiments and suggest techniques that will resolve patient's blood problems. Combines known and unknown cells with serum in test tubes and selects reagents, such as albumin, protolytic enzymes, and anti-human globutin, for individual tests to enhance and make visible reactions of agglutination and hemolysis. Processes various combinations in centrifuge and examines resulting samples under microscope to identify evidence of agglutination or hemolysis. Repeats and varies tests until normal suspension of reagents, serum, and red cells is attained. Interprets results obtained and identifies specific antibodies. Writes blood specifications to meet patient's need, on basis of test results, and applies knowledge of blood classification system to locate donor's blood. Performs immunohematology tests on donor's blood to confirm matching blood types. Requisitions and sends blood to supply patient's need, and prepares written report to inform physician of test results and of required volume of blood to administer. Evaluates completeness of immunohematology tests. May advise MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS (medical ser.) 078.261-038 in techniques of microscopic identification of precipitation, agglutination, or hemolysis in blood that leads to resolution of problems.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

078.262-010 PULMONARY-FUNCTION TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: pulmonary-function technologist

Performs pulmonary-function, lung-capacity, diffusion capacity, and blood-and-oxygen tests to gather data for use by physician in diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary disorders: Confers with patient in treatment room to explain test procedures. Explains specified methods of breathing to patient and conducts pulmonary-function tests, such as helium dilution and pulmonary mechanics (flow of air rate in lungs), arterial blood gas analyses, and lung-capacity tests, such as vital capacity and maximum breathing capacity tests, using spirometer or other equipment. Measures expired air, using various analyzers. Observes and records readings on metering devices of analysis equipment, and conveys findings of tests and analyses to physician for interpretation. May perform blood analysis tests to measure such factors as oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, hemoglobin saturation and levels, and pH of blood, using blood gas analyzer. May measure sweat chloride to test for cystic fibrosis, using computerized analyzer. May assist physician in special procedures such as bronchoscopy.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.264-010 HOLTER SCANNING TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: holter technician

Analyzes data from cardiac-function monitoring device (Holter monitor) worn by patient for use in diagnosis of cardiovascular disorders: Places magnetic tape or cassette from Holter monitor worn by patient in scanner and starts scanner that produces audio and visual representation of heart activity. Adjusts scanner controls that regulate taped sounds associated with heart activity and focus video representation of sounds on scanner screen. Observes scanner screen to identify irregularities in patient cardiac patterns, utilizing knowledge of regular and irregular cardiac-function patterns, or verifies data provided by computer program that automatically scans, analyzes, identifies, and prints irregular heart patterns. Prints sections of abnormal heart patterns or full disclosure tape for physician. Analyzes information in patient diary to identify incidents that correspond to heart pattern irregularities detected on heart monitor. Records findings on report form and forwards tapes, form, patient diary, and printouts of heart patterns to interpreting physician. May attach electrodes to patient's chest and connect electrodes to heart monitor, following standard procedure. May measure distances between peaks and valleys of heart activity patterns, using calipers, to obtain data for further analysis. May perform other diagnostic procedures, such as electrocardiography and stress testing, to aid in medical evaluation of patient.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

078.281-010 CYTOTECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Stains, mounts, and studies cells of human body to detect evidence of cancer, hormonal abnormalities, and other pathological conditions, following established standards and practices: Prepares microscopic slides from specimens of blood, scrappings, or other bodily exudates, and fixes and stains slide to preserve specimen and enhance visibility of cells under microscope. Examines slide under microscope to identify abnormalities in cell structure. Reports abnormalities to PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.061-010. May supervise and coordinate activities of staff of cytology laboratory and be known as Supervisor, Cytology (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

078.361-010 DENTAL HYGIENIST (medical ser.)

Performs dental prophylaxis: Cleans calcareous deposits, accretions, and stains from teeth and beneath margins of gums, using dental instruments. Feels lymph nodes under patient's chin to detect swelling or tenderness that could indicate presence of oral cancer. Feels and visually examines gums for sores and signs of disease. Examines gums, using probes, to locate periodontal recessed gums and signs of gum disease. Applies fluorides and other cavity preventing agents to arrest dental decay. Charts conditions of decay and disease for diagnosis and treatment by dentist. Exposes and develops x-ray film. Makes impressions for study casts. May remove sutures and dressings. May administer local anesthetic agents. May place and remove rubber dams, matrices, and temporary restorations. May place, carve, and finish amalgam restorations. May remove excess cement from coronal surfaces of teeth. May provide clinical services and health education to improve and maintain oral health of school children. May conduct dental health clinics for community groups to augment services of dentist.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.361-018 NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Prepares, measures, and administers radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic and therapeutic studies, utilizing variety of equipment and following prescribed procedures: Prepares stock solutions of radiopharmaceutical materials, calculates doses, and administers doses, under direction of physician. Calibrates equipment. Performs diagnostic studies on patients as prescribed by physician, using scanners or scintillation cameras to detect radiation emitted and to produce image of organ on photographic film. Measures radioactivity, using Geiger counters, scalers, and scintillation detectors. Administers therapeutic doses of radiopharmaceuticals under direction of physician. Follows radiation safety techniques in use and disposal of radioactive materials.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.361-022 ORTHOTICS ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

Assists ORTHOTIST (medical ser.) 078.261-018 in providing care and fabricating and fitting orthopedic braces to patients with disabling conditions of limbs and spine: Under guidance of and in consultation with ORTHOTIST (medical ser.), makes assigned casts, measurements, model modifications, and layouts. Performs fitting, including static and dynamic alignments. Evaluates orthopedic braces on patient to ensure fit, function, and quality. Repairs and maintains orthopedic braces. May be responsible for performance of other personnel. May also perform functions of PROSTHETICS ASSISTANT (medical ser.) 078.361-026 and be designated Orthotics-Prosthetics Assistant (medical ser.).
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

078.361-026 PROSTHETICS ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

Assists PROSTHETIST (medical ser.) 078.261-022 in providing care to and fabricating and fitting prostheses for patients with partial or total absence of limb: Under direction of PROSTHETIST (medical ser.), makes assigned casts, measurements, and model modifications. Performs fitting, including static and dynamic alignments. Evaluates prosthesis on patient to ensure fit, function, and quality of work. Repairs and maintains prostheses. May be responsible for performance of other personnel. May also perform functions of ORTHOTICS ASSISTANT (medical ser.) 078.361-022.
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

078.361-034 RADIATION-THERAPY TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

Provides radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-090, according to established practices and standards: Reviews prescription, diagnosis, patient chart, and identification. Acts as liaison with physicist and supportive care personnel. Prepares equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices, and positions patient according to prescription. Enters data into computer and sets controls to operate and adjust equipment and regulate dosage. Observes and reassures patient during treatment and reports unusual reactions to physician. Photographs treated area of patient and processes film. Maintains records, reports, and files as required. Follows principles of radiation protection for patient, self, and others. May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization. May train therapy students.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.361-038 OPHTHALMIC TECHNICIAN (medical ser.)

Tests and measures eye function to assist OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-058 to diagnose and treat eye disorders and disease: Tests patient's far acuity, near acuity, peripheral vision, depth perception, and color perception to assist OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) to diagnose and treat eye disorders and disease. Examines eye, using slit lamp, for abnormalities of cornea, and anterior and posterior chambers. Applies drops to anesthetize, dilate, or medicate eyes. Measures intraocular pressure of eyes (glaucoma test). Tests patient's field of vision, including central and peripheral vision, for defects, and charts test results on graph paper. Measures axial length of eye, using ultrasound equipment. Performs other tests and measurements as requested by physician. Gives instructions to patients concerning eye care. May supervise other technicians and be known as Chief Ophthalmic Technician (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.362-010 AUDIOMETRIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: audiometric technician; hearing-test technician

Administers audiometric screening and threshold tests, generally pure-tone air conduction, to individuals or groups, under supervision of AUDIOLOGIST (medical ser.) or OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (medical ser.). Fits earphones on subject and provides instruction on procedures to be followed. Adjusts audiometer to control sound emitted and records subjects' responses. Refers individuals to AUDIOLOGIST (medical ser.) for interpretation of test results and need for more definitive hearing examination or to physician for medical examination.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

078.362-014 DIALYSIS TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: hemodialysis technician

Sets up and operates hemodialysis machine to provide dialysis treatment for patients with kidney failure: Attaches dialyzer and tubing to machine to assemble for use. Mixes dialysate, according to formula. Primes dialyzer with saline or heparinized solution to prepare machine for use. Transports patient to dialysis room and positions patient on lounge chair at hemodialysis machine. Takes and records patient's predialysis weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration rate. Explains dialysis procedure and operation of hemodialysis machine to patient before treatment to allay anxieties. Cleans area of access (fistula, graft, or catheter), using antiseptic solution. Connects hemodialysis machine to access in patient's forearm or catheter site to start blood circulating through dialyzer. Inspects equipment settings, including pressures, conductivity (proportion of chemicals to water), and temperature to ensure conformance to safety standards. Starts blood flow pump at prescribed rate. Inspects venous and arterial pressures as registered on equipment to ensure pressures are within established limits. Calculates fluid removal or replacement to be achieved during dialysis procedure. Monitors patient for adverse reaction and hemodialysis machine for malfunction. Takes and records patient's postdialysis weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration rate. May fabricate parts, such as cannulas, tubing, catheters, connectors, and fittings, using handtools.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.362-018 ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: ecg technician; ekg technician

Produces recordings of electromotive variations in patient's heart muscle, using electrocardiograph (ECG), to provide data for diagnosis of heart ailments: Attaches electrodes to chest, arms, and legs of patient. Connects electrode leads to electrocardiograph and starts machine. Moves electrodes along specified area of chest to produce electrocardiogram that records electromotive variations occurring in different areas of heart muscle. Monitors electrocardiogram for abnormal patterns. Keys information into machine or marks tracing to indicate positions of chest electrodes. Replenishes supply of paper and ink in machine and reports malfunctions. Edits and forwards final test results to attending physician for analysis and interpretation. May attach electrodes of Holter monitor (electrocardiograph) to patient to record data over extended period of time.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 87

078.362-022 ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: eeg technologist

Measures electrical activity of brain waves, using electroencephalograph (EEG) instrument, and conducts evoked potential response tests for use in diagnosis of brain and nervous system disorders: Measures patient's head and other body parts, using tape measure, and marks points where electrodes are to be placed. Attaches electrodes to predetermined locations, and verifies functioning of electrodes and recording instrument. Operates recording instruments (EEG and evoked potentials) and supplemental equipment and chooses settings for optimal viewing of nervous system. Records montage (electrode combination) and instrument settings, and observes and notes patient's behavior during test. Conducts visual, auditory, and somatosensory evoked potential response tests to measure latency of response to stimuli. Writes technical reports summarizing test results to assist physician in diagnosis of brain disorders. May perform other physiological tests, such as electrocardiogram, electrooculogram, and ambulatory electroencephalogram. May perform video monitoring of patient's actions during test. May monitor patient during surgery, using EEG or evoked potential instrument. May supervise other technologists and be known as Chief Electroencephalographic Technologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.362-026 RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: radiographer; x-ray technologist

Operates radiologic equipment to produce radiographs (x rays) of body for diagnostic purposes, as directed by RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-090: Positions patient on examining table and adjusts immobilization devices to obtain optimum views of specified area of body requested by physician. Explains procedures to patient to reduce anxieties and obtain patient cooperation. Moves x-ray equipment into specified position and adjusts equipment controls to set exposure factors, such as time and distance, based on knowledge of radiographic exposure techniques and protocols. Practices radiation protection techniques, using beam restrictive devices, patient shielding skills, and knowledge of applicable exposure factors, to minimize radiation to patient and staff. May operate mobile x-ray equipment in operating room, emergency room, or at patient's bedside. May specialize in production of screening and diagnostic x rays for detection of breast tumors and be known as Radiologic Technologist, Mammogram (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-030 CARDIOPULMONARY TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: cardiovascular technologist

Performs diagnostic tests of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems of patients to aid physician in diagnosis and treatment of heart, lung, and blood vessel disorders: Prepares patient for test and explains procedures to obtain cooperation and reassure patient. Conducts electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, echocardiogram, stress testing, and other tests to aid in diagnosis of cardiovascular system, using variety of specialized electronic test equipment, recording devices, and laboratory instruments. Conducts tests of pulmonary system to aid physician in diagnosis of pulmonary disorders, using spirometer and other respiratory testing equipment. Operates multichannel physiologic monitor, as part of cardiac catheterization team, to measure and record functions of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems of patient during cardiac catheterization. Alerts physician to instrument readings outside normal ranges during cardiac catheterization procedures. Provides test results to physician.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-034 PERFUSIONIST (medical ser.)

Sets up and operates heart-lung machine in hospital to take over functions of patient's heart and lungs during surgery or respiratory failure: Reviews patient medical history and chart, and consults with surgeon or physician to obtain patient information needed to set up heart-lung machine and associated equipment. Selects, assembles, sets up, and tests heart-lung machine to ensure that machine and associated equipment function according to specifications. Operates heart-lung machine to regulate blood circulation and composition, to administer drugs and anesthetic agents, and to control body temperature during surgery or respiratory failure of patient. Monitors and observes operation of heart-lung machine and patient's physiologic variables such as blood temperature, blood composition, and flow rate, and adjusts equipment to maintain normal body functions. Cleans and adjusts parts of heart-lung machine.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

078.362-038 ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: emg technician

Measures electrical activity in peripheral nerves, using electromyograph (EMG) instrument, for use by physician in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders: Explains procedures to patient to obtain cooperation and relieve anxieties during test. Rubs electrode paste on patient's skin to ensure contact of electrodes. Attaches surface recording electrodes to extremity in which activity is being measured to detect electrical impulse. Attaches electrodes to electrode cables or leads connected to EMG instrument and selects nerve conduction mode on EMG. Operates EMG instrument to record electrical activity in peripheral nerves. Presses button on manually held surface stimulator electrode to deliver pulse and send electrical charge along peripheral nerve. Monitors response on oscilloscope and presses button to record nerve conduction velocity. Measures and records time and distance between stimulus and response, manually or using computer, and calculates velocity of electrical impulse in peripheral nerve. Removes electrodes from patient upon conclusion of test and cleans electrode paste from skin, using alcohol and cotton.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 90

078.362-042 POLYSOMNOGRAPHIC TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: polysomnographic technologist

Measures electrical activity of patient's brain waves and other physiological variables, using $T3polysomnograph$T1, to aid physician in diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders: Applies surface electrodes to patient's head, using adhesive paste or tape, to obtain electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement and applies other combinations of sensors and electrodes to patient to obtain measurements such as electromyogram (EMG), electrooculogram (EOG), electrocardiogram (EKG), air flow respiratory effort, and oxygen saturation, as requested by physician and following established procedures. Operates closed circuit television camera to observe patient during test and to record patient's sleep activities. Operates polysomnograph equipment to record electrical activity of brain waves and other physiological variables and records notes on graph to eliminate from consideration physiological measurements caused by such activities as patient opening eyes, turning head, or turning body. Studies polysomnogram to recognize arrhythmias and abnormal respiratory patterns and calls physician or other emergency personnel if needed. Measures durations of brain waves recorded on polysomnograms, using millimeter ruler. Studies characteristics of completed polysomnogram tracings and summarizes data showing stages of sleep, abnormal breathing events, periodic leg movements, arrhythmias, and other information, applying knowledge of polysomnograph testing principles. Enters data into computer and writes report incorporating patient's medical history, completed patient questionnaires, previous and current polysomnogram information, presence and type of abnormality, and other information for analysis by physician or other health professional. May apply electrodes to patient's head, using pins. May supervise and coordinate activities of other technicians and be known as Chief Polysomnographic Technician (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 4 DLU: 89

078.362-046 SPECIAL PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGIST, ANGIOGRAM (medical ser.) alternate titles: angiographer; radiographer, angiogram

Operates diagnostic imaging equipment to produce contrast enhanced radiographs of blood vessels to aid physician in diagnosis and treatment of disease: Positions patient in examining position, using immobilization devices, such as head or shoulder braces. Operates fluoroscope to aid physician to view and guide wire or catheter through blood vessel to area of interest. Fills automatic injector with contrast media, sets flow rate, and activates injection of contrast media into blood vessels of patient, as directed by physician. Monitors video display of area of interest and adjusts density and contrast to obtain optimum exposure. Starts filming sequence. Delivers film to dark room to be developed and reviews developed x rays for accuracy of positioning and quality of exposure techniques.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-050 SPECIAL PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGIST, CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION (medical ser.) alternate titles: radiographer, cardiac catheterization; special vascular imaging technologist

Operates diagnostic imaging equipment to produce contrast enhanced radiographs of heart and cardiovascular system (angiocardiograms), during cardiac catheterization, to aid physician in diagnostic evaluation and treatment: Positions and immobilizes patient on examining table, using head and shoulder braces and following specified protocols. Enters technical factors determined by protocol such as amount and quality of radiation beam, and specified filming sequence, into computer. Raises and lowers examining table and manipulates and positions x-ray tube in response to instructions from physician. Starts automatic injection of contrast medium into blood vessels of patient. Activates fluoroscope and 35 mm motion picture camera (cinefluorography) to produce images that assist physician in guiding catheter through cardiovascular system of patient. Observes gauges, recorder, and video screens of multichannel data analysis system that indicates blood pressure, cardiac output, and respiration, during imaging of cardiovascular system. Alerts physician to changes in patient responses. May assist physician in interventional procedures, such as instilling enzymes or inserting balloon in blood vessels to remove plaque or other blockage.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-054 SPECIAL PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGIST, CT SCAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: ct technologist

Operates computed tomography (CT) scanner to produce cross-sectional radiographs of patient's body for diagnostic purposes: Positions and immobilizes patient on examining table, using supportive devices to obtain precise patient position and following protocols specified by RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-090. Administers contrast media orally or assists physician in intravenous administration. Enters data, such as type of scan requested, slice thickness, scan time, and other technical data into computer, using knowledge of radiologic technology and computed tomography. Starts CT scanner to scan designated anatomical area of patient. Talks to patient over intercom system and observes patient through window of control room to monitor patient safety and comfort. Views images of organs or tissue on video display screen to ensure quality of pictures. Starts camera to produce radiographs. Evaluates radiographs, video tape, and computer generated information for technical quality.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-058 SPECIAL PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGIST, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) (medical ser.) alternate titles: magnetic resonance imaging technologist

Operates magnetic resonance imaging equipment to produce cross-sectional images (photographs) of patient's body for diagnostic purposes: Interviews patient to explain magnetic resonance imaging procedures and to request removal of metal objects which are hazardous to patient and equipment when magnet is activated. Positions patient on examining table and places specified coil (receiver) such as head coil or knee coil, close to area of interest, following protocols requested by RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-090. Demonstrates use of microphone that allows patient and technologist to communicate during examination. Enters data, such as patient history, anatomical area to be scanned, orientation specified, and position of entry into aperture of magnetic resonance imaging equipment (head or feet first), into computer. Keys commands to specify scan sequences, and adjust transmitters and receivers, into computer. Observes patient through window of control room and on closed circuit TV screen to monitor patient safety and comfort. Views images of area being scanned on video display screen to ensure quality of pictures. Keys in data on keyboard of camera to photograph images. Alerts staff entering magnet room to danger of wearing or carrying metal around magnet.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

078.362-062 STRESS TEST TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: stress technician

Produces recordings of electromotive variations in action of heart muscle, using electrocardiograph, while patient walks on treadmill, under direction of physician, to provide data for diagnosis of heart ailments: Attaches electrodes to patient's arms, legs, and chest area, according to specified pattern, and connects electrode leads to electrocardiograph, to obtain electrocardiogram. Explains testing procedures to patient and obtains consent form. Starts treadmill at speed directed by physician. Starts electrocardiograph and records data, such as angle and speed of treadmill, patient's indications of pain, and measurements of blood pressure. Informs physician of wave abnormalities on electrocardiogram. Stands alongside patient during test to lend support if necessary. Removes recorder strip printout from machine upon conclusion of test to obtain permanent record of test. Edits and mounts representative samples of tracings for patient's record, indicating time of test measurement and bodily factors that could have affected recording. May conduct electrocardiograph test of resting patient.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

078.364-010 ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: diagnostic medical sonographer

Produces two-dimensional ultrasonic recordings of internal organs, using ultrasound equipment, for use by physician in diagnosis of disease and study of malfunction of organs: Selects equipment for use in ultrasound setup according to specifications of examination. Explains process to patient, and instructs and assists patient in assuming physical position for examination. Selects transducer and adjusts equipment controls according to organ to be examined, depth of field, and other specifications of test. Keys test data and patient information into computer of ultrasound equipment to maintain record of test results. Moves transducer, by hand, over specified area of body and observes sound wave display screen to monitor quality of ultrasonic pattern produced. Starts equipment which produces images of internal organs and records diagnostic data on magnetic tape, computer disk, strip printout, or film. Photographs images of organs shown on display module, or removes strip printout from equipment, to obtain permanent record of internal examination. Discusses test results with supervisor or attending physician.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.364-014 ECHOCARDIOGRAPH TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: diagnostic cardiac sonographer

Produces two-dimensional ultrasonic recordings and Doppler flow analyses of heart and related structures, using ultrasound equipment, for use by physician in diagnosis of heart disease and study of heart: Explains procedures to patient to obtain cooperation and reduce anxieties of patient. Attaches electrodes to patient's chest to monitor heart rhythm and connects electrodes to electrode leads of ultrasound equipment. Adjusts equipment controls according to physician's orders and areas of heart to be examined. Keys patient information into computer keyboard on equipment to record information on video cassette and strip printout of test. Starts ultrasound equipment that produces images of real time tomographic cardiac anatomy, and adjusts equipment to obtain quality images. Moves transducer, by hand, over patient's heart areas, observes ultrasound display screen, and listens to Doppler signals to acquire data for measurement of blood flow velocities. Prints pictures of graphic analysis recordings and removes video cassette for permanent record of internal examination. Measures heart wall thicknesses and chamber sizes recorded on strip printout, using calipers and ruler, or keys commands into computer to measure thicknesses and chamber sizes of heart on video tape, and compares measurement to standard norms to identify abnormalities in heart. Measures blood flow velocities and calculates data, such as cardiac physiology and valve areas for evaluation of cardiac function by physician. Reviews test results with interpreting physician.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

078.367-010 CARDIAC MONITOR TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: telemetry technician

Monitors heart rhythm pattern of patients in special care unit of hospital to detect abnormal pattern variances, using telemetry equipment: Reviews patient information to determine normal heart rhythm pattern, current pattern, and prior variances. Observes screen of cardiac monitor and listens for alarm to identify abnormal variation in heart rhythm. Informs supervisor or NURSE, GENERAL DUTY (medical ser.) 075.364-010 of variances to initiate examination of patient. Measures length and height of patient's heart rhythm pattern on graphic tape readout, using calipers, and posts information on patient records. Answers calls for assistance from patients and inquiries concerning patients from medical staff, using intercom and call director. May perform duties as described under ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) 078.362-018.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R3 M2 L2 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

078.381-014 MEDICAL-LABORATORY TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: laboratory assistant; medical technician

Performs routine tests in medical laboratory to provide data for use in diagnosis and treatment of disease: Conducts quantitative and qualitative chemical analyses of body fluids, such as blood, urine, and spinal fluid, under supervision of MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) 078.261-038. Performs blood counts, using microscope. Conducts blood tests for transfusion purposes. May draw blood from patient's finger, ear lobe, or vein, observing principles of asepsis to obtain blood samples. May specialize in hematology, blood bank, cytology, histology, or chemistry.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 89

078.384-010 CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYST (medical ser.) alternate titles: cephalometric technician; cephalometric tracer; tracer

Traces head x rays and illustrates cosmetic result of proposed orthodontic treatment: Traces frontal and lateral head x rays onto transparent paper, using template, compass, protractor, and knowledge of cranial-facial skeletal structure. Traces lower teeth from occlusal x ray or photograph to locate key points defining true curve of lower dental arch. Records cephalometric measurements to prepare data for computer analysis, using electronic data recording equipment. Compiles data from tracings and computer plot sheets to illustrate results of proposed surgery or other orthodontic treatment.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

078.664-010 ORTHOPEDIC ASSISTANT (medical ser.) alternate titles: orthopedic cast specialist

Applies, adjusts, and removes casts, assembles traction apparatus, and fits strappings and splints for orthopedic patients according to medical staff instructions, using handtools: Covers injured areas with specified protective materials, such as stockinette bandages, gauze, or rubber pads, preparatory to cast application. Wets, wraps, and molds plaster bandages around area of fracture. Trims plaster, using electric cutter. Removes whole and broken casts and alters position of cast to change setting of patient's limb or body part as directed. Assembles wooden, metal, plastic, or plaster material to make orthopedic splints, using handtools. Rigs pulleys, ropes, and frames to assemble fracture beds, using handtools. Attaches traction supports to patient's limb and adjusts support to specified tension. Assembles exercise frames, using handtools. Adjusts crutches and canes to fit patient. Instructs patients in care of and assists patients in walking with casts, braces, and crutches.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R3 M2 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

078.687-010 LABORATORY ASSISTANT, BLOOD AND PLASMA (medical ser.; pharmaceut.)

Performs routine laboratory tasks related to processing whole blood and blood components: Centrifuges whole blood to produce various components including packed red cells, platelet concentrate, washed red cells, and plasma. Examines blood stock at designated intervals to confirm that all units are in satisfactory condition. Observes thermostats on storage units to confirm that temperature remains constant at designated temperature. Inspects blood units returned from hospitals to determine whether plasma can be salvaged and if so refers to plasma salvage unit. Confirms that sedimentation has occurred, that color is normal, and that containers are in satisfactory condition. Cleans and maintains laboratory equipment, supplies, and laboratory. Performs related clerical duties including updating statistical records, labeling tubes, and scheduling processing runs.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with the health care of humans or animals.

079.021-014 MEDICAL PHYSICIST (profess. & kin.)

Applies knowledge and methodology of science of physics to all aspects of medicine, to address problems related to diagnosis and treatment of human disease: Advises and consults with physicians in such applications as use of ionizing radiation in diagnosis, therapy, treatment planning with externally delivered radiation as well as use of internally implanted radioactive sources; complete subject of x-ray equipment, calibration, and dosimetry; medical uses of ultrasound and infrared; bioelectrical investigation of brain and heart; mathematical analysis and applications of computers in medicine; formulation of radiation protection guides and procedures specific to hospital environment; development of instrumentation for improved patient care and clinical service. Plans, directs, conducts, and participates in supporting programs to ensure effective and safe use of radiation and radionuclides in human beings by physician specialist. Teaches principles of medical physics to physicians, residents, graduate students, medical students, and technologists by means of lectures, problem solving, and laboratory sessions. Directs and participates in investigations of biophysical techniques associated with any branch of medicine. Conducts research in development of diagnostic and remedial procedures and develops instrumentation for specific medical applications. Acts as consultant to education, medical research, and other professional groups and organizations.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

079.101-010 CHIROPRACTOR (medical ser.) alternate titles: chiropractic; doctor, chiropractic

Diagnoses and treats musculoskeletal conditions of spinal column and extremities to prevent disease and correct abnormalities of body believed to be caused by interference with nervous system: Examines patient to determine nature and extent of disorder. Performs diagnostic procedures including physical, neurologic, and orthopedic examinations, laboratory tests, and other procedures, using x-ray machine, proctoscope, electrocardiograph, otoscope, and other instruments and equipment. Manipulates spinal column and other extremities to adjust, align, or correct abnormalities caused by neurologic and kinetic articular dysfunction. Utilizes supplementary measures, such as exercise, rest, water, light, heat, and nutritional therapy.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

079.101-014 DOCTOR, NATUROPATHIC (medical ser.)

Diagnoses, treats, and cares for patients, using system of practice that bases treatment of physiological functions and abnormal conditions on natural laws governing human body: Utilizes physiological, psychological, and mechanical methods, such as air, water, light, heat, earth, phytotherapy, food and herb therapy, psychotherapy, electrotherapy, physiotherapy, minor and orificial surgery, mechanotherapy, naturopathic corrections and manipulation, and natural methods or modalities, together with natural medicines, natural processed foods, and herbs and nature's remedies. Excludes major surgery, therapeutic use of x ray and radium, and use of drugs, except those assimilable substances containing elements or compounds which are components of body tissues and are physiologically compatible to body processes for maintenance of life.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

079.101-018 OPTOMETRIST (medical ser.)

Examines eyes to determine nature and degree of vision problem or eye disease and prescribes corrective lenses or procedures: Examines eyes and performs various tests to determine visual acuity and perception and to diagnose diseases and other abnormalities, such as glaucoma and color blindness. Prescribes eyeglasses, contact lenses, and other vision aids or therapeutic procedures to correct or conserve vision. Consults with and refers patients to OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-058 or other health care practitioner if additional medical treatment is determined necessary. May prescribe medications to treat eye diseases if state laws permit. May specialize in type of services provided, such as contact lenses, low vision aids or vision therapy, or in treatment of specific groups, such as children or elderly patients. May conduct research, instruct in college or university, act as consultant, or work in public health field.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

079.101-022 PODIATRIST (medical ser.)

Diagnoses and treats diseases and deformities of human foot: Diagnoses foot ailments, such as tumors, ulcers, fractures, skin or nail diseases, and congenital or acquired deformities, utilizing diagnostic aids, such as urinalysis, blood tests, and x-ray analysis. Treats deformities, such as flat or weak feet and foot imbalance, by mechanical and electrical methods, such as whirlpool or paraffin baths and short wave and low voltage currents. Treats conditions, such as corns, calluses, ingrowing nails, tumors, shortened tendons, bunions, cysts, and abscesses by surgical methods, including suturing, medications, and administration of local anesthetics. Prescribes drugs. Does not perform foot amputations. Corrects deformities by means of plaster casts and strappings. Makes and fits prosthetic appliances. Prescribes corrective footwear. Advises patients concerning continued treatment of disorders and proper foot care to prevent recurrence. Refers patients to physician when symptoms observed in feet and legs indicate systemic disorders, such as arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, or kidney trouble. May treat bone, muscle, and joint disorders and be designated Podiatrist, Orthopedic (medical ser.); children's foot diseases and be designated Podopediatrician (medical ser.). May perform surgery and be designated Podiatric Surgeon (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


Directs medical emergency service program: Coordinates activities of persons involved in rescue, transportation, and care of accident or catastrophe victims, and others requiring emergency medical assistance. Arranges for establishment of emergency medical facilities, staffing of facilities by emergency-trained medical and auxiliary personnel, installation of telecommunication network components, and acquisition of emergency vehicles. Maintains records of facilities and personnel, and periodically inspects facilities to ensure capability of meeting area's emergency needs. Maintains telecommunication contact with mobile and stationary units comprising emergency service network to coordinate activities of personnel, enlist services of other protective agencies, or provide alternate directions to onscene emergency personnel when planned procedures are not feasible. Develops, plans, and participates in training programs for ambulance and rescue personnel. Cooperates with schools and community organizations to encourage public interest in and knowledge of basic and advanced first aid training, and assists groups in development and presentation of classes. Maintains records of emergency medical service activities, for coordination with records prepared by cooperating institutions, to provide data for evaluation of program. Prepares reports stating progress, problems, and plans for future implementation of emergency service for community or area, for review by officials of sponsoring agency. Confers with coordinators of emergency programs in other areas to discuss problems, coordinate activities, and cooperate in area or statewide plans.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

079.117-014 PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATOR (profess. & kin.)

Plans, organizes, and directs health education programs for group and community needs: Conducts community surveys and collaborates with other health specialists and civic groups to ascertain health needs, develop desirable health goals, and determine availability of professional health services. Develops and maintains cooperation between public, civic, professional, and voluntary agencies. Prepares and disseminates educational and informational materials. Promotes health discussions in schools, industry, and community agencies. May plan for and provide educational opportunities for health personnel.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

079.117-018 SANITARIAN (profess. & kin.)

Plans, develops, and executes environmental health program: Organizes and conducts training program in environmental health practices for schools and other groups. Determines and sets health and sanitation standards and enforces regulations concerned with food processing and serving, collection and disposal of solid wastes, sewage treatment and disposal, plumbing, vector control, recreational areas, hospitals and other institutions, noise, ventilation, air pollution, radiation, and other areas. Confers with government, community, industrial, civil defense, and private organizations to interpret and promote environmental health programs. Collaborates with other health personnel in epidemiological investigations and control. Advises civic and other officials in development of environmental health laws and regulations.
GOE: 11.10.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Plans and conducts orientation and training program for nonprofessional nursing personnel: Organizes and writes nursing procedure manuals and guides for use by auxiliary nursing personnel. Schedules classes, and teaches routine nursing procedures to auxiliary personnel. Explains policies, rules, employee benefits, and organizational structure of institution. Discusses functions of various hospital departments and arranges for tour of physical plant. Assists nursing service supervisory personnel in solving problems of in-service training, promotions, transfers, and discipline of auxiliary personnel.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

079.131-010 DIRECTOR, SPEECH-AND-HEARING (medical ser.)

Directs and coordinates activities of personnel in hospital speech and hearing department engaged in research and in testing and treating patients according to established policies: Organizes and establishes personnel procedures, including hiring and training, counsels employees, and evaluates work performance. Confers with ADMINISTRATOR, HEALTH CARE FACILITY (medical ser.) 187.117-010 and committee members to request expenditures for equipment, supplies, and personnel. Meets with ADMINISTRATOR, HEALTH CARE FACILITY (medical ser.), department officials, and staff members to explain new techniques and procedures or to demonstrate new and innovative equipment. Plans and directs research and treatment programs to provide direction and assistance to staff members. Conducts workshops and seminars to develop staff expertise and knowledge. Analyzes data and maintains records of research and treatment programs.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

079.151-010 TRANSPLANT COORDINATOR (medical ser.) alternate titles: organ transplant coordinator

Plans and coordinates in-hospital transplant services, solicits organ donors, and assists medical staff in organ retrieval for patients undergoing organ or tissue transplantation: Communicates with donors, patients, and health team members to ensure comprehensive documentation, including informed consent of potential organ donor and transplant recipient, equitable access to transplantation system, and access to treatment alternatives. Analyzes medical data of potential organ donors and transplant recipients from medical and social records, physical examination, and consultation with health team members to perform preliminary physical assessment and screen potential recipients and donors. Schedules recipient and donor laboratory tests to determine histocompatibility of blood or tissue of recipient and donor. Compares collected data to normal values and correlates and summarizes laboratory reports, x rays, and other tests to assist physician to determine medical suitability of procedure, to identify potential complicating factors, and to evaluate recipient and donor compatibility. Solicits medical and community groups for organ donors and assists medical team in retrieval of organs for transplantation, using medical instruments. Coordinates in-hospital services and counsels recipient and donor to alleviate anxieties and assist recipient and donor throughout procedure. Advises post-operative patients on therapies for managing health after transplant and serves as team member to monitor and assess progress of patient and offer advice and assistance to patient following transplant. May coordinate in-hospital services and be known as Clinical Transplant Coordinator (medical ser.). May coordinate organ and tissue procurement services and be known as Procurement Transplant Coordinator (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

079.157-010 HYPNOTHERAPIST (profess. & kin.)

Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior patterns: Consults with client to determine nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic state by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degree of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client, using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client's problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

079.161-010 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENIST (profess. & kin.)

Conducts health program in industrial plant or governmental organization to recognize, eliminate, and control occupational health hazards and diseases: Collects samples of dust, gases, vapors, and other potentially toxic materials for analysis. Investigates adequacy of ventilation, exhaust equipment, lighting, and other conditions which may affect employee health, comfort, or efficiency. Conducts evaluations of exposure to ionizing and nonionizing radiation and to noise, and recommends measures to ensure maximum employee protection. Collaborates with INDUSTRIAL-HEALTH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) and PHYSICIAN, OCCUPATIONAL (medical ser.) to institute control and remedial measures for hazardous and potentially hazardous conditions and equipment. Prepares reports including observations, analysis of contaminants, and recommendations for control and correction of hazards. Participates in educational meetings to instruct employees in matters pertaining to occupational health and prevention of accidents. May specialize in particular area, such as collection and analysis of samples.
GOE: 11.10.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Plans and directs statewide program of public health education and promotes establishment of local health services: Directs workers engaged in preparation and distribution of health information materials, such as brochures, films, weight charts, and first-aid kits. Promotes establishment or expansion of local health services and provides technical assistance to individuals and groups conducting [health conferences, workshops, and training courses. Answers health information requests received by department or reviews correspondence prepared by others. Coordinates special health education campaigns during epidemics, rabies outbreaks, instances of food poisoning, and similar emergencies. May direct health education activities in public schools.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

079.167-014 MEDICAL-RECORD ADMINISTRATOR (medical ser.)

Plans, develops, and administers health information system for health care facility consistent with standards of accrediting and regulatory agencies and requirements of health care system: Develops and implements policies and procedures for documenting, storing, and retrieving information, and for processing medical-legal documents, insurance data, and correspondence requests, in conformance with federal, state, and local statutes. Supervises staff, directly or through subordinates, in preparing and analyzing medical documents. Participates in development and design of computer software for computerized health information system. Coordinates medical care evaluation with medical staff and develops criteria and methods for such evaluation. Develops in-service educational materials and conducts instructional programs for health care personnel. Analyzes patient data for reimbursement, facility planning, quality of patient care, risk management, utilization management, and research. May manage medical records department and be known as Director, Medical Records (medical ser.).
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

079.267-010 UTILIZATION-REVIEW COORDINATOR (medical ser.)

Analyzes patient records to determine legitimacy of admission, treatment, and length of stay in health-care facility to comply with government and insurance company reimbursement policies: Analyzes insurance, governmental, and accrediting agency standards to determine criteria concerning admissions, treatment, and length of stay of patients. Reviews application for patient admission and approves admission or refers case to facility utilization review committee for review and course of action when case fails to meet admission standards. Compares inpatient medical records to established criteria and confers with medical and nursing personnel and other professional staff to determine legitimacy of treatment and length of stay. Abstracts data from records and maintains statistics. Determines patient review dates according to established diagnostic criteria. May assist review committee in planning and holding federally mandated quality assurance reviews. May supervise and coordinate activities of utilization review staff.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

079.271-010 ACUPUNCTURIST (medical ser.)

Administers specific therapeutic treatment of symptoms and disorders amenable to acupuncture procedures, as specifically indicated by supervising physician: Reviews patient's medical history, physical findings, and diagnosis made by physician to ascertain symptoms or disorder to be treated. Selects needles of various lengths, according to location of insertion. Inserts needles at locations of body known to be efficacious to certain disorders, utilizing knowledge of acupuncture points and their functions. Leaves needles in patient for specific length of time, according to symptom or disorder treated, and removes needles. Burns bark of mugwort tree in small strainer to administer moxibustion treatment. Covers insertion area with cloth and rubs strainer over cloth to impart heat and assist in relieving patient's symptoms.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.271-014 ACUPRESSURIST (medical ser.)

Examines clients with pain, stress, or tension, determines acupressure techniques required to relieve problems, and demonstrates techniques to client, according to knowledge of acupressure methods and techniques. Directs client to lie on couch and positions client's arms and legs in relaxed position to facilitate examination and demonstration techniques. Questions clients, examines client's muscular system visually, and feels tissue around muscles, nerves, and blood vessels to locate knots and other blockages which indicate excessive accumulations of blood, fluids, and other substances in tissue. Determines cause of accumulations and acupressure techniques needed to increase circulation, according to knowledge of Asian acupuncture and pressure points and Western medical trigger points, bodywork techniques, such as Jin Shin, Do-In, Shiatsu, Swedish, and Esalen, and experience. Feels tissue around muscles, nerves, and blood vessels to locate points and applies specified pressure at specified pressure points or muscles, using thumbs, fingers, palms, or elbows, to redirect accumulated body fluids into normal channels, according to acupressure knowledge, techniques, and experience. Discusses findings with client and explains diet and methods to prevent recurrence of problem. May be known according to specific method or combination of methods used, such as Gia Ahp, Jin Shin, Do-In, or Shiatsu.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

079.361-014 VETERINARY TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: animal health technician; animal technician; veterinary assistant

Performs variety of animal health care duties to assist VETERINARIAN (medical ser.) 073.101-010 in settings such as veterinarians' clinics, zoos, research laboratories, kennels, and commercial facilities: Prepares treatment room for examination of animals, and holds or restrains animals during examination, treatment, or inoculation. Administers injections, performs venipunctures, applies wound dressings, cleans teeth, and takes vital signs of animal, under supervision of veterinarian. Prepares patient, medications, and equipment for surgery, and hands instruments and materials to veterinarian during surgical procedures. Performs routine laboratory tests, cares for and feeds laboratory animals, and assists professional personnel with research projects in commercial, public health, or research laboratories. Inspects products or carcasses when employed in food processing plants to ensure compliance with health standards. May assist veterinarian to artificially inseminate animals. May bathe and groom small animals.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 90

079.361-018 DENTAL ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

Assists dentist during examination and treatment of patients: Prepares patient, sterilizes and disinfects instruments, sets up instrument trays, prepares materials, and assists dentist during dental procedures. Takes and records medical and dental histories and vital signs of patient. Exposes dental diagnostic x rays. Makes preliminary impressions for study casts and occlusal registrations for mounting study casts. Pours, trims, and polishes study casts, fabricates custom impression trays from preliminary impressions, cleans and polishes removable appliances, and fabricates temporary restorations. Assists dentist in management of medical and dental emergencies. Instructs patients in oral hygiene and plaque control programs. Provides postoperative instructions prescribed by dentist. Records treatment information in patient records. Schedules appointments, prepares bills and receives payment for dental services, completes insurance forms, and maintains clerical records, manually or using computer. May clean teeth, using dental instruments. May apply protective coating of fluoride to teeth.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

079.362-010 MEDICAL ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

Performs any combination of following duties under direction of physician to assist in examination and treatment of patients: Interviews patients, measures vital signs, such as pulse rate, temperature, blood pressure, weight, and height, and records information on patients' charts. Prepares treatment rooms for examination of patients. Drapes patients with covering and positions instruments and equipment. Hands instruments and materials to doctor as directed. Cleans and sterilizes instruments. Inventories and orders medical supplies and materials. Operates x ray, electrocardiograph (EKG), and other equipment to administer routine diagnostic test or calls medical facility or department to schedule patients for tests. Gives injections or treatments, and performs routine laboratory tests. Schedules appointments, receives money for bills, keeps x ray and other medical records, performs secretarial tasks, and completes insurance forms. May key data into computer to maintain office and patient records. May keep billing records, enter financial transactions into bookkeeping ledgers, and compute and mail monthly statements to patients.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

079.362-014 MEDICAL RECORD TECHNICIAN (medical ser.)

Compiles and maintains medical records of patients of health care delivery system to document patient condition and treatment: Reviews medical records for completeness and to abstract and code clinical data, such as diseases, operations, procedures and therapies, using standard classification systems. Compiles medical care and census data for statistical reports on types of diseases treated, surgery performed, and use of hospital beds, in response to inquiries from law firms, insurance companies, and government agencies. Maintains and utilizes variety of health record indexes and storage and retrieval systems. Operates computer to process, store, and retrieve health information. Assists MEDICAL-RECORD ADMINISTRATOR (medical ser.) 079.167-014 in special studies or research, as needed.
GOE: 07.05.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

079.362-018 TUMOR REGISTRAR (medical ser.)

Compiles and maintains records of hospital patients treated for cancer to provide data for physicians and research studies, utilizing tumor registry data system: Reviews hospital records to identify and compile patient data for use in cancer management program and to comply with government regulations. Reviews patient's medical record, abstracts and codes information, such as demographic characteristics, history and extent of disease, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and enters data into computer. Contacts discharged patients, their families, and physicians to maintain registry with follow-up information, such as quality of life and length of survival of cancer patients. Prepares statistical reports, narrative reports and graphic presentations of tumor registry data for use by hospital staff, researchers, and other users of registry data. May supervise subordinate tumor registry staff and be known as Manager, Tumor Registry (medical ser.).
GOE: 07.05.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

079.364-010 CHIROPRACTOR ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

Aids CHIROPRACTOR (medical ser.) during physical examination of patients, gives specified office treatments, and keeps patients' records: Writes history of patient's accident or illness, and shows patient to examining room. Aids CHIROPRACTOR (medical ser.) in lifting and turning patient under treatment. Gives physiotherapy treatments, such as diathermy, galvanics, or hydrotherapy, following directions of CHIROPRACTOR (medical ser.). Takes and records patient's temperature and blood pressure, assists in x-ray procedures, and gives first aid. Answers telephone, schedules appointments, records treatment information on patient's chart, and fills out insurance forms. Prepares and mails patient's bills.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.364-014 OPTOMETRIC ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

Performs any combination of following tasks to assist OPTOMETRIST (medical ser) 079.101-018: Obtains and records patient's preliminary case history. Maintains records, schedules appointments, performs bookkeeping, correspondence, and filing. Prepares patient for vision examination; assists in testing for near and far acuity, depth perception, macula integrity, color perception, and visual field, utilizing ocular testing apparatus. Instructs patient in care and use of glasses or contact lenses. Works with patient in vision therapy. Assists patient in frame selection. Adjusts and repairs glasses. Modifies contact lenses. Maintains inventory of materials and cleans instruments. Assists in fabrication of eye glasses or contact lenses.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.364-018 PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

Provides health care services to patients under direction and responsibility of physician: Examines patient, performs comprehensive physical examination, and compiles patient medical data, including health history and results of physical examination. Administers or orders diagnostic tests, such as x ray, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests, and interprets test results for deviations from normal. Performs therapeutic procedures, such as injections, immunizations, suturing and wound care, and managing infection. Develops and implements patient management plans, records progress notes, and assists in provision of continuity of care. Instructs and counsels patients regarding compliance with prescribed therapeutic regimens, normal growth and development, family planning, emotional problems of daily living, and health maintenance. May have training in particular medical specialty and be designated Anesthesiologist Assistant (medical ser.) or Surgeon Assistant (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

079.364-022 PHLEBOTOMIST (medical ser.)

Draws blood from patients or donors in hospital, blood bank, or similar facility for analysis or other medical purposes: Assembles equipment, such as tourniquet, needles, disposable containers for needles, blood collection devices, gauze, cotton, and alcohol on work tray, according to requirements for specified tests or procedures. Verifies or records identity of patient or donor and converses with patient or donor to allay fear of procedure. Applies tourniquet to arm, locates accessible vein, swabs puncture area with antiseptic, and inserts needle into vein to draw blood into collection tube or bag. Withdraws needle, applies treatment to puncture site, and labels and stores blood container for subsequent processing. May prick finger to draw blood. May conduct interviews, take vital signs, and draw and test blood samples to screen donors at blood bank.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M2 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 88

079.364-026 PARAMEDIC (medical ser.) alternate titles: emt-paramedic

Administers life support care to sick and injured persons in prehospital setting as authorized and directed by physician: Assesses nature and extent of illness or injury to establish and prioritize medical procedures to be followed or need for additional assistance. Restores and stabilizes heart rhythm on pulseless, nonbreathing patient, using defibrillator, or as directed by physician. Monitors cardiac patient, using electrocardiograph. Initiates intravenous fluids to administer medication or drugs, or to replace fluids lacking in body. Performs endotracheal intubation to open airways and ventilate patient. Administers injections of medications and drugs, following established protocols. Inflates pneumatic anti-shock garment on patient to improve blood circulation. Administers initial treatment at emergency scene and takes and records patient's vital signs. Assists in extricating trapped victims and transports sick and injured persons to treatment center. Observes, records, and reports to physician patient's condition and reaction to drugs, treatments, and significant incidents. May drive mobile intensive care unit to emergency scene. May serve as team leader for EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIANS (medical ser.) 079.374-010. May communicate with physician and other medical personnel via radio-telephone.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: V GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

079.367-018 MEDICAL-SERVICE TECHNICIAN (military ser.)

Administers medical aid to personnel aboard submarines, small ships, and isolated areas in absence of or under supervision of medical superior: Examines patients and diagnoses condition. Prescribes medication to treat condition of patient. Inoculates and vaccinates patients to immunize patients from communicable diseases. Treats cuts and burns, performs minor surgery and administers emergency medical care to patients during emergency situations in absence of superior. Inspects food and facilities to determine conformance to sanitary regulations. Recommends necessary measures to ensure sanitary conditions are maintained. Records, transcribes, and files medical case histories. Prepares requisitions for supplies, services, and equipment.
GOE: 07.05.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

079.371-014 ORTHOPTIST (medical ser.)

Aids persons with correctable focusing defects to develop and use binocular vision (focusing of both eyes): Measures visual acuity, focusing ability, and eye-motor movement of eyes, separately and jointly. Aids patient to move, focus, and coordinate both eyes to aid in visual development. Develops visual skills, near-visual discrimination, and depth perception, using developmental glasses and prisms. Instructs adult patients or parents of young patients in utilization of corrective methods at home.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.374-010 EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN (medical ser.)

Administers first-aid treatment to and transports sick or injured persons to medical facility, working as member of emergency medical team: Responds to instructions from emergency medical dispatcher and drives specially equipped emergency vehicle to specified location. Monitors communication equipment to maintain contact with dispatcher. Removes or assists in removal of victims from scene of accident or catastrophe. Determines nature and extent of illness or injury, or magnitude of catastrophe, to establish first aid procedures to be followed or need for additional assistance, basing decisions on statements of persons involved, examination of victim or victims, and knowledge of emergency medical practice. Administers prescribed first-aid treatment at site of emergency, or in specially equipped vehicle, performing such activities as application of splints, administration of oxygen or intravenous injections, treatment of minor wounds or abrasions, or administration of artificial resuscitation. Communicates with professional medical personnel at emergency treatment facility to obtain instructions regarding further treatment and to arrange for reception of victims at treatment facility. Assists in removal of victims from vehicle and transfer of victims to treatment center. Assists treatment center admitting personnel to obtain and record information related to victims' vital statistics and circumstances of emergency. Maintains vehicles and medical and communication equipment and replenishes first-aid equipment and supplies. May assist in controlling crowds, protecting valuables, or performing other duties at scene of catastrophe. May assist professional medical personnel in emergency treatment administered at medical facility.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

079.374-014 NURSE, LICENSED PRACTICAL (medical ser.)

Provides prescribed medical treatment and personal care services to ill, injured, convalescent, and handicapped persons in such settings as hospitals, clinics, private homes, schools, sanitariums, and similar institutions: Takes and records patients' vital signs. Dresses wounds, gives enemas, douches, alcohol rubs, and massages. Applies compresses, ice bags, and hot water bottles. Observes patients and reports adverse reactions to medication or treatment to medical personnel in charge. Administers specified medication, orally or by subcutaneous or intermuscular injection, and notes time and amount on patients' charts. Assembles and uses such equipment as catheters, tracheotomy tubes, and oxygen suppliers. Collects samples, such as urine, blood, and sputum, from patients for testing and performs routine laboratory tests on samples. Sterilizes equipment and supplies, using germicides, sterilizer, or autoclave. Prepares or examines food trays for prescribed diet and feeds patients. Records food and fluid intake and output. Bathes, dresses, and assists patients in walking and turning. Cleans rooms, makes beds, and answers patients' calls. Washes and dresses bodies of deceased persons. Must pass state board examination and be licensed. May assist in delivery, care, and feeding of infants. May inventory and requisition supplies. May provide medical treatment and personal care to patients in private home settings and be designated Home Health Nurse, Licensed Practical (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 87

079.374-018 PODIATRIC ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

Assists PODIATRIST (medical ser.) in patient care. Prepares patients for treatment, sterilizes instruments, performs general office duties, and assists PODIATRIST (medical ser.) in preparing dressings, administering treatments, and developing x rays.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.374-022 SURGICAL TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: operating-room technician

Performs any combination of following tasks before, during, and after surgery to assist surgical team: Places equipment and supplies in operating room and arranges instruments, according to instructions. Assists team members to place and position patient on table. Scrubs arms and hands and dons gown and gloves. Aids team to don gowns and gloves. Maintains supply of fluids, such as plasma, saline, blood, and glucose for use during operation. Hands instruments and supplies to surgeon, holds retractors, cuts sutures, and performs other tasks as directed by surgeon during operation. Puts dressings on patient following surgery. Counts sponges, needles, and instruments before and after operation. Washes and sterilizes equipment, using germicides and sterilizers. Cleans operating room.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

079.374-026 PSYCHIATRIC TECHNICIAN (medical ser.)

Provides nursing care to mentally ill, emotionally disturbed, or mentally retarded patients in psychiatric hospital or mental health clinic and participates in rehabilitation and treatment programs: Helps patients with their personal hygiene, such as bathing and keeping beds, clothing, and living areas clean. Administers oral medications and hypodermic injections, following physician's prescriptions and hospital procedures. Takes and records measures of patient's general physical condition, such as pulse, temperature, and respiration, to provide daily information. Observes patients to detect behavior patterns and reports observations to medical staff. Intervenes to restrain violent or potentially violent or suicidal patients by verbal or physical means as required. Leads prescribed individual or group therapy sessions as part of specific therapeutic procedures. May complete initial admittance forms for new patients. May contact patient's relatives by telephone to arrange family conferences. May issue medications from dispensary and maintain records in accordance with specified procedures. May be required to hold state license.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86


This division includes occupations in education concerned with research, administration, and teaching. Includes occupations in the administration of federal, state, and private programs for which a background in education is required. Includes aides who assist classroom teachers by instructing sections of classes, coaching invididual pupils, and grading papers, but excludes aides where educational preparation is not specific and tasks of jobs include various clerical or service tasks. Classroom aide occupations in primary and secondary school are included in Group 249. Occupations concerned with teaching art other than in primary and secondary schools are included in Group 149. Occupations concerned with teaching dramatics, dancing, music, athletics, games of mental skill, e.g., bridge and chess, and sports, other than in primary and secondary schools, are included in appropriate groups under Division 15. Occupations concerned with student and teacher personnel work and vocational guidance are included in Groups 045 and 166. Administrative occupations which do not require a background of education are included in groups under Division 16.


This group includes occupations concerned with research, administration, and teaching in schools beyond the secondary school level (including junior colleges, technical institutes, and specialized post-secondary vocational schools, such as secretarial, laboratory technology, and aviation-training schools, as well as the graduate and undergraduate facilities and professional schools of colleges and universities). Teachers at this level usually specialize in one academic subject, professional discipline, or technical skill.

090.107-010 FOREIGN-STUDENT ADVISER (education) alternate titles: visiting-student counselor

Assists foreign students in making academic, personal-social, and environmental adjustment to campus and community life: Evaluates students' qualifications in light of admission requirements and makes recommendations relative to admission. Develops and maintains case histories, noting language, educational, social, religious, or physical problems affecting students' adjustments. Provides informal counseling and orientation regarding recreational and religious outlets, study habits, and personal adjustments. Interprets university regulations and requirements. Assists students in complying with government regulations concerning status, immigration, visas, passports, permission to work, and related matters. Represents students in cases involving conflict with regulations. Cooperates with other personnel service bureaus to assist in adjustment of students. Approves students' proposed budgets and requests release of funds from students' home governments to meet financial obligations. Recommends students for scholarships, grants-in-aid, and waivers of tuition fees on basis of scholarship, character, and financial need. Encourages and coordinates activities of groups which promote understanding of foreign cultures. May assist in curriculum planning.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

090.117-010 ACADEMIC DEAN (education) alternate titles: academic vice president; dean of instruction; faculty dean; provost; university dean; vice president for instruction

Develops academic policies and programs for college or university: Directs and coordinates activities of deans and chairpersons of individual colleges. Advises on personnel matters. Determines scheduling of courses and recommends implementation of additional courses. Coordinates activities of student advisors. Participates in activities of faculty committees, and in development of academic budget. Advises PRESIDENT, EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION (education) on academic matters. Serves as liaison officer with accrediting agencies which evaluate academic programs. May serve as chief administrative officer in absence of PRESIDENT, EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION (education). May provide general direction to LIBRARIAN (library); DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS (education); and REGISTRAR, COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.117-014 ALUMNI SECRETARY (education) alternate titles: director, alumni relations

Directs and coordinates activities of college or university alumni organization: Communicates with alumni and former students. Organizes and directs alumni organizational functions, regional alumni meetings, and production of alumni publications. Coordinates activities of clerical and publications staff. Promotes alumni endorsement of institutional activities and enlists alumni aid in recruiting students and fund raising. Secures publicity for alumni functions. May promote athletic events. May assist in followup studies of graduates. May supervise alumni field officers.
GOE: 11.09.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.117-018 DEAN OF STUDENTS (education) alternate titles: dean of student affairs; director of student services; vice president of student affairs

Directs and coordinates student programs of college or university: Formulates and develops student personnel policies. Advises staff members on problems relating to policy, program, and administration. Directs and assists in planning social, recreational, and curricular programs. Counsels or advises individuals and groups on matters pertaining to personal problems, educational and vocational objectives, social and recreational activities, and financial assistance. Reviews reports of student misconduct cases that require disciplinary action to ensure recommendations conform to university policies. Sponsors and advises student organizations. Reviews budget and directs appropriations of student services unit. Represents university in community on matters pertaining to student personnel program and activities. May teach. May direct admissions, foreign student services, health services, student union, and testing services. May be designated Dean Of Men (education); Dean Of Women (education).
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.117-022 DIRECTOR, ATHLETIC (education)

Plans, administers, and directs intercollegiate athletic activities in college or university: Interprets and participates in formulating extramural athletic policies. Employs and discharges coaching staff and other department employees on own initiative or at direction of board in charge of athletics. Directs preparation and dissemination of publicity to promote athletic events. Plans and coordinates activities of coaching staff. Prepares budget and authorizes department expenditures. Plans and schedules sports events, and oversees ticket sales activities. Certifies reports of income produced from ticket sales. May direct programs for students of physical education.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.117-026 DIRECTOR, EXTENSION WORK (education)

Directs college or university extension service to provide educational programs for adults in extended day, evening, and off-campus classes and in special interest seminar and convention courses: Consults staff members to determine community educational needs and to ascertain feasibility of proposed programs. Develops academic objectives for specific programs and for long range extension services. Consults with staff and outside experts and formulates program scope and content. Meets with academic and administrative personnel to disseminate information regarding program objectives and to ensure that program goals are met. Establishes operational policies and procedures. Reviews program progress reports to ensure that objectives are met. Reviews and approves budget. Oversees activities of operational and program departments. Directs activities of administrative staff.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.117-030 FINANCIAL-AIDS OFFICER (education) alternate titles: director of financial aid and placements; director of student aid

Directs scholarship, grant-in-aid, and loan programs to provide financial assistance to students in college or university: Selects candidates and determines types and amounts of aid. Organizes and oversees student financial counseling activities. Coordinates activities with other departmental staff engaged in issuing or collecting student payments. May teach. May select financial aid candidates as members of committee and be designated Chairperson, Scholarship And Loan Committee (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.117-034 PRESIDENT, EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION (education) alternate titles: chancellor

Formulates plans and programs for and directs administration of college, school, or university, within authority delegated by governing board: Confers with board of control to plan and initiate programs concerning organizational, operational, and academic functions of campus, and oversees their execution. Administers fiscal and physical planning activities, such as development of budget and building expansion programs, and recommends their adoption. Negotiates with administrative officials and representatives of business, community, and civic groups to promote educational, research, and public service objectives and policies of institution as formulated by board of control. Establishes operational procedures, rules, and standards relating to faculty and staff classification standards, financial disbursements, and accounting requirements. Represents campus on board of control and at formal functions. May be designated according to type of institution presided over as President, Business School (education); President, College Or University (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.164-010 LABORATORY MANAGER (education)

Coordinates activities of university science laboratory to assist faculty in teaching and research programs: Consults with faculty laboratory coordinator to determine equipment purchase priorities based on budget allowances, condition of existing equipment, and scheduled laboratory activities. Prepares and puts in place equipment scheduled for use during laboratory teaching sessions. Demonstrates care and use of equipment to teaching assistants. Builds prototype equipment, applying electromechanical knowledge and using handtools and power tools. Trains teaching staff and students in application and use of new equipment. Diagnoses equipment malfunctions and dismantles and repairs equipment, applying knowledge of shop mechanics and using gauges, meters, handtools, and power tools. Develops methods of laboratory experimentation, applying knowledge of scientific theory and computer capability. Confers with teaching staff periodically to evaluate new equipment and methods. Teaches laboratory sessions in absence of teaching assistant.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

090.167-010 DEPARTMENT HEAD, COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY (education) alternate titles: department chairperson, college or university

Administers affairs of college department, such as English, biological sciences, or mathematics department: Arranges schedules of classes and assigns teaching staff to conduct classes. Prepares lists of budgetary and other needs. Interviews applicants for teaching positions. Performs other administrative duties in addition to teaching assignment. May administer department's budget and recruit academic personnel. May head department in two-year college and be designated Department Head, Junior College (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-014 DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS (education) alternate titles: dean of admissions

Directs and coordinates admissions program of public or private college or university, according to policies developed by governing board: Directs program of admissions counseling and reviews exceptional admissions cases. Confers with staff of other schools to explain admission requirements and student transfer credit policies. Evaluates courses offered by other schools to determine their equivalency to courses offered on campus. Directs preparation of printed materials explaining admission requirements and transfer credit policies for dissemination to other schools. May counsel students having problems relating to admissions or may supervise professionally trained admissions counseling staff. May serve on policy making admissions committee. May participate in or conduct student recruitment programs with other members of faculty and staff. May administer financial aid programs.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-018 DIRECTOR OF INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH (education) alternate titles: administrative analyst; director of institutional studies; vice president for institutional research

Directs and coordinates activities concerned with research and evaluation of operations and programs of college or university: Identifies problem areas, such as admission patterns, fiscal and management analysis, and sources of financial support in order to develop research procedures. Coordinates research efforts and assists in evaluating research findings. Coordinates activities of research staff. May teach.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-022 DIRECTOR OF STUDENT AFFAIRS (education) alternate titles: director, student union; manager, student union; student-activities adviser; student-union consultant

Plans and arranges social, cultural, and recreational activities of various student groups, according to university policies and regulations: Meets with student and faculty groups to plan activities. Evaluates programs and suggests modifications. Schedules events to prevent overlapping and coordinates activities with sports and other university programs. Contacts caterers, entertainers, decorators, and others to arrange for scheduled events. Conducts orientation program for new students with other members of faculty and staff. Advises student groups on financial status of and methods for improving their organizations. Promotes student participation in social, cultural, and recreational activities. May coordinate preparation and publishing of student affairs calendar. May provide individual or group counseling on selection of social activities and use of leisure time. May be designated according to activity performed as Fraternity Adviser (education); Women's-Activities Adviser (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-026 DIRECTOR, SUMMER SESSIONS (education)

Coordinates and directs summer session program of college or university: Analyzes past records and confers with faculty and staff on enrollment trends to anticipate size of enrollment. Estimates budget requirements on basis of expected income and expenditures and requests allotment of funds. Discusses apportionment of funds with heads of departments and approves or alters detailed budgets according to past financial success of proposed course offerings. Issues invitations to and appoints teaching staff upon recommendations of department heads. Directs preparation and distribution of summer session bulletin and publicity releases. Oversees registration of summer session students. May establish tuition fees as member of committee on basis of expected enrollment to provide income equal to expenses.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.167-030 REGISTRAR, COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY (education) alternate titles: director of admissions

Directs and coordinates college or university registration activities: Consults with other officials to devise registration schedules and procedures. Analyzes statistical data on registration for administrative use in formulating policies. Exchanges student information with other colleges or universities. Directs preparation of student transcripts. Prepares commencement list. Directs preparation of statistical reports on educational activities for government and educational agencies and interprets registration policies to faculty and students. Directs activities of workers engaged in transcribing and evaluating academic records of students applying for permission to enter college or university. Directs compilation of information, such as class schedules and graduation requirements, for publication in school bulletins and catalogs. Coordinates dissemination of information on courses offered and procedures students are required to follow in order to obtain grade transcripts. Issues official transcripts. Coordinates class schedules with room assignments for optimum use of buildings and equipment. May assign rooms for student activities.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-034 DIRECTOR, FIELD SERVICES (education) alternate titles: director of recruitment

Directs and plans recruitment activities of community college: Plans comprehensive program of marketing services in recruitment of students and outreach activities with business, industry, community organizations, and public agencies to establish educational programs and to identify educational needs of community. Develops and distributes recruiting literature in locations, such as high schools and shopping centers. Plans publicity campaign and contacts target groups directly through visits with school counselors, career day activities, and meetings with industry groups to explain college educational programs and services. Studies federal and state regulations and local demographic and employment trends to determine impact on enrollment. Coordinates recruitment activities with other colleges. Advises administrative staff on need for new programs and courses. Prepares budget and annual reports.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

090.222-010 INSTRUCTOR, BUSINESS EDUCATION (education)

Instructs students in commercial subjects, such as typing, filing, secretarial procedures, business mathematics, office equipment use, and personality development, in business schools, community colleges, or training programs: Instructs students in subject matter, utilizing various methods, such as lecture and demonstration, and uses audiovisual aids and other materials to supplement presentations. Prepares or follows teaching outline for course of study, assigns lessons, and corrects homework and classroom papers. Administers tests to evaluate students' progress, records results, and issues reports to inform students of their progress. Maintains discipline in classroom.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86


Conducts college or university courses for undergraduate or graduate students: Teaches one or more subjects, such as economics, chemistry, law, or medicine, within prescribed curriculum. Prepares and delivers lectures to students. Compiles bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments. Stimulates class discussions. Compiles, administers, and grades examinations, or assigns this work to others. Directs research of other teachers or graduate students working for advanced academic degrees. Conducts research in particular field of knowledge and publishes findings in professional journals. Performs related duties, such as advising students on academic and vocational curricula, and acting as adviser to student organizations. Serves on faculty committee providing professional consulting services to government and industry. May be designated according to faculty rank in traditional hierarchy as determined by institution's estimate of scholarly maturity as Associate Professor (education); Professor (education); or according to rank distinguished by duties assigned or amount of time devoted to academic work as Research Assistant (education); Visiting Professor (education). May teach in two-year college and be designated Teacher, Junior College (education); or in technical institute and be designated Faculty Member, Technical Institute (education). May be designated: Acting Professor (education); Assistant Professor (education); Clinical Instructor (education); Instructor (education); Lecturer (education); Teaching Assistant (education).
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

090.227-014 GRADUATE ASSISTANT (education)

Assists department chairperson, faculty members or other professional staff members in college or university, by performing any combination of following duties: Assists in library, develops teaching materials, such as syllabi and visual aids, assists in laboratory or field research, prepares and gives examinations, assists in student conferences, grades examinations and papers, and teaches lower-level courses. May be designated by duties performed, or equipment operated.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.227-018 INSTRUCTOR, EXTENSION WORK (education)

Conducts evening classes for extension service of college or university: Prepares course of study designed to meet community, organization, and student needs. Conducts and corrects examinations, and assigns course grades.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with research, administration, and teaching at the secondary school level (intermediate grades between primary school and college). Teaching at this level is generally specialized according to one group of related subjects, such as physics, math, history, literature, home economics, industrial arts, or music. Occupations concerned with relieving teachers of duties which do not require academic training, such as clerical tasks or attending to personal needs of students, are included in Group 249.

091.107-010 ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL (education)

Administers school student personnel program in primary or secondary school, and counsels and disciplines students, performing any combination of following tasks: Formulates student personnel policies, such as code of ethics. Plans and supervises school student activity programs. Gives individual and group guidance for personal problems, educational and vocational objectives, and social and recreational activities. Talks with and disciplines students in cases of attendance and behavior problems. Supervises students in attendance at assemblies and athletic events. Walks about school building and property to monitor safety and security or directs and coordinates teacher supervision of areas such as halls and cafeteria. Observes and evaluates teacher performance. Maintains records of student attendance. Arranges for and oversees substitute teachers. Works with administrators to coordinate and supervise student teachers program. Teaches courses. Assists PRINCIPAL (education) 099.117-018 to interview and hire teachers. Organizes and administers in-service teacher training. Acts as PRINCIPAL (education) in absence of PRINCIPAL (education). May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 80

091.221-010 TEACHER, INDUSTRIAL ARTS (education) alternate titles: shop teacher

Teaches students basic techniques and assists in development of manipulative skills in industrial arts courses in secondary schools: Prepares lesson plans for courses and establishes goals. Lectures, illustrates, and demonstrates when teaching use of handtools; machines, such as lathe, planer, power saws, and drill press; safety practices; precision measuring instruments, such as micrometer; and industrial arts techniques. Evaluates student progress. Talks with parents and counselor to resolve behavioral and academic problems. May teach shop math. May specialize in one or more areas, such as woodworking, metalworking, electricity, graphic arts, automobile repair, or drafting. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 11.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

091.227-010 TEACHER, SECONDARY SCHOOL (education) alternate titles: high school teacher

Teaches one or more subjects to students in public or private secondary schools: Instructs students, using various teaching methods, such as lecture and demonstration, and uses audiovisual aids and other materials to supplement presentations. Prepares course objectives and outline for course of study following curriculum guidelines or requirements of state and school. Assigns lessons and corrects homework. Administers tests to evaluate pupil progress, records results, and issues reports to inform parents of progress. Keeps attendance records. Maintains discipline in classroom. Meets with parents to discuss student progress and problems. Participates in faculty and professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops. Performs related duties, such as sponsoring one or more activities or student organizations, assisting pupils in selecting course of study, and counseling student in adjustment and academic problems. May be identified according to subject matter taught. May be required to hold certification from state.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80


This group includes occupations concerned with research, administration, and teaching below the secondary school level. Teaching at this level is generally not specialized according to subject matter. Some specialization does occur in music, art, science, or physical training. Occupations concerned with relieving teachers of duties which do not require academic training, such as clerical tasks or attending to personal needs of children, are included in Group 249.

092.167-010 DIRECTOR, DAY CARE CENTER (education)

Directs activities of preschool, day care center, or other child development facility to provide instruction and care for children: Prepares and submits facility budget to board of trustees, administrative agency, or owner for approval. Authorizes purchase of instructional materials and teaching aids, such as books, toys, and games designed to stimulate learning. Interviews and recommends hiring of teaching and service staff. Confers with parents regarding facility activities, policies, and enrollment procedures. Confers with teaching staff regarding child's behavioral or learning problems, and recommends methods of modifying inappropriate behavior and encouraging learning experiences. Reviews and evaluates facility activities to ensure conformance to state and local regulations. Reviews and approves menu plans and food purchases. May arrange medical attention for ill or injured child in accordance with parental instructions. May perform classroom teaching duties during absence of regular teacher. May be designated Director, Child Development Center (education); Director, Nursery School (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

092.227-010 TEACHER, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (education)

Teaches elementary school students academic, social, and motor skills in public or private schools: Prepares course objectives and outline for course of study following curriculum guidelines or requirements of state and school. Lectures, demonstrates, and uses audiovisual teaching aids to present subject matter to class. Prepares, administers, and corrects tests, and records results. Assigns lessons, corrects papers, and hears oral presentations. Teaches rules of conduct. Maintains order in classroom and on playground. Counsels pupils when adjustment and academic problems arise. Discusses pupils' academic and behavioral attitudes and achievements with parents. Keeps attendance and grade records as required by school. May coordinate class field trips. May teach combined grade classes. May specialize by subject taught, such as math, science, or social studies. May be required to hold state certification.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

092.227-014 TEACHER, KINDERGARTEN (education) alternate titles: instructor, kindergarten

Teaches elemental natural and social science, personal hygiene, music, art, and literature to children from 4 to 6 years old, to promote their physical, mental, and social development: Supervises activities, such as field visits, group discussions, and dramatic play acting, to stimulate students' interest in and broaden understanding of their physical and social environment. Fosters cooperative social behavior through games and group projects to assist children in forming satisfying relationships with other children and adults. Encourages students in singing, dancing, rhythmic activities, and in use of art materials, to promote self-expression and appreciation of esthetic experience. Instructs children in practices of personal cleanliness and self care. Alternates periods of strenuous activity with periods of rest or light activity to avoid overstimulation and fatigue. Observes children to detect signs of ill health or emotional disturbance, and to evaluate progress. Discusses students' problems and progress with parents.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

092.227-018 TEACHER, PRESCHOOL (education)

Instructs children in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth needed for primary school in preschool, day care center, or other child development facility. Plans individual and group activities to stimulate growth in language, social, and motor skills, such as learning to listen to instructions, playing with others, and using play equipment. May be required to have certification from state. May be designated Teacher, Child Development Center (education); Teacher, Day Care Center (education); Teacher, Early Childhood Development (education); Teacher, Nursery School (education).
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 81


This group includes occupations concerned with research in the education and training of persons with disabilities; the administration of schools or programs for persons with disabilities; and teaching in such schools and programs which require specialized techniques and procedures. Includes teaching persons with visual impairments to read books imprinted in braille and to develop their sense of touch; instructing persons who are hearing impaired in sign language and lip reading; and instructing persons with mental, neurological, and emotional disabilities.


Plans and conducts special education work and study program for in-school youth: Establishes contacts with employers and employment agencies and surveys newspapers and other sources to locate work opportunities for students. Confers with potential employers to communicate objectives of work study program and to solicit cooperation in adapting work situations to special needs of students. Evaluates and selects program participants according to specified criteria and counsels and instructs selected students in matters such as vocational choices, job readiness, and job retention skills and behaviors. Assists students in applying for jobs and accompanies students to employment interviews. Confers with employer and visits work site to monitor progress of student and to determine support needed to meet employer requirements and fulfill program goals. Counsels students to foster development of satisfactory job performance. Confers with school and community personnel to impart information about program and to coordinate program functions with related activities.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.117-010 DIRECTOR, COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND (government ser.)

Directs activities of State Commission for the Blind to facilitate vocational and social adjustment of visually handicapped individuals: Directs, through subordinates, activities of workers engaged in training visually handicapped in vocational and other skills. Plans and organizes training programs and self-employment opportunities for blind persons. Confers with representatives of civic groups and charitable organizations to coordinate programs and services. Recommends changes in legislation affecting visually handicapped individuals. Represents Commission at conventions and addresses public gatherings to promote understanding of problems of blind and partially sighted and activities of Commission. Authorizes purchase of materials and equipment within allocated budget.
GOE: 11.07.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Develops and coordinates implementation of vocational rehabilitation programs: Consults with members of local communities and personnel of rehabilitation facilities, such as sheltered workshops and skills training centers, to identify need for new programs or modification of existing programs. Collects and analyzes data to define problems and develops proposals for programs to provide needed services, utilizing knowledge of vocational rehabilitation theory and practice, program funding sources, and government regulations. Provides staff training, negotiates contracts for equipment and supplies, and performs related functions to implement program changes. Monitors program operations and recommends additional measures to ensure programs meet defined needs.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

094.167-010 SUPERVISOR, SPECIAL EDUCATION (education)

Directs and coordinates activities of teachers and other staff providing home or school instruction, evaluation services, job placement, or other special education services to physically, mentally, emotionally, or neurologically handicapped children: Reviews referrals and diagnoses and participates in conferences with administrators, staff, parents, children, and other concerned parties to formulate recommendations for student placement and provision of services. Monitors staff activities and gives technical assistance in areas, such as assessment, curriculum development, use of materials and equipment, and management of student behavior. Plans and conducts in-service training. Interviews applicants, recommends hirings, and evaluates staff performance. May write grant proposals. May assist program administrators in preparation of budget and development of program policy and goals. May address public to elicit support and explain program objectives.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

094.167-014 DIRECTOR, SPECIAL EDUCATION (education) alternate titles: administrative assistant, special education; assistant superintendent, special education

Directs and coordinates special education programs in public school systems, public agencies, and state institutions to teach students with mental or physical disabilities: Formulates policies and procedures for new or revised programs or activities, such as screening, placement, education, and training of students. Evaluates special education programs to ensure that objectives for student education are met. Interprets laws, rules, and regulations to students, parents, and staff. Recruits, selects, and evaluates staff. Prepares budget and solicits funds to provide financial support for programs. Prepares reports for federal, state, and local regulatory agencies. May contract with agencies for needed services, such as residential care. May administer achievement tests to measure student level of performance.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

094.224-010 TEACHER, HEARING IMPAIRED (education)

Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects to hearing impaired students, using various methods of communication to receive and convey language: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials according to grade level of students, utilizing visual media, such as computer, films, television, and charts. Confers with committee of parents, administrators, testing specialists, social worker, and others to develop individual educational program. Instructs students in academic subjects. Instructs students in various forms of communication, such as gestures, sign language, finger spelling, and speech cues. Encourages students to participate in verbal communication classroom learning experiences to ensure their comprehension of subject matter, development of social skills, and ability to communicate in situations encountered in daily living. Tests students' hearing aids to ensure hearing aids are functioning. May attend and interpret lectures and instructions for students enrolled in regular classes. May teach parents how to participate in and enhance students' learning experiences. May teach students to use computer. May specialize in teaching lip reading and be designated Teacher, Lip Reading (education). May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.224-014 TEACHER, PHYSICALLY IMPAIRED (education)

Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects to physically impaired students, adapting teaching techniques and methods of instruction to meet individual needs of students in schools, hospitals, and students' homes: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other materials, considering factors, such as individual needs, abilities, learning levels, and physical limitations of students. Confers with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social worker, and others to develop educational program for student. Instructs students with observable orthopedic impairments, as well as those with internal impairment, such as heart condition. Arranges and adjusts tools, work aids, and equipment utilized by students in classroom, such as specially equipped worktables, computers, typewriters, and mechanized page turners. Devises special teaching tools, techniques, and equipment. Instructs students in academic subjects and other activities designed to provide learning experience. Confers with other members of staff to develop programs to maximize students' potentials. May assist members of medical staff in rehabilitation programs for students. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.224-018 TEACHER, VISUALLY IMPAIRED (education)

Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects and daily living skills to visually impaired students: Instructs students in reading and writing, using magnification equipment and large print material or braille system. Confers with parents, administrator, testing specialists, social worker, and others to develop individual educational program for students. Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials, according to grade level of students. Transcribes lessons and other materials into braille for blind students or large print for low vision students. Reviews and corrects completed assignments, using such aids as braille writer, slate and stylus, or computer. Arranges for and conducts field trips designed to promote experiential learning. Instructs students in academic subject areas and daily living skills, such as hygiene, safety, and food preparation. Encourages students to participate in verbal and sensory classroom learning experiences to ensure their comprehension of subject matter, development of social skills, and ability to identify objects encountered in daily living. Meets with parents to discuss how parents can encourage student's independence and well-being and to provide guidance in using community resources. May counsel students. May teach braille to individuals with sight and be designated Instructor, Braille (education).
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

094.227-010 TEACHER, EMOTIONALLY IMPAIRED (education)

Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects to students with emotional impairments in schools, institutions, or other specialized facilities: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials to meet individual needs of students, considering such factors as physical, emotional, and educational levels of development. Confers with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, and others to develop individual educational plan for student. Instructs students in academic subjects and social interaction skills. Observes students for signs of disruptive behavior, such as violence, verbal outbursts, and episodes of destructiveness. Teaches socially acceptable behavior employing techniques such as behavior modification and positive reinforcement. Confers with other staff members to plan programs designed to promote educational, physical, and social development of students. May be required to have certification from local, state, and federal government.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.227-022 TEACHER, MENTALLY IMPAIRED (education)

Teaches basic academic and living skills to mentally impaired students in schools and other institutions: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials according to achievement levels of students. Confers with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, and others to develop individual educational program for students who are at different learning ability levels, including educable, trainable, and severely impaired. Instructs students in academic subjects, utilizing various teaching techniques, such as phonetics, multisensory learning, and repetition to reinforce learning. Instructs students in daily living skills required for independent maintenance and economic self-sufficiency, such as hygiene, safety, and food preparation. Observes, evaluates, and prepares reports on progress of students. Meets with parents to provide support and guidance in using community resources. May administer and interpret results of ability and achievement tests. May be required to hold state certification.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.227-026 TEACHER, VOCATIONAL TRAINING (education)

Teaches vocational skills to handicapped students: Confers with students, parents, school personnel, and other individuals to plan vocational training that meets needs, interests, and abilities of students. Instructs students in areas such as personal-social skills and work-related attitudes and behaviors. Develops work opportunities that allow students to experience success in performing tasks of increasing difficulty and that teach work values, such as self-improvement, independence, dependability, productivity, and pride of work. Conducts field trips to enable students to learn about job activities and to explore work environments. May teach academic skills to students. May instruct students in one or more vocational skills, such as woodworking, building maintenance, cosmetology, food preparation, gardening, sewing, or nurse aiding.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.227-030 TEACHER, LEARNING DISABLED (education)

Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects in schools, institutions, or other specialized facilities to students with neurological problems in learning: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials to meet individual need of students, considering state and school requirements, physical, emotional, and educational levels of development. Confers with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social worker, and others to develop individual educational program for student. Instructs students in all academic subjects. Creates learning materials geared to each student's ability and interest. Instructs students, using special educational strategies and techniques, to improve sensory-motor and perceptual-motor development, perception, memory, language, cognition, and social and emotional development. Works with students to increase motivation, provide consistent reinforcement to learning, continuous assessment of level of functioning, and continuous feedback to student for all learning activities. Works with parents to accept and develop skills in dealing with student's learning impairment. May work as consultant, teach in self-contained classroom, or teach in resource room. May be required to hold certification from state.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

094.267-010 EVALUATOR (education)

Assesses type and degree of disability of handicapped children to aid in determining special programs and services required to meet educational needs: Reviews referrals of children having or suspected of having learning disabilities, mental retardation, behavioral disorders, or physical handicaps to determine evaluation procedure. Confers with school or other personnel and scrutinizes records to obtain additional information on nature and severity of disability. Observes student behavior and rates strength and weakness of factors such as rapport, motivation, cooperativeness, aggression, attention span, and task completion. Selects, administers, and scores variety of preliminary tests to measure individual's aptitudes, educational achievements, perceptual motor skills, vision, and hearing. Reports findings for staff consideration in placement of children in educational programs. May test preschool children to detect learning handicaps and recommend followup activities, consultation, or services. May administer work related tests and review records and other data to assess student vocational interests and abilities. May specialize in evaluating student readiness to transfer from special classes to regular classroom, and in providing supportive services to regular classroom teacher and be designated Mainstreaming Facilitator (education).
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


This group includes occupations concerned with informing and advising homemakers, farmers, and farm youth in the arts and techniques of homemaking or farming, usually in the home or on the farm, in consultation, or in locally organized groups and meetings.

096.121-010 COUNTY HOME-DEMONSTRATION AGENT (government ser.) alternate titles: home agent; home-demonstration agent; home-extension agent

Develops, organizes, and conducts programs for individuals in rural communities to improve farm and family life: Lectures and demonstrates techniques in such subjects as nutrition, clothing, home management, home furnishing, and child care. Visits homes to advise families on problems, such as family budgeting and home remodeling. Organizes and advises clubs, and assists in selecting and training leaders to guide group discussions and demonstrations in subjects, such as sewing, food preparation, and home decoration. Writes leaflets and articles and talks over radio and television to disseminate information. Participates in community activities, such as judging at rural fairs and speaking before parent-teachers associations. May direct 4-H Club activities [FOUR-H CLUB AGENT (education)].
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.121-014 HOME ECONOMIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: consumer services consultant

Organizes and conducts consumer education service or research program for equipment, food, textile, or utility company, utilizing principles of home economics: Advises homemakers in selection and utilization of household equipment, food, and clothing, and interprets homemakers' needs to manufacturers of household products. Writes advertising copy and articles of interest to homemakers, tests recipes, equipment, and new household products, conducts radio and television homemakers' programs, and performs other public relations and promotion work for business firms, newspapers, magazines, and radio and television stations. Advises individuals and families on home management practices, such as budget planning, meal preparation, and energy conservation. Teaches improved homemaking practices to homemakers and youths through educational programs, demonstrations, discussions, and home visits. May engage in research in government, private industry, and colleges and universities to explore family relations or child development, develop new products for home, discover facts on food nutrition, and test serviceability of new materials. May specialize in specific area of home economics and be designated Equipment Specialist (profess. & kin.); Fashion Consultant (profess. & kin.); Home Economist, Consumer Service (profess. & kin.); Nutritionist (profess. & kin.); Product Representative (profess. & kin.); Research-Home Economist (profess. & kin.); Test-Kitchen-Home Economist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.127-010 COUNTY-AGRICULTURAL AGENT (government ser.) alternate titles: agricultural agent; county adviser; county agent; extension agent; extension-service agent; extension worker; farm adviser; farm agent

Organizes and conducts cooperative extension program to advise and instruct farmers and individuals engaged in agri-business in applications of agricultural research findings: Collects, analyzes, and evaluates agricultural data; plans and develops techniques; and advises farmers to assist in solving problems, such as crop rotation and soil erosion. Delivers lectures and prepares articles concerning subjects, such as farm management and soil conservation. Demonstrates practical procedures used in solving agricultural problems. Discusses extension program with representatives of commercial organizations, county government, and other groups to inform them of program services and to obtain their cooperation in encouraging use of services. Prepares activity, planning, and other reports and maintains program records. Prepares budget requests, or assists in their preparation. May supervise and coordinate activities of other county extension workers. May direct 4-H Club activities. May be designated by specific program assignment as Agri-Business Agent (government ser.); Farm-Management Agent (government ser.); Horticultural Agent (government ser.); Livestock Agent (government ser.); Resource Agent (government ser.).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.127-014 EXTENSION SERVICE SPECIALIST (government ser.) alternate titles: cooperative extension advisor specialist

Instructs extension workers and develops specialized service activities in area of agriculture or home economics: Plans, develops, organizes, and evaluates training programs in subjects, such as home management, horticulture, and consumer information. Prepares leaflets, pamphlets, and other material for use as training aids. Conducts classes to train extension workers in specialized fields and in teaching techniques. Delivers lectures to commercial and community organizations and over radio and television to promote development of agricultural or domestic skills. Analyzes research data and plans activities to coordinate services with those offered by other departments, agencies, and organizations. May be designated according to field of specialization as Agricultural-Extension Specialist (government ser.); Home Economics Specialist (government ser.).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

096.127-018 FEED AND FARM MANAGEMENT ADVISER (agriculture; retail trade)

Instructs farmers and retail grain and feed-store customers in modern and scientific feed and farm management techniques: Discusses feeding problems for fowl, swine, cattle, and other livestock with farmers. Examines poultry or livestock and recommends medication and remedial measures to prevent spread of disease and to maintain healthy poultry or livestock. Advises and assists farmers in securing services of VETERINARIAN (medical ser.) for treating larger animals. Assists farmers in setting up cost and production records to determine most economical method of farm operation. May give lectures and demonstrations to farm groups. May take feed orders.
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.127-022 FOUR-H CLUB AGENT (education)

Organizes and directs educational projects and activities of 4-H Club: Recruits and trains volunteer leaders to plan and guide 4-H Club program to meet needs and interests of individuals and community. Directs selection of educational projects, such as sewing, woodworking, photography, and livestock raising. Procures, develops, distributes, and presents teaching materials, such as visual aids and literature for educational projects. Arranges for 4-H Clubs to exhibit or participate in events, such as county and state fairs and state 4-H Club events. Develops and maintains recognition and incentive program for members and leaders of 4-H Clubs. May specialize in directing 4-H Club activities for girls and be designated Youth Agent (education).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.161-010 HOME-SERVICE DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: director of home economics

Plans, coordinates, and directs consumer education service or research program for equipment, food, or utility company to promote goodwill and sale of products or services: Studies and interprets data concerning consumer habits and preferences obtained from surveys, letters, and other customer contacts to aid company in product development. Plans and organizes program to educate consumers in use of equipment, product, or service. Develops and plans methods of instruction and techniques of demonstrating principles of home economics, such as food preparation and equipment use, to community and school groups. Directs and coordinates testing of recipes and development of new uses for equipment or product. Instructs dealers, sales personnel, and other employees in home management practices and in operation and care of equipment. Contacts organizations, such as school, professional, and women's groups, to promote company product and services. Writes articles and plans preparation of instruction manuals, booklets on product uses, and other consumer publications. Advises on content and accuracy of sales promotional material, such as newspaper, radio, and television advertising copy.
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

096.167-010 DISTRICT EXTENSION SERVICE AGENT (government ser.) alternate titles: extension supervisor; regional extension-service specialist

Directs and coordinates activities of workers engaged in agricultural or home economics services of agricultural extension program within group of counties: Determines methods and procedures or services and assigns tasks to workers according to extension program policies. Examines county methods and procedures to evaluate content and effectiveness of services within district. Delivers lectures to groups, such as commercial and community organizations, and directs county extension workers to deliver lectures to publicize and promote extension services activities. Reviews personnel data and recommends personnel action, such as hiring and discharging workers and adjusting salaries. Prepares, or assists in preparing, activity and planning reports and directs county extension workers to prepare reports. May formulate or assist in formulating budget requests to obtain operating funds. May be designated according to field of specialization as District Agricultural Agent (government ser.); District Home Economics Agent (government ser.).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

096.167-014 SPECIALIST-IN-CHARGE, EXTENSION SERVICE (government ser.)

Directs and coordinates activities of extension service specialists and develops educational programs in agriculture and home economics: Plans procedures and analyzes data for use by extension service specialists. Meets with specialists, volunteers, and other staff to discuss program problems and to disseminate information pertaining to practical applications of research findings in specific program areas. Coordinates activities of specialists to ensure program goals are met. Recruits and hires workers for specialized extension program services, and plans, organizes, and conducts training programs for new employees. Prepares activity, planning, and other reports, and maintains service records. Prepares or assists in preparation of budget requests.
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with research, administration, and teaching in vocational education.

097.167-010 DIRECTOR, VOCATIONAL TRAINING (education)

Directs and coordinates vocational training programs for public school system, according to board of education policies and state education code: Confers with members of industrial and business communities to determine human resource training needs for apprenticeable and nonapprenticeable occupations. Reviews and interprets federal and state vocational education codes to ensure that program conforms to legislation. Prepares budget and funding allocations for vocational programs. Reviews and approves new programs. Evaluates apprenticeable and nonapprenticeable programs, considering factors, such as selection, training, and placement of enrollees. Plans and develops joint programs in conjunction with other members of education staff. Organizes committees to provide technical and advisory assistance to programs. Coordinates on-the-job training programs with employers, and evaluates progress of enrollees in conjunction with program contract goals.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

097.221-010 INSTRUCTOR, VOCATIONAL TRAINING (education) alternate titles: teacher, vocational training

Teaches vocational training subjects to students in public or private schools or in industrial plants: Organizes program of practical and technical instruction, including demonstrations of skills required in trade, and lectures on theory, techniques, and terminology. Instructs students in subject areas, such as mathematics, science, drawing, use and maintenance of tools and equipment, codes or regulations related to trade, and safety precautions. Plans and supervises work of students, individually or in small groups, in shop or laboratory. Tests and evaluates achievement of student in technical knowledge and trade skills. May be identified according to trade or theory taught or type of establishment in which training is conducted, such as plumbing, electronics, or dental assistance. May place students in job training. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 11.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

097.227-010 INSTRUCTOR, FLYING II (education)

Instructs student pilots in flight procedures and techniques and in ground school courses: Develops and prepares course outlines, study materials, and instructional procedures for students enrolled in basic, advanced, or instrument ground school. Lectures on various subjects, such as aircraft construction, federal aviation regulations, and radio navigation. Demonstrates operation of various aircraft components and instruments, and techniques for controlling aircraft during maneuvers, such as taxiing, takeoff, and landing, using synthetic instrument trainers. Observes student's actions during training flights to ensure assimilation of classroom instruction and to comply with federal aviation regulations. Tests and evaluates students' progress, using written and performance tests and oral interviews. May teach advanced, basic, or instrument courses and be designated Ground Instructor, Advanced (education); Ground Instructor, Basic (education); Ground Instructor, Instrument (education). Must be certified by Federal Aviation Administration.
GOE: 05.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations in education, not elsewhere classified, concerned with research, administration, and teaching.

099.117-010 DIRECTOR, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM (education)

Plans, develops, and administers programs to provide educational opportunities for students: Cooperates with business, civic, and other organizations to develop curriculums to meet needs and interests of students and community. Interviews and selects staff members and provides in-service training for teachers. Prepares budget and determines allocation of funds for staff, supplies and equipment, and facilities. Analyzes data from questionnaires, interviews, and group discussions to evaluate curriculums, teaching methods, and community participation in educational and other programs. May direct preparation of publicity to promote activities, such as personnel recruitment, educational programs or other services. May specialize in elementary, secondary, adult, or junior college education.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Plans and administers program of correlated academic, vocational, and social education in federal, state, or local correctional institution: Prepares courses of study and training materials designed to aid in rehabilitation process. Observes and advises instructors on improvements of methods and techniques. Institutes and directs vocational training programs for development of work habits, skills, and abilities. Conducts followup studies to evaluate effectiveness of academic and vocational training programs. Correlates educational programs with recreation program and other activities of institution and with parole program. Prepares budget requests for education programs, orders school supplies, and prepares records and reports. May supervise preparation of institutional publications. May be designated according to type of correctional facility as Education Supervisor, Penal Institution (education); Education Supervisor, Youth Authority (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

099.117-018 PRINCIPAL (education)

Directs and coordinates educational, administrative, and counseling activities of primary or secondary school: Develops and evaluates educational program to ensure conformance to state and school board standards. Develops and coordinates educational programs through meetings with staff, review of teachers' activities, and issuance of directives. Confers with teachers, students, and parents concerning educational and behavioral problems in school. Establishes and maintains relationships with colleges, community organizations, and other schools to coordinate educational services. Requisitions and allocates supplies, equipment, and instructional material as needed. Directs preparation of class schedules, cumulative records, and attendance reports. Observes and evaluates teacher performance. Interviews and hires teachers. Walks about school building and property to monitor safety and security. Plans and monitors school budget. May plan and direct building maintenance. May develop and administer educational programs for students with mental or physical handicaps. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

099.117-022 SUPERINTENDENT, SCHOOLS (education)

Directs and coordinates activities concerned with administration of city, county, or other school system in accordance with board of education standards: Formulates plans and policies for educational program and submits them to school board for approval. Administers program for selection of school sites, construction of buildings, and provision of equipment and supplies. Directs preparation and presentation of school budget and determines amount of school bond issues required to finance educational program. Addresses community and civic groups to enlist their support. Interprets program and policies of school system to school personnel, to individuals and community groups, and to governmental agencies. Coordinates work of school system with related activities of other school districts and agencies. May ensure that laws applying to attendance of children at school are enforced. May supervise examining, appointing, training, and promotion of teaching personnel. May specialize in areas, such as personnel services, curriculum development, or business administration.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

099.117-026 SUPERVISOR, EDUCATION (education)

Develops program curriculum and directs teaching personnel of school system: Confers with teaching and administrative staff to plan and develop curriculum designed to meet needs of students. Visits classrooms to observe effectiveness of instructional methods and material. Evaluates teaching techniques and recommends changes for improving them. Provides teachers with supplies, equipment, and visual and other instructional aids. Conducts workshops and conferences for teachers to study new classroom procedures, new instructional materials, and other aids to teaching. Assists in recruitment and in-service training of teachers. May be designated according to subject matter field or department administered as Supervisor, Adult Education (education); Supervisor, Agricultural Education (education); Supervisor, Elementary Education (education); Supervisor, Home Economics (education); Supervisor, Industrial Arts Education (education); Supervisor, Modern Languages (education); Supervisor, Trade And Industrial Education (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

099.117-030 DIRECTOR, EDUCATION (museums)

Plans, develops, and administers educational program of museum, zoo, or similar institution: Confers with administrative personnel to decide scope of program to be offered. Prepares schedules of classes and rough drafts of course content to determine number and background of instructors needed. Interviews, hires, trains, and evaluates work performance of education department staff. Contacts and arranges for services of guest lecturers from academic institutions, industry, and other establishments to augment education staff members in presentation of classes. Assists instructors in preparation of course descriptions and informational materials for publicity or distribution to class members. Prepares budget for education programs and directs maintenance of records of expenditures, receipts, and public and school participation in programs. Works with other staff members to plan and present lecture series, film programs, field trips, and other special activities. May teach classes. May speak before school and community groups and appear on radio or television to promote institution programs. May coordinate institution educational activities with those of other area organizations to maximize utilization of resources. May train establishment volunteers to assist in presentation of classes or tours. May develop and submit program and activity grant proposals and applications and implement programs funded as result of successful applications.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


Interviews, examines, and evaluates qualifications of applicants for teaching positions in public school system, using guidelines established by school district and state education licensing codes: Reviews and evaluates construction of written examinations to ensure that questions meet district's testing standards. Confers with other members of staff in order to coordinate district's teacher recruiting efforts. Reviews transcripts and interviews candidates to ascertain qualifications for positions within district. Corrects and scores essay portions of examinations, utilizing knowledge of teaching methods. Authorizes preparation of paper work assigning teaching candidates to positions. Analyzes reports and statistical data on criteria used to select, examine, and recruit teaching staff to ensure that methods conform to predetermined policies, standards, and codes, and recommends procedure revisions as needed. Informs candidates of employment possibilities within district. May evaluate qualifications of candidates applying for other certificated positions within district.
GOE: 11.03.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

099.167-014 CONSULTANT, EDUCATION (education)

Plans and coordinates educational policies for specific subject area or grade level: Develops programs for in-service education of teaching personnel. Confers with federal, state, and local school officials to develop curricula and establish guidelines for educational programs. Confers with lay and professional groups to disseminate and receive input on teaching methods. Reviews and evaluates curricula for use in schools and assists in adaptation to local needs. Interprets and enforces provisions of state education codes and rules and regulations of State Board of Education. Conducts or participates in workshops, committees, and conferences designed to promote intellectual, social, and physical welfare of students. Studies and prepares recommendations on instructional materials, teaching aids, and related equipment. Prepares or approves manuals, guidelines, and reports on state educational policies and practices for distribution to school districts. Advises school officials on implementation of state and federal programs and procedures. Conducts research into areas, such as teaching methods and techniques. May perform tasks at local school district level or as independent consultant in area of expertise. May be designated as consultant in specific area, such as reading, elementary education, or audio-visual education.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Directs and coordinates preparation, development, and use of educational material in public school system: Confers with members of various educational committees and advisory groups to obtain knowledge of subject teaching areas, and to relate curriculum materials to specific subjects, individual student needs, and occupational areas. Coordinates activities of workers engaged in cataloging, distributing, and maintaining educational materials and equipment in curriculum library and laboratory. Reviews educational materials, such as video tapes, slides, and programmed texts, for educational content, and recommends acquisition of materials that meet district's standards. Advises staff members in techniques and methods of developing and evaluating specialized materials and instructional units. Organizes and implements use of new instructional systems. May train teachers and other staff in use of materials and equipment.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

099.167-022 EDUCATIONAL SPECIALIST (education) alternate titles: director, evaluation and research

Directs research activities concerned with educational programs and services in school system: Formulates and designs procedures to determine if program objectives are being met. Develops tests to measure effectiveness of curriculum or services and to interpret pupil intellectual and social development and group and school progress. Develops questionnaires and interviews school staff and administrators to obtain information about curriculum. Evaluates data obtained from study and prepares narrative and statistical reports for dissemination to school administrators. Formulates recommendations and procedures for current and proposed units of instruction. Develops in-service training program for staff. May devise questionnaire to evaluate training program. May specialize in research activities concerned with elementary, secondary, college, or other specialized educational programs. May evaluate staff performance. May plan budget.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

099.167-026 MUSIC SUPERVISOR (education)

Directs and coordinates activities of teaching personnel engaged in instructing students in vocal and instrumental music in school system: Consults with teaching and administrative staff to plan and develop music education curriculum. Observes, evaluates, and recommends changes in work of teaching staff to strengthen teaching skills in classroom. Analyzes music education program to evaluate instructional methods and materials. Orders instructional materials, supplies, equipment, and visual aids designed to meet training needs of students. Authorizes purchase of musical instruments for school system. Inspects and authorizes repair of instruments. Establishes interschool orchestra, band, and choral group to represent schools at civic and community events.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Directs operation of educational resource center of museum, zoo, or similar establishment: Maintains collections of slides, video tapes, programmed texts, and other educational materials related to institution specialty, storing or filing materials according to subject matter, geographic or ethnic association, or historical period. Composes or directs others in composition of descriptions of materials, and prepares catalog listing materials for use of museum staff members, area school teachers, and others. Compiles list of books, periodicals, and other materials designed to augment items available in resource center. Explains storage and cataloging systems to teachers and others who visit center and suggests materials for various projects, such as preparing school classes for tour of institution or presentation of lecture for community group. Issues loan materials to teachers or lecturer, or schedules and coordinates delivery of materials to designated locations. Maintains records of loans and prepares circulation reports for review by administrative personnel. Conducts workshops to acquaint educators with use of institution's facilities and materials. Attends teacher meetings and conventions to promote use of institution services.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


Directs pupil information data system program in support of educational services, in accordance with governmental laws and regulations for school district: Develops and maintains compliance program to meet legal requirements concerning students rights to privacy and due process of law in accordance to applicable laws and regulations. Directs and coordinates activities of clerical staff engaged in compiling, maintaining, and releasing pupil records and information. Confers with staff and reviews records management system to recommend changes to improve system, utilizing knowledge of filing methods and coding system, equipment, legal problems, and Board of Education requirements. Provides in-service training on topics, such as legal requirements concerning pupil records and information and to improve quality of report writing. Prepares departmental budget, records, and reports.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

099.223-010 INSTRUCTOR, DRIVING (education)

Instructs individuals and groups in theory and application of automobile driving skills: Demonstrates and explains handling of automobile in emergencies, driving techniques, and mechanical operation of automobile, using blackboard diagrams, audiovisual aids, and driving simulators. Observes individual's driving habits and reactions under various driving conditions to ensure conformance with vehicle operational standards and state vehicle code. May test hearing and vision of individuals, using lettered charts and colored lights. May teach motor vehicle regulations and insurance laws. May teach operation of vehicles other than automobile and be identified according to type of vehicle.
GOE: 09.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

099.224-010 INSTRUCTOR, PHYSICAL EDUCATION (education) alternate titles: teacher, physical education

Instructs students in physical education activities in educational institution: Plans physical education program to promote development of student's physical attributes and social skills. Teaches individual and team sports to students, utilizing knowledge of sports techniques and of physical capabilities of students. Organizes, leads, instructs, and referees indoor and outdoor games, such as volleyball, baseball, and basketball. Instructs individuals or groups in beginning or advanced calisthenics, gymnastics, or corrective exercises, determining type and level of difficulty of exercises, corrections needed, and prescribed movements, applying knowledge of sports, physiology, and corrective techniques. Teaches and demonstrates use of gymnastic and training apparatus, such as trampolines and weights. Confers with students, parents, and school counselor to resolve student problem. May select, store, order, issue, and inventory equipment, materials, and supplies used in physical education program. May specialize in instructing specific sport, such as tennis, swimming, or basketball. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

099.224-014 TEACHER, ADVENTURE EDUCATION (education)

Instructs and leads students in variety of stressful and challenging activities, such as rock climbing, canoeing, spelunking, and skiing to build student confidence and promote physical, mental, and social development: Appraises students' tolerance to stress and selects and structures learning environment that provides for success in activities appropriate to maturity, interests, and abilities of students. Demonstrates basic skills, safety precautions, and other techniques to prepare students for activities. Arranges for provisions, such as transportation, food, and equipment. Teaches camping and related outdoor skills to students, staff, and volunteers.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

099.227-010 CHILDREN'S TUTOR (domestic ser.)

Cares for children in private home, overseeing their recreation, diet, health, and deportment: Teaches children foreign languages, and good health and personal habits. Arranges parties, outings, and picnics for children. Takes disciplinary measures to control children's behavior. Ascertains cause of behavior problems of children and devises means for solving them. When duties are confined to care of young children may be designated Children's Tutor, Nursery (domestic ser.).
GOE: 10.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


Plans course of study for students enrolled in correspondence courses to obtain high school, college, or other specialized subject area instruction: Reviews enrollment applications and oversees mailing of course materials to students. Corrects, grades, and comments on lesson assignments submitted by students. Corresponds with students to answer questions pertaining to course.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

099.227-018 INSTRUCTOR, GROUND SERVICES (air trans.)

Conducts classroom instruction, on-the-job training, and orientation sessions for new and experienced ground personnel on various subjects, such as aircraft and station familiarization, company policies and procedures, and specific job duties: Develops and prepares course outlines, instructional procedures, and study materials for nontechnical occupations in such areas as airfreight, customer services load planning, ramp services, reservations, and ticketing. Presents course material through use of audiovisual aids, classroom lectures, on-the-job training, and printed handouts. Tests student's progress, using oral interviews, written examinations, and performance tests to ascertain comprehension of subject matter. Prepares reports of attendance, grades, and training activities. Keeps records of training accomplishments and confers with supervisory personnel regarding training needs. Conducts recurrent on-the-job training or classroom instruction to acquaint experienced workers with changing procedures or with use of new equipment. Coordinates training activities with local station manager. May conduct special training programs in company and industry procedures, regulations, rules, and techniques relating to passenger travel for workers employed by travel agencies.
GOE: 11.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

099.227-022 INSTRUCTOR, MILITARY SCIENCE (education)

Teaches military subjects, such as employment and deployment of weapons systems, military aspects of geopolitics, and defense concepts in public and private secondary schools and colleges and universities offering Reserve Officers' Training program. Specializes in teaching subjects concerned with particular branch of military tactics, such as aerospace science, naval science, or military science.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

099.227-026 INSTRUCTOR, MODELING (education)

Instructs individuals and groups in techniques and methods of self-improvement, utilizing principles of modeling, such as visual poise, wardrobe coordination, and cosmetic application: Analyzes appearance of individual to determine self-improvement considering factors, such as figure, complexion, and body posture. Explains and demonstrates methods and techniques of self-improvement. Observes student, such as ascending and descending stairs, walking, and in cosmetic application sessions to ensure conformance to classroom instruction. Instructs students in selecting and coordinating wardrobe.
GOE: 01.08.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

099.227-030 TEACHER, ADULT EDUCATION (education)

Instructs out-of-school youths and adults in academic and nonacademic courses in public or private schools or other organizations: Prepares outline of instructional program and studies and assembles material to be presented. Presents lectures and discussions to group to increase students' knowledge or vocational competence. Tests and grades students on achievement in class. Teaches courses, such as citizenship, fine arts, and homemaking, to enrich students' cultural and academic backgrounds. Conducts workshops and demonstrations to teach such skills as driving, sports, and dancing, or to provide training for parenthood. May teach basic courses in American history, principles, ideas, and customs and in English to foreign-born and be designated Teacher, Citizenship (education).
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

099.227-034 TUTOR (education)

Teaches academic subjects, such as English, mathematics, and foreign languages to pupils requiring private instruction, adapting curriculum to meet individual's needs. May teach in pupil's home.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

099.227-038 TEACHER (museums)

Teaches classes, presents lectures, conducts workshops, and participates in other activities to further educational program of museum, zoo, or similar institution: Plans course content and method of presentation, and prepares outline of material to be covered and submits it for approval. Selects and assembles materials to be used in teaching assignment, such as pieces of pottery or samples of plant life, and arranges use of audiovisual equipment or other teaching aids. Conducts classes for children in various scientific, history, or art subjects, utilizing museum displays to augment standard teaching methods and adapting course content and complexity to ages and interests of students. Teaches adult classes in such subjects as art, history, astronomy, or horticulture, using audiovisual aids, demonstration, or laboratory techniques appropriate to subject matter. Presents series of lectures on subjects related to institution collections, often incorporating films or slides into presentation. Conducts seminars or workshops for school system teachers or lay persons to demonstrate methods of using institution facilities and collections to enhance school programs or to enrich other activities. Conducts workshops or field trips for students or community groups and plans and directs activities associated with projects. Plans and presents vacation or weekend programs for elementary or preschool children, combining recreational activities with teaching methods geared to age groups. Conducts classes for academic credit in cooperation with area schools or universities. Teaches courses in museum work to participants in work-study programs. Works with adult leaders of youth groups to assist youths to earn merit badges or fulfill other group requirements. Maintains records of attendance. Evaluates success of courses, basing evaluation on number and enthusiasm of persons participating and recommends retaining or dropping course in future plans. When course is offered for academic credit, evaluates class member performances, administers tests, and issues grades in accordance with methods used by cooperating educational institution.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

099.227-042 TEACHER, RESOURCE (education)

Teaches basic academic subjects to students requiring remedial work, using special help programs to improve scholastic level: Teaches basic subjects, such as reading and math, applying lesson techniques designed for short attention spans. Administers achievement tests and evaluates test results to discover level of language and math skills. Selects and teaches reading material and math problems related to everyday life of individual student. Confers with school counselors and teaching staff to obtain additional testing information and to gain insight on student behavioral disorders affecting learning process. Designs special help programs for low achievers and encourages parent-teacher cooperation. Attends professional meetings, writes reports, and maintains records.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

099.327-010 TEACHER AIDE I (education) alternate titles: teacher assistant

Performs any combination of following instructional tasks in classroom to assist teaching staff of public or private elementary or secondary school: Discusses assigned teaching area with classroom teacher to coordinate instructional efforts. Prepares lesson outline and plan in assigned area and submits outline to teacher for review. Plans, prepares, and develops various teaching aids, such as bibliographies, charts, and graphs. Presents subject matter to students, utilizing variety of methods and techniques, such as lecture, discussion, and supervised role playing. Prepares, administers, and grades examinations. Assists students, individually or in groups, with lesson assignments to present or reinforce learning concepts. Confers with parents on progress of students. May specialize in single subject area. May be required to have completed specified number of college education credits.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86


This division includes occupations concerned with library and archival sciences, including public and private libraries and archives, and with maintaining museums, galleries, and related exhibits.


This group includes occupations concerned with administering libraries and performing related library services. Includes selecting, acquiring, cataloging, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials; furnishing reference, bibliographical, and reader's advisory services.

100.117-010 LIBRARY DIRECTOR (library) alternate titles: librarian, head

Plans and administers program of library services: Submits recommendations on library policies and services to governing body, such as board of directors or board of trustees, and implements policy decisions. Analyzes, selects, and executes recommendations of personnel, such as department chiefs or branch supervisors. Coordinates activities of branch or departmental libraries. Analyzes and coordinates departmental budget estimates and controls expenditures to administer approved budget. Reviews and evaluates orders for books and audiovisual materials. Examines trade publications and materials, interviews publishers' representatives, and consults with others to select materials. Administers personnel regulations, interviews and appoints job applicants, rates staff performance, and promotes and discharges employees. Plans and conducts staff meetings and participates in community and professional meetings to discuss and act on library problems. Delivers book reviews and lectures to publicize library activities and services. Provides library public relations services. May examine and select materials to be discarded, repaired, or replaced. May be designated according to governmental subdivision served as City-Library Director (library); County-Library Director (library).
GOE: 11.07.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

100.117-014 LIBRARY CONSULTANT (library)

Advises administrators of public libraries: Analyzes administrative policies, observes work procedures, and reviews data relative to book collections to determine effectiveness of library service to public. Compares allocations for building funds, salaries, and book collections with statewide and national standards, to determine effectiveness of fiscal operations. Gathers statistical data, such as population and community growth rates, and analyzes building plans to determine adequacy of programs for expansion. Prepares evaluation of library systems based on observations and surveys, and recommends measures to improve organization and administration of systems.
GOE: 11.07.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

100.127-010 CHIEF LIBRARIAN, BRANCH OR DEPARTMENT (library) alternate titles: principal librarian; senior librarian; supervising librarian

Coordinates activities of library branch or department, and assists patrons in selection and location of books, audiovisual materials, and other materials: Trains and directs workers in performance of such tasks as receiving, shelving, and locating materials. Examines book reviews, publishers' catalogs, and other information sources to recommend material acquisition. Searches catalog files, biographical dictionaries, and indexes, and examines content of reference materials to assist patrons in locating and selecting materials. May assemble and arrange materials for display. May prepare replies to mail requests for information. May be designated according to type of library as Chief Librarian, Branch (library); or according to department as Chief Librarian, Circulation Department (library); Chief Librarian, Extension Department (library); Chief Librarian, General Reference Department (library); Chief Librarian, Music Department (library); Chief Librarian, Periodical Reading Room (library); Chief Librarian, Readers' Advisory Service (library); Chief Librarian, Work With Blind (library).
GOE: 11.07.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.127-014 LIBRARIAN (library)

Maintains library collections of books, serial publications, documents, audiovisual, and other materials, and assists groups and individuals in locating and obtaining materials: Furnishes information on library activities, facilities, rules, and services. Explains and assists in use of reference sources, such as card or book catalog or book and periodical indexes to locate information. Describes or demonstrates procedures for searching catalog files. Searches catalog files and shelves to locate information. Issues and receives materials for circulation or for use in library. Assembles and arranges displays of books and other library materials. Maintains reference and circulation materials. Answers correspondence on special reference subjects. May compile list of library materials according to subject or interests, using computer. May select, order, catalog, and classify materials . May prepare or assist in preparation of budget. May plan and direct or carry out special projects involving library promotion and outreach activity and be designated Outreach Librarian (library). May be designated according to specialized function as Circulation Librarian (library); Readers'-Advisory-Service Librarian (library); or Reference Librarian (library).
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

100.167-010 AUDIOVISUAL LIBRARIAN (library) alternate titles: film librarian; recordings librarian

Plans audiovisual programs and administers library of film and other audiovisual materials: Assists patrons in selection of materials, utilizing knowledge of collections. Advises other library personnel on audiovisual materials and appropriate selection for particular needs and uses. Establishes and maintains contact with major film distributors and resources for procurement of tapes and cassettes. Evaluates materials, considering their technical, informational, and aesthetic qualities, and selects materials for library collections. Prepares summaries of acquisitions for catalog. Prepares and arranges audiovisual programs for presentation to groups and may lead discussions after film showings. Advises those planning audiovisual programs on technical problems, such as acoustics, lighting, and program content. Evaluates audiovisual equipment and gives advice in selection of equipment, considering factors, such as intended use, quality, and price. May advise in planning and layout of physical facilities for audiovisual services. May operate film projectors, splicers, rewinders, film inspection equipment, and tape and record playing equipment. May train personnel in operation and maintenance of audiovisual equipment. May select, procure, and maintain framed art prints collection.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.167-014 BOOKMOBILE LIBRARIAN (library)

Provides library services from mobile library within given geographical area: Surveys needs and selects books and materials for library. Publicizes visits to area to stimulate reading interest. May prepare special collections for schools and other groups. May arrange bookmobile schedule. May drive bookmobile.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.167-018 CHILDREN'S LIBRARIAN (library)

Manages library program for children: Selects books and audiovisual materials of interest to children to be acquired by library. Assists children in selecting and locating library materials. Plans and conducts programs for children to encourage reading, viewing, and listening and use of library materials and facilities. Confers with teachers, parents, and community groups to assist in developing programs to encourage and improve children's communication skills. Compiles lists of materials of interest to children. Activities may include story telling, book talks, puppet shows, and film and multimedia programs.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.167-022 INSTITUTION LIBRARIAN (library) alternate titles: hospital librarian; patient's librarian; prison librarian

Plans and directs library program for residents and staff of extended care facilities, such as mental institutions, correctional institutions, or institutions for physically handicapped or mentally retarded: Develops library policies and programs and prepares operational budgets. Selects, acquires, and organizes library materials for convenient access. Provides readers' advisory services on basis of knowledge of current reviews and bibliographies. Reviews requests, and selects books and other library materials according to mental state, educational background, and special needs of residents. Assembles book reviews for institution's bulletins or newspapers, and circulates reviews among residents. Provides handicapped or bedridden residents with reading aids, such as prism glasses, page turners, bookstands, or talking books, and with phonograph records.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

100.167-026 LIBRARIAN, SPECIAL LIBRARY (library)

Manages library or section containing specialized materials for industrial, commercial, or governmental organizations, or for such institutions as schools and hospitals: Selects, orders, catalogs, and classifies special collections of technical books, manufacturers' catalogs and specifications, periodicals, magazines, newspapers, audio-visual material, microforms, journal reprints, and other materials. Searches literature, compiles accession lists, and annotates or abstracts materials. Assists patrons in research problems. May key information into computer to store or search for selected material. May translate or order translation of materials from foreign languages into English. May train other workers engaged in cataloguing, locating, filing, or copying selected material. May be designated according to subject matter, specialty or library, or department as Art Librarian (library); Business Librarian (library); Engineering Librarian (library); Law Librarian (library); Map Librarian (library); Medical Librarian (library).
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

100.167-030 MEDIA SPECIALIST, SCHOOL LIBRARY (library) alternate titles: librarian, school; media center director, school

Assesses and meets needs of students and faculty for information, and develops programs to stimulate students' interests in reading and use of types of resources: Selects and organizes books, films, tapes, records, and other materials and equipment. Suggests appropriate books to students for classroom assignments and personal readings. Plans and carries out program of instruction in use by school library media center. Prepares and administers budget for media center. Confers with faculty to provide materials for classroom instruction. Confers with parents, faculty, public librarians, and community organizations to develop programs to enrich students' communications skills. Reviews records to compile lists of overdue materials and notifies borrowers to arrange for their return.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 80

100.167-034 YOUNG-ADULT LIBRARIAN (library)

Plans and conducts library program to provide special services for young adults: Selects books and audiovisual materials of interest to young adults to be acquired by library. Assists young adults in selecting materials. Plans and organizes young adult activities, such as film programs, chess clubs, creative writing clubs, and photography contests. Delivers talks on books to stimulate reading. Compiles lists of library materials of interest to young adults. Confers with parents, teachers, and community organizations to assist in developing programs to stimulate reading and develop communication skills.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.167-038 NEWS LIBRARIAN (library) alternate titles: news information resource manager; news library director; newspaper library manager

Manages information resources library stored in files, on tape or microfilm, or in computers for use by news and editorial staff in publishing establishments, such as newspaper and magazine publishers, and in broadcasting establishments, such as radio and television stations: Directs activities of workers engaged in clipping, classifying, cataloging, indexing, storing, editing, and retrieving library information, or performs these activities as needed. Researches, retrieves, and disseminates information in resource library or commercial data bases in response to requests from news or editorial staff, using knowledge of classification system or computer data base. Maintains records and statistics on use of data bases and information services provided. May manage in-house data base of news information, assign classification terms to news articles, input news articles into data base, and research news information in in-house data base. May develop data bases for data storage and retrieval, according to needs of news staff. May hire, train, schedule, and evaluate library staff. May prepare library budgets. May promote and market library products and services to public. May coordinate activities of library with activities of other departments. May select and purchase reference books for library collection. May manage graphics library, assign classification terms to graphics, and research graphics and be designated Photo-Graphics Librarian (library).
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

100.267-010 ACQUISITIONS LIBRARIAN (library)

Selects and orders books, periodicals, films, and other materials for library: Reviews publishers' announcements and catalogs, and compiles list of publications to be purchased. Compares selections with card catalog and orders-in-process to avoid duplication. Circulates selection lists to branches and departments for comments. Selects vendors on basis of such factors as discount allowance and delivery dates. Compiles statistics on purchases, such as total purchases, average price, and fund allocations. May recommend acquisition of materials from individuals or organizations or by exchange with other libraries.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


Collects and organizes books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other materials on select subjects to be used for research: Organizes collections according to field of interest. Examines reference works and consults specialists preparatory to selecting materials for collections. Compiles bibliographies. Appraises books, using references, such as bibliographies, book auction records, and special catalogs on incunabula (printing prior to 1500). Publishes papers and bibliographies on special collections to notify scholars of available materials. Lectures on booklore, such as history of printing, bindings, and illuminations. May plan and arrange displays for library exhibits. May index and reproduce materials for sale to other libraries.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

100.367-010 BIBLIOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

Compiles lists of books, periodical articles, and audiovisual materials, on specialized subjects. Annotates bibliographies with physical description and analysis of subject content of materials. Recommends acquisition of materials in specialized subject.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.367-014 CLASSIFIER (library)

Classifies library materials, such as books, audiovisual materials, and periodicals, according to subject matter: Reviews materials to be classified and searches information sources, such as book reviews, encyclopedias, and technical publications to determine subject matter of materials. Selects classification numbers and descriptive headings according to Dewey Decimal, Library of Congress, or other classification systems. Makes sample cards containing author, title, and classification number to guide CATALOG LIBRARIAN (library) in preparing catalog cards for books and periodicals. Assigns classification numbers, descriptive headings, and explanatory summaries to book and catalog cards to facilitate locating and obtaining materials. Composes annotations (explanatory summaries) of material content.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

100.367-018 LIBRARY TECHNICAL ASSISTANT (library) alternate titles: library assistant; library technician

Provides information service, such as answering questions regarding card catalogs, and assists public in use of bibliographic tools, such as Library of Congress catalog: Performs routine descriptive cataloging, such as fiction and children's literature. Files cards in catalog drawers according to system used. Answers routine inquiries, and refers persons requiring professional assistance to LIBRARIAN (library). Verifies bibliographic information on order requests. Directs activities of workers in maintenance of stacks or in section of department or division, such as ordering or receiving section of acquisitions department, card preparation activities in catalog department, or limited loan or reserve desk operation of circulation department.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

100.367-022 MUSIC LIBRARIAN (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: librarian; music director

Classifies and files musical recordings, sheet music, original arrangements, and scores for individual instruments. Selects music for subject matter of program or for specific visual or spoken action. Suggests musical selections to DIRECTOR, MUSIC (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 152.047-018 or DIRECTOR, PROGRAM (radio-tv broad.) 184.167-030 or DISK JOCKEY (radio-tv broad.) 159.147-014. May issue required music to CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) 152.047-014, or other studio personnel. May track musical selections broadcasted, using computer. May listen to music, using playback equipment, to verify quality of recordings meet broadcast standards.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89


Maintains script archive and music library used for preparing programs for foreign broadcast, utilizing knowledge of foreign languages and of listening tastes of people of foreign countries. Compiles statistical and financial library reports.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

100.387-010 CATALOG LIBRARIAN (library) alternate titles: cataloger; descriptive catalog librarian

Compiles information on library materials, such as books and periodicals, and prepares catalog cards to identify materials and to integrate information into library catalog: Verifies author, title, and classification number on sample catalog card received from CLASSIFIER (library) against corresponding data on title page. Fills in additional information, such as publisher, date of publication, and edition. Examines material and notes additional information, such as bibliographies, illustrations, maps, and appendices. Copies classification number from sample card into library material for identification. Files cards into assigned sections of catalog. Tabulates number of sample cards according to quantity of material and catalog subject headings to determine amount of new cards to be ordered or reproduced. Prepares inventory card to record purchase information and location of library material. Requisitions additional cards. Records new information, such as death date of author and revised edition date, to amend cataloged cards. May supervise activities of other workers in unit.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with collecting, evaluating, systemizing, preserving, and making available for reference public records and documents of historical significance.

101.167-010 ARCHIVIST (profess. & kin.)

Appraises and edits permanent records and historically valuable documents, participates in research activities based on archival materials, and directs safekeeping of archival documents and materials: Analyzes documents, such as government records, minutes of corporate board meetings, letters from famous persons, and charters of nonprofit foundations, by ascertaining date of writing, author, or original recipient of letter, to appraise value to posterity or to employing organization. Directs activities of workers engaged in cataloging and safekeeping of valuable materials and directs disposition of worthless materials. Prepares or directs preparation of document descriptions and reference aids for use of archives, such as accession lists, indexes, guides, bibliographies, abstracts, and microfilmed copies of documents. Directs filing and cross indexing of selected documents in alphabetical and chronological order. Advises government agencies, scholars, journalists, and others conducting research by supplying available materials and information according to familiarity with archives and with political, economic, military, and social history of period. Requests or recommends pertinent materials available in libraries, private collections, or other archives. Selects and edits documents for publication and display, according to knowledge of subject, literary or journalistic expression, and techniques for presentation and display. May be designated according to subject matter specialty as Archivist, Economic History (profess. & kin.); Archivist, Military History (profess. & kin.); Archivist, Political History (profess. & kin.); or according to nature of employing institution as Archivist, Nonprofit Foundation (nonprofit organ.). In smaller organizations, may direct activities of libraries.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with administering museums, art galleries, arboreta, historical sites, and botanical and zoological gardens, and performing related services. Includes activities in collecting, authenticating, preserving, maintaining, exhibiting, researching, and furnishing information on collections of historical, artistic, scientific, or technological significance or of general public interest.

102.017-010 CURATOR (museums)

Directs and coordinates activities of workers engaged in operating exhibiting institution, such as museum, botanical garden, arboretum, art gallery, herbarium, or zoo: Directs activities concerned with instructional, acquisition, exhibitory, safekeeping, research, and public service objectives of institution. Assists in formulating and interpreting administrative policies of institution. Formulates plans for special research projects. Oversees curatorial, personnel, fiscal, technical, research, and clerical staff. Administers affairs of institution by corresponding and negotiating with administrators of other institutions to obtain exchange of loan collections or to exchange information or data, maintaining inventories, preparing budget, representing institution at scientific or association conferences, soliciting support for institution, and interviewing and hiring personnel. Obtains, develops, and organizes new collections to expand and improve educational and research facilities. Writes articles for publication in scientific journals. Consults with board of directors and professional personnel to plan and implement acquisitional, research, display and public service activities of institution. May participate in research activities. May be designated according to field of specialization as Curator, Art Gallery (museums); Curator, Herbarium (museums); Curator, Horticultural Museum (museums); Curator, Medical Museum (museums); Curator, Natural History Museum (museums); Curator, Zoological Museum (museums); Director, Industrial Museum (museums).
GOE: 11.07.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

102.117-010 SUPERVISOR, HISTORIC SITES (government ser.)

Directs and coordinates activities of personnel engaged in investigating, acquiring, marking, improving, and preserving historic sites and natural phenomena in conformity with state policy. Authorizes acquisition and improvement of sites, such as historic homes and battlefields, within allocated budget. Recommends appropriation of additional funds where necessary to purchase or restore landmarks. Negotiates with representatives of local governments, philanthropic organizations, and other interested groups to acquire properties. Provides information and encouragement to private individuals or civic groups attempting to acquire and maintain landmarks not considered feasible for state acquisition. Directs or participates in archeological research efforts in state parks. Directs design, preparation, and installation of museum exhibits and historical markers. Directs workers engaged in preparation of brochures, exhibits, maps, photographs, and similar materials to stimulate public interest in visiting sites. Serves as custodian of historic documents acquired during research efforts.
GOE: 11.05.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

102.117-014 DIRECTOR, MUSEUM-OR-ZOO (museums)

Administers affairs of museum, zoo, or similar establishment: Confers with institution's board of directors to formulate policies and plan overall operations. Directs acquisition, education, research, public service, and development activities of institution, consulting with curatorial, administrative, and maintenance staff members to implement policies and initiate programs. Works with members of curatorial and administrative staffs to acquire additions to collections. Confers with administrative staff members to determine budget requirements, plan fund raising drives, prepare applications for grants from government agencies or private foundations, and solicit financial support for institution. Establishes and maintains contact with administrators of other institutions to exchange information concerning operations and plan, coordinate, or consolidate community service and education programs. Represents institution at professional and civic social events, conventions, and other gatherings to strengthen relationships with cultural and civic leaders, present lectures or participate in seminars, or explain institution's functions and seek financial support for projects. Reviews materials prepared by staff members, such as articles for journals, requests for grants, and reports on institution programs, and approves materials or suggests changes. Instructs classes in institution's education program or as guest lecturer at university. Writes articles for technical journals or other publications.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

102.167-010 ART CONSERVATOR (museums)

Coordinates activities of subordinates engaged in examination, repair, and conservation of art objects: Examines art objects to determine condition, need for repair, method of preservation, and authenticity, using x rays, radiographs, and special lights. Directs curatorial and technical staffs on handling, mounting, care, and storage of art objects. Estimates cost of restoration work.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


Manages operation of historic structure or site: Discusses house or site operation with governing body representatives to form or change policies. Oversees activities of building and grounds maintenance staff and other employees. Maintains roster of volunteer guides, and contacts volunteers to conduct tours of premises according to schedule. Conducts tours, explaining points of interest and answers visitors' questions. Studies documents, books, and other materials to obtain information concerning history of site or structure. Conducts classes in tour presentation methods for volunteer guides. Accepts group reservations for house tours and special social events. Arranges for refreshments, entertainment, and decorations for special events. Collects admission and special event fees, and maintains records of receipts, expenses, and numbers of persons served. Assists in planning publicity, and arranges for printing of brochures or placement of information in media. Inspects premises for evidence of deterioration and need for repair, and notifies governing body of such need.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

102.167-018 REGISTRAR, MUSEUM (museums)

Maintains records of accession, condition, and location of objects in museum collection, and oversees movement, packing, and shipping of objects to conform to insurance regulations: Observes unpacking of objects acquired by museum through gift, purchase, or loan to determine that damage or deterioration to objects has not occurred. Registers and assigns accession and catalog numbers to all objects in collection, according to established registration system. Composes concise description of objects, and records descriptions on file cards and in collection catalogs. Oversees handling, packing, movement, and inspection of all objects entering or leaving establishment, including traveling exhibits, and confers with other personnel to develop and initiate most practical methods of packing and shipping fragile or valuable objects. Maintains records of storage, exhibit, and loan locations of all objects in collection for use of establishment personnel, insurance representatives, and other persons utilizing facilities. Prepares acquisition reports for review of curatorial and administrative staff. Periodically reviews and evaluates registration and catalog system to maintain applicability, consistency, and operation. Recommends changes in recordkeeping procedures to achieve maximum accessibility to and efficient retrieval of collection objects. Arranges for insurance of objects on loan or special exhibition, or recommends insurance coverage on parts of or entire collection.
GOE: 07.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

102.261-010 CONSERVATION TECHNICIAN (museums)

Repairs and cleans art objects, such as pottery, statuary, etchings, or tapestries, to restore art objects' natural appearance: Studies descriptive information on object or conducts standard chemical and physical tests to determine such factors as age, composition, and original appearance, and plans methods or procedures for restoring object. Cleans object or broken pieces, using such methods as scraping and applying solvents to metal objects; washing statuary, using soap solutions; or cleaning and polishing furniture and silver objects. Repairs objects, using glue or solder, to assemble broken pieces, buffing assembled object where repaired, or repainting faded or incomplete designs with paint of same chemical composition and color in order to restore original appearance. Notifies superior when problem of restoration requires outside experts. Fabricates or repairs picture frames for paintings, using handtools and power tools and machines. Mounts pictures in frames.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

102.261-014 PAINTINGS RESTORER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: paintings conservator

Restores damaged and faded paintings and preserves paintings, using techniques based on knowledge of art and art materials: Examines surfaces of painting, using magnifying device, and performs tests to determine factors, such as age, structure, pigment stability, and probable reaction to various cleaning agents and solvents. Removes painting from frame. Applies select solvents and cleaning agents and uses predetermined method to clean surface of painting and remove accretions, discolorations, and deteriorated varnish. Stretches new linen backing, applies paste material to back of painting, and laminates parts together, using laminating press. Dries laminated painting under controlled conditions to prevent shrinkage. Applies beeswax or other substance to damaged or faded areas where restoration is needed. Studies style, techniques, colors, textures, and materials used by artist to maintain consistency in reconstruction or retouching procedures. Reconstructs or retouches damaged areas and blends area into adjacent areas to restore painting to original condition. Applies varnish or other preservative to surface of painting and dries under controlled conditions. May remove paint layer from backing and remount on canvas, wood, or metal support using pressure and special adhesives. May apply neutral color powder to damaged areas to restore areas.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

102.361-010 RESTORER, LACE AND TEXTILES (museums)

Restores and prepares ancient textile and lace materials for display in textile museum: Cleans fabric, using cleaning compounds and techniques based on historical knowledge of fabric manufacture and effect of cleaning upon fabric. Develops new cleaning compounds and methods when available means are inadequate or tend to harm fabric. Repairs and reweaves worn, torn, and decayed fabrics, using techniques based on knowledge of weaving and lace methods. Mounts fabric in frame or other suitable background.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

102.361-014 RESTORER, CERAMIC (museums)

Cleans, preserves, restores, and repairs objects made of glass, porcelain, china, fired clay, and other ceramic materials: Coats excavated objects with surface-active agents to loosen adhering mud or clay and washes objects with clear water. Places cleaned objects in dilute hydrochloric acid or other solution to remove remaining deposits of lime or chalk, basing choice of solution on knowledge of physical and chemical structure of objects and destructive qualities of solvents. Cleans glass, porcelain, or similar objects by such methods as soaking objects in lukewarm water with ammonia added, wiping gilded or enameled objects with solvent-saturated swab, or rubbing objects with paste cleanser. Rubs objects with jewelers' rouge or other mild cleanser, soaks objects in distilled water with bleach or solvent added, or applies paste or liquid solvent, such as magnesium silicate or acetone, basing choice of method and material on age, condition, and chemical structure of objects, to remove stains from objects. Recommends preservation measures, such as control of temperature, humidity, and exposure to light, to curatorial and building maintenance staff to prevent damage to or deterioration of object. Impregnates surfaces with diluted synthetic lacquers to reduce porosity of material to increase durability of ancient earthenware. Restores or simulates original appearance of objects by such methods as polishing surfaces to restore translucency, removing crackled glaze and applying soluble synthetic coating, grinding or cutting out chipped edges and repolishing surfaces, or applying matt paints, gold leaf, or other coating to object, basing methods and materials used on knowledge of original craft and condition of objects. Repairs broken objects, employing such techniques as bonding edges together with adhesive, inserting dowel pins in sections and cementing together, or affixing adhesive coated strips to inner portions of broken objects. Replaces missing sections of objects by constructing wire frames of missing sections, shaping plasticene or other materials over frames, affixing modeled sections to objects with dowels or adhesive, and painting attached sections to reproduce original appearance. Constructs replicas of archaeological artifacts or historically significant ceramic ware, basing construction design on size, curvature, and thickness of excavated shards or pieces of objects available and knowledge of techniques and designs characteristic of period.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

102.367-010 FINE ARTS PACKER (museums) alternate titles: art preparator

Specifies types of packing materials, crating, containerization, and special handling procedures for shipping or storing art objects, scientific specimens, and historical artifacts to minimize damage and deterioration: Confers with curatorial personnel regarding status of museum projects and proposed shipping or transfer dates of exhibitions. Develops methods and procedures for packing or containerization of art objects, according to weight and characteristics of shipment. Selects protective or preservative materials, such as excelsior, chemical agents, or moistureproof wrapping, to protect shipment against vibration, moisture, impact, or other hazards. Designs special crates, modules, brackets, and traveling frames to meet insurance and museum shipping specifications. Shapes and contours internal support modules, based on size and type of paintings, sculptures, bronzes, glass, and other art objects. Directs workers engaged in moving art objects from receiving or storage areas to galleries of museum, in packing shipments, or in rigging sculptures for installation of exhibition. Inspects incoming shipment to detect damages for insurance purposes. Keeps records and documents of incoming and outgoing shipments, or location of traveling exhibitions and loan materials. Prepares and attaches written or pictorial instructions for unpacking, storage, or for exhibition of contents of shipment. May specify type of carrier, such as barge, train, or messenger according to cost considerations and nature of shipment.
GOE: 05.03.09 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

102.381-010 MUSEUM TECHNICIAN (museums) alternate titles: museum preparator

Prepares specimens for museum collections and exhibits: Cleans rock matrix from fossil specimens, using electric drills, awls, dental tools, chisels, and mallets. Brushes preservatives, such as plaster, resin, hardeners, and shellac on specimens. Molds and restores skeletal parts of fossil animals, using modeling clays and special molding and casting techniques. Constructs skeletal mounts of fossil animals, using tools, such as drill presses, pipe threaders, welding and soldering apparatus, and carpenter's tools. Constructs duplicate specimens, using plaster, glue, latex, and plastiflex-molding techniques. Reassembles fragmented artifacts, and fabricates substitute pieces. Maintains museum files. Cleans, catalogs, labels, and stores specimens. May install, arrange, and exhibit materials.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with museum, library, and archival science.

109.067-010 INFORMATION SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: chief information officer; information broker; information manager; information resources director; information resources manager

Designs information system to provide management or clients with specific data from computer storage, utilizing knowledge of electronic data processing principles, mathematics, and computer capabilities: Develops and designs methods and procedures for collecting, organizing, interpreting, and classifying information for input into computer and retrieval of specific information from computer, utilizing knowledge of symbolic language and optical or pattern recognition principles. Develops alternate designs to resolve problems in input, storage, and retrieval of information. May specialize in specific field of information science, such as scientific or engineering research, or in specific discipline, such as business, medicine, education, aerospace, or library science.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

109.067-014 RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (museums)

Plans, organizes, and conducts research in scientific, cultural, historical, or artistic field for use in own work or in project of sponsoring institution: Develops plans for project or studies guidelines for project prepared by professional staff member to outline research procedures to be followed. Plans schedule according to variety of methods to be used, availability and quantity of resources, and number of subordinate personnel assigned to participate in project. Conducts research, utilizing institution library, archives, and collections, and other sources of information, to collect, record, analyze, and evaluate facts. Discusses findings with other personnel to evaluate validity of findings. Prepares reports of completed projects for publication in technical journals, for presentation to agency requesting project, or for use in further applied or theoretical research activities.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

109.137-010 SHELVING SUPERVISOR (library)

Supervises and coordinates activities of library workers engaged in replacing books and other materials on shelves according to library classification system: Assigns duties to workers. Trains and directs workers in performance of shelving tasks. Examines materials on shelves to verify accuracy of placement. Counts number of materials placed on shelves to record shelving activity. Marks designated classification number on material, using pen and ink, to facilitate placement on shelves. May sort material, according to author, classification number, subject matter, or title, to arrange material for shelving.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

109.267-010 RESEARCH ASSISTANT I (profess. & kin.)

Conducts research on historic monuments, buildings, and scenes to reconstruct exhibits to scale in dioramas for use of fine-arts students or other purposes. Collects information from libraries, museums, and art institutes. Monitors construction of dioramas to ensure authenticity of proportions, color, and costumes in diorama.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

109.267-014 RESEARCH WORKER, ENCYCLOPEDIA (profess. & kin.)

Analyzes information on specified subjects to answer inquiries from encyclopedia owners, referring to library reference sources or consulting with experts in field of knowledge involved. Prepares written summary of research findings for mailing to inquirers.
GOE: 11.08.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

109.281-010 ARMORER TECHNICIAN (museums)

Specializes in restoring and preparing exhibits of medieval arms and armor: Assembles parts of armor, helmets, guns, swords, and similar items. Designs and fabricates missing or broken parts. Conducts research to determine authenticity and classifies and catalogs articles. Prepares articles for exhibition.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

109.361-010 RESTORER, PAPER-AND-PRINTS (library; museums)

Cleans, preserves, restores, and repairs books, documents, maps, prints, photographs, and other paper objects of historic or artistic significance: Examines or tests objects to determine physical condition and chemical structure of paper, ink, paint, or other coating, in order to identify problem and plan safest and most effective method of treating material. Cleans objects by such methods as sprinkling crumbled art gum or draft powder over surface and rotating soft cloth over cleaning agent to absorb soil (dry cleaning), immersing objects in circulating bath of water or mild chemical solution (wet cleaning), or applying solvent to remove rust, fly specks, mildew, or other stains, basing choice of method on knowledge of physical and chemical structure of objects and effects of various kinds of treatment. Preserves or directs preservation of objects by such methods as immersing paper in deacidification baths to remove acidity from papers and ink to prevent deterioration, sealing documents or other papers in cellulose cases and passing sealed objects through heated rollers to laminate them, spraying objects, storage containers, or areas with fungicides, insecticides, or pesticides, and controlling temperature, humidity, and exposure to natural or artificial light in areas where objects are displayed or stored. Restores objects to original appearance by such methods as immersing papers in mild bleach solution to brighten faded backgrounds, removing old varnish from such art works as engravings and mezzotints, or strengthening papers by resizing in bath of gelatin solution. Repairs objects by such methods as mending tears with adhesive and tissue, patching and filling worm holes, torn corners, or large tears by chamfering, inserting, affixing, and staining paper of similar weight and weave to simulate original appearance, or retouching stained, faded, or blurred watercolors, prints, or documents, using colors and strokes to reproduce those of original artist or writer.
GOE: 01.06.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

109.364-010 CRAFT DEMONSTRATOR (museums)

Demonstrates and explains techniques and purposes of handicraft or other activity, such as candle dipping, horseshoeing, or soap making, as part of display in history or folk museum, or restored or refurbished farm, village, or neighborhood: Studies historical and technical literature to acquire information about time period and lifestyle depicted in display and craft techniques associated with time and area, to devise plan for authentic presentation of craft. Drafts outline of talk, assisted by research personnel, to acquaint visitors with customs and crafts associated with folk life depicted. Practices techniques involved in handicraft to ensure accurate and skillful demonstrations. Molds candles, shoes horses, operates looms, or engages in other crafts or activities, working in appropriate period setting, to demonstrate craft to visitors. Explains techniques of craft, and points out relationship of craft to lifestyle depicted to assist visitors to comprehend traditional techniques of work and play peculiar to time and area. Answers visitor questions or refers visitor to other sources for information.
GOE: 09.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 4 DLU: 86

109.367-010 MUSEUM ATTENDANT (museums)

Conducts operation of museum and provides information about regulations, facilities, and exhibits to visitors: Opens museum at designated hours, greets visitors, and invites visitors to sign guest register. Monitors visitors viewing exhibits, cautions persons not complying with museum regulations, distributes promotional materials, and answers questions concerning exhibits, regulations, and facilities. Arranges tours of facility for schools or other groups, and schedules volunteers or other staff members to conduct tours. Examines exhibit facilities and collection objects periodically and notifies museum professional personnel or governing body when need for repair or replacement is observed.
GOE: 07.04.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 3 DLU: 86


This division includes occupations concerned with the application of principles relating to statute law and its administration.


This group includes occupations concerned with the practice of one or more phases of law. Includes representing individuals, organizations, or government; and the preparation of legal documents.

110.107-010 LAWYER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: advocate; attorney; counselor; counselor-at-law

Conducts criminal and civil lawsuits, draws up legal documents, advises clients as to legal rights, and practices other phases of law: Gathers evidence in divorce, civil, criminal, and other cases to formulate defense or to initiate legal action. Conducts research, interviews clients and witnesses, and handles other details in preparation for trial. Prepares legal briefs, develops strategy, arguments, and testimony in preparation for presentation of case. Files brief with court clerk. Represents client in court and before quasi-judicial or administrative agencies of government. Interprets laws, rulings, and regulations for individuals and businesses. May confer with colleagues with specialty in area of lawsuit to establish and verify basis for legal proceedings. May act as trustee, guardian, or executor. May draft wills, trusts, transfer of assets, gifts, and other documents. May advise corporate clients concerning transactions of business involving internal affairs, stockholders, directors, officers, and corporate relations with general public. May supervise and coordinate activities of subordinate legal personnel. May prepare business contracts, pay taxes, settle labor disputes, and administer other legal matters. May teach college courses in law. May specialize in specific phase of law.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

110.107-014 LAWYER, CRIMINAL (profess. & kin.)

Specializes in law cases dealing with offenses against society or state, such as theft, murder, and arson: Interviews clients and witnesses to ascertain facts of case. Correlates findings and prepares case. Prosecutes, or defends defendant against charges. Conducts case, examining and cross examining witnesses. Summarizes case to jury.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-010 DISTRICT ATTORNEY (government ser.) alternate titles: prosecuting attorney; prosecutor; solicitor, city or state; state's attorney; united states attorney

Conducts prosecution in court proceedings in behalf of city, county, state, or federal government: Gathers and analyzes evidence in case and reviews pertinent decisions, policies, regulations, and other legal matters pertaining to case. Presents evidence against accused to grand jury for indictment or release of accused. Appears against accused in court of law and presents evidence before JUDGE (government ser.) or other judiciary and jury.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-014 INSURANCE ATTORNEY (insurance) alternate titles: claim attorney; insurance counsel

Advises management of insurance company on legality of insurance transactions: Studies court decisions, and recommends changes in wording of insurance policies to conform with law or to protect company from unwarranted claims. Advises claims department personnel of legality of claims filed on company to ensure against undue payments. Advises personnel engaged in drawing up of legal documents, such as insurance contracts and release papers. May specialize in one phase of legal work, such as claims or contracts.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-018 LAWYER, ADMIRALTY (profess. & kin.)

Specializes in law applicable to matters occurring on inland navigable waters or on high seas: Conducts lawsuits in matters involving ship personnel, collisions, matters of cargo, and damage to objects by vessels. Draws legal documents, including charter parties, applications for registry of vessels under flags of a particular country, and bills of sale for vessels. Determines law applicable by study of the Constitution, statutes, previous decisions, and regulations. Advises clients as to advisability of prosecuting and defending law suits, or as to legal rights and obligations in other matters.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-022 LAWYER, CORPORATION (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: business and financial counsel; corporate counsel

Advises corporation concerning legal rights, obligations, and privileges: Studies Constitution, statutes, decisions, and ordinances of quasi-judicial bodies. Examines legal data to determine advisability of defending or prosecuting lawsuit. May act as agent of corporation in various transactions.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-026 LAWYER, PATENT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: patent attorney; solicitor, patent

Specializes in patent law: Advises clients, such as inventors, investors, and manufacturers, concerning patentability of inventions, infringement of patents, validity of patents, and similar items. Prepares applications for patents and presents applications to U.S. Patent Office. Prosecutes or defends clients in patent infringement litigations. May specialize in protecting American trademarks and copyrights in foreign countries.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-030 LAWYER, PROBATE (profess. & kin.)

Specializes in settlement and planning of estates: Drafts wills, deeds of trusts, and similar documents to carry out estate planning of clients. Probates wills and represents and advises executors and administrators of estates.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-034 LAWYER, REAL ESTATE (profess. & kin.)

Specializes in sale and transfer of real property: Institutes title search to establish ownership. Draws up documents, such as deeds, mortgages, and leases. May act as trustee of property and hold funds for investment or issuance. May act as agent in real estate transactions.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-038 TAX ATTORNEY (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: tax agent; tax representative

Advises individuals, business concerns, and other organizations concerning income, estate, gift, excise, property, and other federal, state, local, and foreign taxes. Prepares opinions on tax liability resulting from prospective and past transactions. Represents clients in tax litigation.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-042 TITLE ATTORNEY (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: title examiner

Examines abstracts of titles, leases, contracts, and other legal documents to determine ownership of land, and gas, oil, and mineral rights: Draws up legal documents covering purchase and sale of land, and oil, gas, and mineral rights, drafts deeds and affidavits, and presents other evidence to meet legal requirements of documents. Examines instruments and opinions prepared by other attorneys and advises officials of organization as to legal requirements in connection with titles. Searches for and examines public records and writes opinions on titles. Prepares cases for trial and tries or assists in trial of lawsuits involving titles to land, and gas, oil, and mineral rights.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

110.167-010 BAR EXAMINER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: law examiner

Determines qualifications of candidates seeking admission to practice of law: Prepares written examinations dealing with law subjects, such as contracts, property, and criminal law based on legal code of examining jurisdiction. Corrects and marks papers. Announces names of candidates earning passing grades. Submits each candidate to oral examination concerning qualifications. Recommends candidates meeting prescribed standards be admitted to practice.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with presiding as arbitrator, advisor, and administrator of the judicial system in a court of law.

111.107-010 JUDGE (government ser.) alternate titles: justice

Arbitrates disputes, advises counsel, jury, litigants, or court personnel, and administers judicial system: Establishes rules of procedure on questions for which standard procedures have not been established by law or by superior court. Reads or listens to allegations made by plaintiff in civil suits to determine their sufficiency. Examines evidence in criminal cases to determine if evidence will support charges. Listens to presentation of case, rules on admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony, and settles disputes between opposing attorneys. Instructs jury on applicable law and directs jury to deduce facts from evidence presented. Sentences defendant in criminal cases, on conviction by jury, according to statutes of state or federal government, or awards judicial relief to litigants in civil cases in relation to findings by jury or by court. May be designated according to level of court in judicial hierarchy as Appellate-Court Judge (government ser.); District-Court Judge (government ser.); Municipal-Court Judge (government ser.); Superior-Court Judge (government ser.); Supreme-Court Justice (government ser.). May preside over particular court department and be designated Conciliation-Court Judge (government ser.); Criminal-Court Judge (government ser.); Juvenile-Court Judge (government ser.); Probate Judge (government ser.).
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

111.107-014 MAGISTRATE (government ser.) alternate titles: justice-court judge; justice of the peace; police judge; police justice; police magistrate

Adjudicates civil cases in which damages do not exceed prescribed maximum established by state law, and minor misdemeanor cases not involving penitentiary sentences or fines in excess of maximum amount allowed to be levied under state law. Conducts preliminary hearings in felony cases to determine whether there is reasonable and probable cause to hold defendant for further proceedings or trial by superior court. May perform wedding ceremonies. May perform duties at night and be designated Night-Court Magistrate (government ser.). May adjudicate cases involving motor vehicle laws and be designated Traffic-Court Magistrate (government ser.).
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with law and jurisprudence.

119.107-010 HEARING OFFICER (government ser.) alternate titles: appeals board referee; referee

Reviews previously adjudicated social welfare tax or eligibility issues, as member of appeals board, utilizing knowledge of regulations, policy, and precedent decisions: Researches laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions to prepare for appeal hearings. Schedules hearing, issues subpoenas, counsels parties, and administers oaths to prepare for formal hearing. Conducts hearing to obtain information and evidence relative to disposition of appeal. Questions witnesses and rules on exceptions, motions, and admissibility of evidence. Analyzes evidence and applicable law, regulations, policy, and precedent decisions to determine appropriate and permissible conclusions. Prepares written decision. May hear disability insurance appeals and be designated Disability-Insurance-Hearing Officer (government ser.). May hear unemployment insurance appeals and be designated Unemployment-Insurance-Hearing Officer (government ser.).
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

119.117-010 APPEALS REVIEWER, VETERAN (government ser.)

Adjudicates military service veterans' claims for allowances: Conducts hearings and determines validity of claim in accordance with federal and state laws and precedents. Renders decision and writes opinion on questions appealed. Prepares interpretations and advisory opinions on points of law requested by state or federal agencies engaged in administration of veterans' programs. Conducts studies of appeals procedures in field agencies to ensure adherence to legal requirements and facilitate determination of cases.
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

119.167-010 ADJUDICATOR (government ser.)

Adjudicates claims filed by government against individuals or organizations: Determines existence and amount of liability, according to law, administrative and judicial precedents and other evidence. Recommends acceptance or rejection of compromise settlement offers.
GOE: 11.04.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.167-014 PATENT AGENT (profess. & kin.)

Prepares and presents patent application to U.S. Patent Office and in patent courts, according to familiarity with patent law and filing procedures. Must be registered by U.S. Patent Office. Cannot practice law or appear in other courts.
GOE: 11.04.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.167-018 TITLE SUPERVISOR (profess. & kin.)

Directs and coordinates activities of subordinates engaged in searching public records and examining titles to determine legal condition of property title.
GOE: 07.01.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

119.267-010 ABSTRACTOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: abstract clerk; abstract maker; abstract searcher; abstract writer; court abstractor; title abstractor

Analyzes pertinent legal or insurance details or section of statute or case law to summarize for purposes of examination, proof, or ready reference. May search out titles to determine if title deed is correct [TITLE EXAMINER (profess. & kin.)].
GOE: 11.04.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

119.267-014 APPEALS REFEREE (government ser.)

Adjudicates social welfare tax or benefit eligibility issues filed by disabled or unemployed claimants or employers: Arranges and conducts hearings to discover pertinent facts bearing on claim in accord with federal and state laws and procedures. Renders decisions affirming or denying previous ruling, based on testimony, claim records, applicable provisions of law, and established precedents. Writes decision explaining ruling and informs interested parties of results. Confers with personnel of employer or agency involved to obtain additional information bearing on appeal, and to clarify future implications of decisions. May participate in court proceedings against claimants attempting to obtain benefits through fraud. May render informal opinions on points of law in questionable cases to facilitate initial determination of benefit eligibility or imposition of penalties. May be required to hold law degree or license to practice law.
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

119.267-018 CONTRACT CLERK (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: contract consultant; contract technician

Reviews agreements or proposed agreements for conformity to company rates, rules, and regulations: Analyzes contracts and confers with various department heads to detect ambiguities, inaccurate statements, omissions of essential terms, and conflicts with possible legal prohibitions. Recommends modifications. Converts agreements into contract form or prepares amended agreement for approval by legal department. May initiate changes in standard form contracts.
GOE: 07.01.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.267-022 LEGAL INVESTIGATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: legal assistant

Researches and prepares cases relating to administrative appeals of civil service members: Examines state government, personnel, college, or university rules and regulations. Answers members' questions regarding rights and benefits and advises on how rules apply to individual situations. Presents arguments and evidence to support appeal at appeal hearing. Calls upon witnesses to testify at hearing.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.267-026 PARALEGAL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: law clerk; legal aid; legal assistant

Researches law, investigates facts, and prepares documents to assist LAWYER (profess. & kin.) 110.107-010: Researches and analyzes law sources such as statutes, recorded judicial decisions, legal articles, treaties, constitutions, and legal codes to prepare legal documents, such as briefs, pleadings, appeals, wills, contracts, initial and amended articles of incorporation, stock certificates and other securities, buy-sell agreements, closing papers and binders, deeds, and trust instruments for review, approval, and use by attorney. Appraises and inventories real and personal property for estate planning. Investigates facts and law of case to determine causes of action and to prepare case accordingly. Files pleadings with court clerk. Prepares affidavits of documents and maintains document file. Delivers or directs delivery of subpoenas to witnesses and parties to action. May direct and coordinate activities of law office employees. May prepare office accounts and tax returns. May specialize in litigation, probate, real estate, or corporation law. May prepare real estate closing statement and assist in closing process. May act as arbitrator and liaison between disputing parties. May act as law librarian, keeping and monitoring legal volumes and ensuring legal volumes are up-to-date. May search patent files to ascertain originality of patent application and be designated Patent Clerk (government ser.).
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

119.287-010 TITLE EXAMINER (profess. & kin.)

Searches public records and examines titles to determine legal condition of property title: Examines copies of records, such as mortgages, liens, judgments, easements, vital statistics, and plat and map books to determine ownership and legal restrictions and to verify legal description of property. Copies or summarizes (abstracts) recorded documents, such as mortgages, trust deeds, and contracts affecting condition of title to property. Analyzes restrictions and prepares report outlining restrictions and actions required to clear title. When working in title-insurance company, prepares and issues policy that guarantees legality of title.
GOE: 07.01.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.367-010 ESCROW OFFICER (profess. & kin.)

Holds in escrow, funds, legal papers, and other collateral posted by contracting parties to ensure fulfillment of contracts or trust agreements: Prepares escrow agreement. Executes terms of contract or trust agreement, such as holding money or legal papers, paying off mortgages, or paying sums to designated parties. Files and delivers deeds and other legal papers. May assist buyer to secure financing.
GOE: 07.01.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This division includes occupations concerned with religious worship and observance, and with theological research and history of religion.


This group includes occupations concerned with serving spiritual needs of congregation members, usually as minister, priest, or rabbi. Includes delivering sermons, conducting services, administering religious rites, instructing prospective congregation members, and counseling members in need of spiritual advice.

120.107-010 CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: minister; preacher; priest; rabbi

Conducts religious worship and performs other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination as authorized, and provides spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members: Leads congregation in worship services. Prepares and delivers sermons and other talks. Interprets doctrine of religion. Instructs people who seek conversion to faith. Conducts wedding and funeral services. Administers religious rites or ordinances. Visits sick and shut-ins, and helps poor. Counsels those in spiritual need and comforts bereaved. Oversees religious education programs. May write articles for publication and engage in interfaith, community, civic, educational, and recreational activities sponsored by or related to interest of denomination. May teach in seminaries and universities. May serve in armed forces, institutions, or industry and be designated Chaplain (profess. & kin.). When in charge of Christian church, congregation, or parish, may be designated Pastor (profess. & kin.) or Rector (profess. & kin.). May carry religious message and medical or educational aid to nonchristian lands and people to obtain converts and establish native church and be designated Missionary (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with religion and theology.

129.027-010 CANTOR (profess. & kin.)

Chants and reads portions of ritual during religious services, and directs congregants in musical activities: Arranges musical portion of religious services in consultation with leader of congregation. Chants or recites religious texts during worship services or other observances and trains and leads congregants in musical responses. May create variations of traditional music or compose music for services. May train and direct choir or teach vocal music to youth or other groups of congregants.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M1 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

129.107-010 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE NURSE (profess. & kin.)

Provides support and nonmedical physical care, through practical knowledge of Christian Science, to patients receiving treatment from CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PRACTITIONERS (profess. & kin.). May work on staff of Christian Science sanatorium or Christian Science visiting nurse service. May contract independently, usually with one patient, to provide individual care in Christian Science sanatorium or private home.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

129.107-014 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PRACTITIONER (profess. & kin.)

Practices spiritual healing through prayer alone in accordance with religious teaching of Christian Science.
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

129.107-018 DIRECTOR OF RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES (education) alternate titles: dean of chapel; director of religious life

Directs and coordinates activities of various denominational groups to meet religious needs of students: Meets with religious advisers and councils to coordinate overall religious program. Assists and advises groups in promoting interfaith understanding. Interprets policies of university to community religious workers and confers with administrative officials concerning suggestions and requests for religious activities. Provides counseling and guidance relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems. Plans and conducts conferences and courses to assist in interpretation of religion to various academic groups and to promote understanding of individual faiths and convictions of other groups.
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

129.107-022 DIRECTOR, RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (nonprofit org.)

Plans, organizes, and directs religious education program designed to promote religious education among congregation membership and counsels members concerning personal problems: Analyzes revenue and program cost data to determine budget priorities. Analyzes member participation, and changes in congregation emphasis to determine needs for religious education. Develops study courses and supervises instructional staff. Counsels students. Plans congregational activities and projects to attract attention to, and encourage active participation in programs. Promotes student participation in extracurricular congregational activities. Visits homes of congregation members and confers with CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) 120.107-010, congregation officials, and congregation organizations to solicit support and participation, and to stimulate interest in religious and educational programs. Participates in such denominational activities as giving help to new congregations and small congregations. Interprets work of school to public through speaking or discussion-leading in related fields, and contributes articles to local and national publications. Orders and distributes school supplies.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

129.107-026 PASTORAL ASSISTANT (nonprofit org.)

Assists ordained clergy in conducting worship services; provides spiritual guidance to church members; and plans and arranges educational, social, and recreational programs for congregation: Assists CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) 120.107-010 in conducting worship, wedding, funeral, and other services and in coordinating activities of lay participants, such as organist, choir, and ushers. Visits church members in hospitals and convalescent facilities or at home to offer spiritual guidance and assistance, such as emergency financial aid or referral to community support services. Assists CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) and lay teachers in selecting books and reference materials for religious education classes and in adapting content to meet needs of different age groups. May write and deliver sermons. May teach history and doctrine of church to church members. May assist CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) in coordinating committees that oversee social and recreational programs.
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

129.271-010 MOHEL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: ritual circumciser

Circumcises Jewish male infants in accordance with tenets of faith: Reviews infant's family medical history to determine possibility of hemorrhage. Examines infant for infection and other conditions to determine best operational time and procedure. Disinfects surgical instruments, hands, and operative area. Affixes lyre-shaped shield to penis and excises foreskin and membrane along line of shield, using scalpel. Removes blood from wound, using suction, and applies sterile dressing. Recites prescribed benedictions and announces Hebrew name of child.
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


This division includes occupations concerned with reporting, editing, promoting, and interpreting ideas and facts in written form. Occupations concerned with translating and interpreting written and spoken words from one language to another are also included in this division.


This group includes occupations primarily concerned with researching and writing material for performance, publication, or broadcast. Includes reporting, analyzing, and interpreting facts, events, and personalities; developing fiction or nonfiction ideas, using various literary techniques to produce plays, novels, poems, or other related works; critically evaluating art, music, drama, and other artistic presentations; and persuading the general public to favor personalities, goods, and services. Writers often rewrite material developed by others and perform editorial duties but are distinguished from editors because they are primarily responsible for originating written material. Technical writers are also included in this group. Occupations which include writing but are primarily involved with other disciplines, such as economics, psychology, and history, are grouped according to primary involvement.

131.067-010 COLUMNIST/COMMENTATOR (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.)

Analyzes news and writes column or commentary, based on personal knowledge and experience with subject matter, for publication or broadcast: Gathers information and develops subject perspective through research, interview, experience, and attendance at functions, such as political conventions, news meetings, sports events, and social activities. Analyzes and interprets information to formulate and outline story idea. Selects material most pertinent to presentation, organizes material into acceptable media form and format, and writes column or commentary. Records commentary or presents commentary live when working in broadcast medium. May be required to develop material to fit media time or space requirements. May analyze current news items and be designated News Analyst (radio-tv broad.). May be designated according to medium worked in as Columnist (print. & pub.); Commentator (radio-tv broad.). May specialize in particular field, such as sports, fashion, society, or politics. May analyze topics chosen by publication or broadcast facility editorial board. May enter information into computer to prepare commentaries.
GOE: 11.08.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

131.067-014 COPY WRITER (profess. & kin.)

Writes advertising copy for use by publication or broadcast media to promote sale of goods and services: Consults with sales media, and marketing representatives to obtain information on product or service and discuss style and length of advertising copy. Obtains additional background and current development information through research and interview. Reviews advertising trends, consumer surveys, and other data regarding marketing of specific and related goods and services to formulate presentation approach. Writes preliminary draft of copy and sends to supervisor for approval. Corrects and revises copy as necessary. May write articles, bulletins, sales letters, speeches, and other related informative and promotional material. May enter information into computer to prepare advertising copy.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

131.067-018 CRITIC (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.)

Writes critical reviews of literary, musical, or artistic works and performances for broadcast and publication: Attends art exhibitions, musical or dramatic performances, reads books, or previews motion picture or television presentations. Analyzes factors such as theme, expression, and technique, and makes comparisons to other works and standards. Forms critical opinions based on personal knowledge, judgment, and experience. Organizes material to emphasize prominent features, and writes review. Presents oral review in live or recorded form when working in broadcasting medium. May enter information into computer to prepare reviews. May be designated according to field of specialization as Art Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); Book Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); Drama Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); Movie Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); Music Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

131.067-022 EDITORIAL WRITER (print. & pub.)

Writes comments on topics of reader interest to stimulate or mold public opinion, in accordance with viewpoints and policies of publication: Prepares assigned or unassigned articles from knowledge of topic and editorial position of publication, supplemented by additional study and research. Submits and discusses copy with editor for approval. May specialize in one or more fields, such as international affairs, fiscal matters, or national or local politics. May participate in conferences of editorial policy committee to recommend topics and position to be taken by publication on specific public issues.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

131.067-026 HUMORIST (profess. & kin.)

Writes humorous material for publication or performance: Selects topic according to personal preference or assignment. Writes and makes changes and revisions to material until it meets personal standards. Submits material for approval and confers with client regarding additional changes or revisions. May conduct research to obtain factual information regarding subject matter. May specialize in writing comedy routines, gags, or special material for entertainers and be designated Gag Writer (profess. & kin.). May write comedy shows for presentation on radio or television and be designated Comedy Writer (profess. & kin.). May work as a member of writing team and be assigned to develop segment of comedy show.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

131.067-030 LIBRETTIST (profess. & kin.)

Composes text for opera, musical play, or extended choral work, fitting words to music composed by another. Adapts text to accommodate musical requirements of COMPOSER (profess. & kin.) and SINGER (amuse. & rec.; motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.067-034 LYRICIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: lyric writer; song writer

Writes words to be sung or spoken to accompaniment of music. Expresses sentiment, ideas, or narration, usually in verse, to fit music.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.067-038 PLAYWRIGHT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: dramatist

Writes original plays, such as tragedies, comedies, or dramas, or adapts themes from fictional, historical, or narrative sources, for dramatic presentation: Writes plays, usually involving action, conflict, purpose, and resolution, to depict series of events from imaginary or real life. Writes dialogue and describes action to be followed during enactment of play. Revises script during rehearsals and preparation for initial showing.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

131.067-042 POET (profess. & kin.)

Writes narrative, dramatic, or lyric poetry for magazines, books, and other publications: Chooses subject matter and suitable form to express personal feeling and individual experience, or to narrate story or event. May write doggerel or other type verse.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.067-046 WRITER, PROSE, FICTION AND NONFICTION (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: writer

Writes original prose material for publication: Selects subject matter based on personal interest or receives specific assignment from publisher. Conducts research and makes notes to retain ideas, develop factual information, and obtain authentic detail. Organizes material and plans arrangement or outline. Develops factors, such as theme, plot, order, characterization, and story line. Writes draft of manuscript. Reviews, revises, and corrects it and submits material for publication. Confers with publisher's representative regarding manuscript changes. May specialize in one or more styles or types of writing, such as descriptive or critical interpretations or analyses, essays, magazine articles, short stories, novels, and biographies.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

131.067-050 SCREEN WRITER (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: scenario writer; script writer

Writes scripts for motion pictures or television: Selects subject and theme for script based on personal interests or assignment. Conducts research to obtain accurate factual background information and authentic detail. Writes plot outline, narrative synopsis, or treatment and submits for approval. Confers with PRODUCER (motion picture) 187.167-174 or PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.) 159.117-010 and DIRECTOR, MOTION PICTURE (motion picture) 159.067-010 or DIRECTOR, TELEVISION (radio-tv broad.) 159.067-014 regarding script development, revisions, and other changes. Writes one or more drafts of script. May work in collaboration with other writers. May adapt books or plays into scripts for use in television or motion picture production. May write continuity or comedy routines. May specialize in particular type of script or writing.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.087-010 CONTINUITY WRITER (radio-tv broad.)

Originates and prepares material that is read by ANNOUNCER (radio-tv broad.) 159.147-010 to introduce and connect various parts of musical, news, and sports programs.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.087-014 READER (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: script reader; story analyst

Reads novels, stories, and plays and prepares synopses for review by editorial department or PRODUCER (motion picture) or PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.). Suggests possible treatment of selected materials. May read foreign story material in original language.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

131.262-010 NEWSCASTER (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: newsperson

Analyzes and broadcasts news received from various sources: Examines news items of local, national, and international significance to determine selection or is assigned news items for broadcast by editorial staff. Prepares or assists in preparation of script [NEWSWRITER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) 131.262-014]. Presents news over radio or television. May specialize in particular field of news broadcasting, such as political, economic, or military. May gather information about newsworthy events [REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) 131.262-018]. May introduce broadcasters who specialize in particular fields, such as sports or weather, and be designated Anchorperson (radio-tv broad.) or News Anchor (radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 11.08.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

131.262-014 NEWSWRITER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: rewriter

Writes news stories for publication or broadcast from written or recorded notes supplied by reporting staff, using computer or typewriter: Reviews and evaluates written or recorded notes obtained from reporting staff to isolate pertinent facts and details. Verifies accuracy of questionable facts and obtains supplemental material and additional details from files, reference libraries, and interviews with knowledgeable sources. Organizes material and writes story conforming to specified length, style, and format requirements. May discuss story length and format with EDITOR, CITY (print. & pub.) 132.037-014 or with PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.) 159.117-010 and FILM OR VIDEOTAPE EDITOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 962.262-010. May write news stories in foreign language.
GOE: 11.08.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

131.262-018 REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: newsperson

Collects and analyzes information about newsworthy events to write news stories for publication or broadcast: Receives assignment or evaluates news leads and news tips to develop story idea. Gathers and verifies factual information regarding story through interview, observation, and research. Organizes material, determines slant or emphasis, and writes story according to prescribed editorial style and format standards. May monitor police and fire department radio communications to obtain story leads. May take photographs or shoot video to illustrate stories. May edit, or assist in editing, videos for broadcast. May appear on television program when conducting taped or filmed interviews or narration. May give live reports from site of event or mobile broadcast unit. May transmit information to NEWSWRITER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) 131.262-014 for story writing. May specialize in one type of reporting, such as sports, fires, accidents, political affairs, court trials, or police activities. May be assigned to outlying areas or foreign countries and be designated Correspondent (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) or Foreign Correspondent (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 11.08.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

131.267-022 SCRIPT READER (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: copy reader; editor

Reads book or script of radio and television programs and commercials or views and listens to video and sound tapes to detect and recommend deletion of vulgar, immoral, libelous, or misleading statements, applying knowledge of FCC and station standards and regulations: Types recommended editorial revisions in script. Confers with sales or advertising agency personnel to report on revised or disallowed commercials. When reading continuity, may be designated Continuity Reader (radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 07.05.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

131.267-026 WRITER, TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS (profess. & kin.)

Develops, writes, and edits material for reports, manuals, briefs, proposals, instruction books, catalogs, and related technical and administrative publications concerned with work methods and procedures, and installation, operation, and maintenance of machinery and other equipment: Receives assignment from supervisor. Observes production, developmental, and experimental activities to determine operating procedure and detail. Interviews production and engineering personnel and reads journals, reports, and other material to become familiar with product technologies and production methods. Reviews manufacturer's and trade catalogs, drawings and other data relative to operation, maintenance, and service of equipment. Studies blueprints, sketches, drawings, parts lists, specifications, mock ups, and product samples to integrate and delineate technology, operating procedure, and production sequence and detail. Organizes material and completes writing assignment according to set standards regarding order, clarity, conciseness, style, and terminology. Reviews published materials and recommends revisions or changes in scope, format, content, and methods of reproduction and binding. May maintain records and files of work and revisions. May select photographs, drawings, sketches, diagrams, and charts to illustrate material. May assist in laying out material for publication. May arrange for typing, duplication, and distribution of material. May write speeches, articles, and public or employee relations releases. May edit, standardize, or make changes to material prepared by other writers or plant personnel and be designated Standard-Practice Analyst (profess. & kin.). May specialize in writing material regarding work methods and procedures and be designated Process-Description Writer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.08.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81


This group includes occupations concerned with assigning, selecting, and preparing written materials for publication, broadcast, or motion picture production. This includes planning arrangement of material, rewriting, verifying, compiling, and abstracting according to standards of consistency, organization, development or specified viewpoint. Editors coordinate the work of authors, designers, production personnel, and printers. Editors of specialized types of written material are also included.

132.017-010 EDITOR, MANAGING, NEWSPAPER (print. & pub.) alternate titles: managing editor

Negotiates with newspaper owner's representative to establish publication policies, and directs editorial activities of newspaper departments: Confers with executive staff to discuss editorial policy, makeup plans, changes in staff organization, news coverage of special events, and similar decisions. Relays information to department heads. Coordinates work of editorial departments in accordance with newspaper policy. Directs general page makeup of publication. Inspects final makeup of editions and rearranges makeup to meet emergency news situations. Originates plans for special features or projects and assigns department heads to implement them. May write leading or policy editorials. In smaller establishments may perform duties of EDITOR, NEWS (print. & pub.) 132.067-026; and EDITOR, CITY (print. & pub.) 132.037-014.
GOE: 11.05.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.017-014 EDITOR, NEWSPAPER (print. & pub.) alternate titles: editor-in-chief, newspaper

Formulates editorial policy and directs operation of newspaper: Confers with editorial policy committee and heads of production, advertising, and circulation departments to develop editorial and operating procedures and negotiate decisions affecting publication. Appoints editorial heads and supervises work of their departments in accordance with newspaper policy. Writes leading or policy editorials or notifies editorial department head of position to be taken on specific public issues. Reviews financial reports and takes appropriate action with respect to costs and revenues. Represents publication at professional and community functions. In smaller establishments may perform duties of one or more subordinate editors and direct activities of advertising, circulation, or production personnel.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

132.017-018 EDITOR, TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: manager, technical and scientific publications; supervisor, publications

Directs and coordinates activities of writers engaged in preparing technical, scientific, medical, or other material for publication in conjunction with or independent from manufacturing, research, and related activities: Analyzes developments in specific field to determine need for revisions, corrections, and changes in previously published materials, and development of new material. Confers with customer representatives, vendors, plant executives, or publisher to establish technical specifications, determine specific or general subject material to be developed for publication, and resolve problems concerned with developing and publishing subject material. Assigns staff writer or contracts with specialist in subject area to produce draft of manuscript. Supervises staff writers and delineates standard procedures for gathering data and writing. Reviews draft of manuscript and makes recommendations for changes. May edit and correct final draft to prepare for typesetting. May perform similar duties to those supervised. May select or recommend graphics, such as drawings, diagrams, pictures, and charts to illustrate manuscript. May specialize in particular type of publication, such as manuals, handbooks, articles, or proposals.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

132.037-010 CONTINUITY DIRECTOR (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: editor, continuity and script

Coordinates activities of continuity department of radio or television station: Assigns duties to staff and freelance writers. Supervises staff writers preparing program continuity and scripts for broadcasting, and edits material to ensure conformance with company policy, laws, and regulations. May be responsible for nonmusical copyright material. May read book or script of television programs and commercials or view and listen to videotapes to detect and recommend deletion of vulgar, immoral, libelous, or misleading statements, applying knowledge of Federal Communications Commission and station standards and regulations. May supervise administrative research workers and employees receiving and examining program ideas and scripts suggested by public for station or network presentation.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

132.037-014 EDITOR, CITY (print. & pub.) alternate titles: city editor; metropolitan editor

Directs and supervises personnel engaged in selecting, gathering, and editing local news and news photographs for edition of newspaper: Receives information regarding developing news events or originates story ideas and assigns coverage to members of reporting and photography staff. Reviews news copy and confers with executive staff members regarding allocation of news space. Sends copy to copy desk for editing. Reviews edited copy and sends to EDITOR, NEWS (print. & pub.) or composing room. May write or direct writing of headlines. May hire and discharge members of reporting staff. May perform other editorial duties as required. Designated State Editor (print. & pub.) when working with State news and National Editor (print. & pub.) when working with National news.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.037-018 EDITOR, DEPARTMENT (print. & pub.)

Supervises personnel engaged in selecting, gathering, and editing news and news photographs for one or more specialized news departments of newspaper: May select submitted material such as letters or articles for publication. May assign cartoons or editorials to staff members. May perform duties of REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.). May edit copy and perform related duties as required. Usually identified according to individual specialty or specialties.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.037-022 EDITOR, PUBLICATIONS (print. & pub.)

Formulates policy; plans, coordinates, and directs editorial activities; and supervises workers who assist in selecting and preparing material for publication in magazines, trade journals, house organs, and related publications: Confers with executives, department heads, and editorial staff to formulate policy, coordinate department activities, establish production schedules, solve publication problems, and discuss makeup plans and organizational changes. Determines theme of issue and gathers related material. Writes or assigns staff members or freelance writers to write articles, reports, editorials, reviews, and other material. Reads and evaluates material submitted for publication consideration. Secures graphic material from picture sources and assigns artists and photographers to produce pictures and illustrations. Assigns staff member, or personally interviews individuals and attends gatherings, to obtain items for publication, verify facts, and clarify information. Assigns research and other editorial duties to assistants. Organizes material, plans overall and individual page layouts, and selects type. Marks dummy pages to indicate position and size of printed and graphic material. Reviews final proofs and approves or makes changes. Reviews and evaluates work of staff members and makes recommendations and changes. May perform related editorial duties listed under EDITORIAL ASSISTANT (print. & pub.). May direct activities of production, circulation, or promotion personnel. May prepare news or public relations releases, special brochures, and similar materials. May be designated according to type of publication worked on as Communications Manager (print. & pub.); Editor, Farm Journal (print. & pub.); Editor, House Organ (print. & pub.); Editor, Magazine (print. & pub.); Editor, Trade Journal (print. & pub.); Industrial Editor (print. & pub.).
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.037-026 STORY EDITOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

Selects and secures written material and supervises staff writers who prepare scripts to be used for television or motion picture productions: Reviews and evaluates writers' work developed during previous associations, samples presented by agents, and material received from other sources to select writers and subject material compatible with established styles, concepts, and formats. Recommends purchase of material judged to be suitable in developing scripts. Confers with production head regarding selection of writers and material. Hires, assigns, and supervises writers who prepare scripts for production. Reviews writers' work and gives instruction and direction regarding changes, additions, and corrections. Rewrites, combines, and polishes draft scripts, as necessary, to prepare scripts for production. Reads stories and other material obtained from various sources and evaluates potential for development into scripts. May assign staff members to write synopses, treatments, adaptations, scripts, and continuity when working on motion pictures.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-010 BUREAU CHIEF (print. & pub.)

Directs and coordinates activities of personnel engaged in selecting, gathering, and editing news and news pictures in remote location or foreign country and transmitting to home office of newspaper or press syndicate: May translate dispatches into English or cable language. May perform duties of REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-014 EDITOR, BOOK (print. & pub.)

Secures, selects, and coordinates publication of manuscripts in book form: Reviews submitted manuscript, determines demand based on consumer trends and personal knowledge, and makes recommendations regarding procurement and revision. Confers with author and publisher to arrange purchase and details, such as publication date, royalties, and number of copies to be printed. Coordinates design and production activities. May assign and supervise editorial staff. May contract design and production or personally design and produce book.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-018 EDITOR, DICTIONARY (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: lexicographer

Researches information about words that make up language and writes and reviews definitions for publication in dictionary: Conducts or directs research to discover origin, spelling, syllabication, pronunciation, meaning, and usage of words. Organizes research material and writes dictionary definition. May study or conduct surveys to determine factors, such as frequency of use for a specific word, or word use by particular segment of population in order to select words for inclusion in dictionary. May perform related editorial duties. May select drawings or other graphic material to illustrate word meaning. May specialize in particular type of dictionary, such as medical, electronic, or industrial.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-022 EDITOR, GREETING CARD (print. & pub.)

Selects and edits original sentiments for use on greeting cards: Reads material submitted by freelance and staff writers and determines suitability based on knowledge of market trends, company standards, and personal tastes. Edits material to meet greeting card requirements. Maintains file of sentiments for future use. May write greeting card verses. May supervise writing staff. May design cards. May coordinate activities of art, photographic, and printing staff.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

132.067-026 EDITOR, NEWS (print. & pub.) alternate titles: makeup editor

Plans layout of newspaper edition: Receives news copy, photographs, and dummy page layouts marked to indicate columns occupied by advertising. Confers with management and editorial staff members regarding placement of developing news stories. Determines placement of stories based on relative significance, available space, and knowledge of layout principles. Marks layout sheets to indicate position of each story and accompanying photographs. Approves proofs submitted by composing room. May write or revise headlines. May edit copy. May perform related editorial duties as required.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-030 PROGRAM PROPOSALS COORDINATOR (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: coordinator, program planning

Develops, writes, and edits proposals for new radio or television programs: Reviews program proposals submitted by staff, station and independent producers, and other sources to determine proposal feasibility, based on knowledge of station's programming needs, policy and budgetary considerations, and potential underwriting (funding) sources. Edits proposals, or writes proposals for original program concepts, and submits proposals for review of programming, financial, and other departmental personnel. Participates in selection of researchers, consultants, producers, and on-air personalities to facilitate development of program ideas. Authorizes preparation of budget for final proposals. Maintains liaison between program production department and proposal originators to inform originators of status of accepted projects.
GOE: 11.05.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

132.132-010 ASSIGNMENT EDITOR (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: managing editor

Supervises and coordinates activities of radio or television news gathering staff: Maintains contact with outside news agencies, police and fire departments, and other news sources to obtain information regarding developing news items. Determines priority and assigns coverage to news units. Originates or approves ideas for news features. Confers with DIRECTOR, NEWS (radio-tv broad.) 184.167-014 and department heads to coordinate production activities. Reads and edits news copy to ensure that slanderous, libelous, and profane statements are avoided or deleted. Prepares rundown of news stories and assignment sheets, using computer. Communicates with reporters on assignments, using two-way radio. May direct or participate in writing and editing activities.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

132.267-010 EDITOR, TELEGRAPH (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: editor, wire

Selects and edits state, national, and international news items received by wire from press associations: Corrects errors of spelling and punctuation in telegraph copy. Deletes less important paragraphs, according to importance and amount of space available for story. Issues selected items to EDITOR, NEWS (print. & pub.), with notations of desired length of story in accordance with predetermined space allotment. Monitors teleprinter machines for new leads on important news items received before press time of edition, and reserves space for copy on such items. May select news of local events of national or international interest, and prepare copy to be forwarded to central news associations by wire. May rewrite stories to include information of special interest to subscribers of publication.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

132.267-014 EDITORIAL ASSISTANT (print. & pub.) alternate titles: assistant editor; associate editor

Prepares written material for publication, performing any combination of following duties: Reads copy to detect errors in spelling, punctuation, and syntax. Verifies facts, dates, and statistics, using standard reference sources. Rewrites or modifies copy to conform to publication's style and editorial policy and marks copy for typesetter, using standard symbols to indicate how type should be set. Reads galley and page proofs to detect errors and indicates corrections, using standard proofreading symbols. May confer with authors regarding changes made to manuscript. May select and crop photographs and illustrative materials to conform to space and subject matter requirements. May prepare page layouts to position and space articles and illustrations. May write or rewrite headlines, captions, columns, articles, and stories according to publication requirements. May initiate or reply to correspondence regarding material published or being considered for publication. May read and evaluate submitted manuscripts and be designated Manuscript Reader (print. & pub.). May be designated according to type of publication worked on as Copy Reader (print. & pub.) when working on newspaper; Copy Reader, Book (print. & pub.) when working on books.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

132.367-010 EDITOR, INDEX (print. & pub.) alternate titles: indexer

Prepares indices for books and other publications: Reads material to determine which items should be in index. Arranges topical or alphabetical list of index items, according to page or chapter, indicating location of item in text. Classifies items of topical interest, and inserts cross references in index to refer reader to related subjects appearing elsewhere in text. Directs activities of clerical staff engaged in typing index, filing subject-cards, and performing related duties. May prepare related items, such as glossaries, bibliographies, and explanatory footnotes, following literary style of manuscript author.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with translating spoken or written words from one language into another, and translating spoken language into sign language.

137.137-010 DIRECTOR, TRANSLATION (profess. & kin.)

Directs and coordinates activities of INTERPRETERS (profess. & kin.) and TRANSLATORS (profess. & kin.) engaged in translating spoken passages, documents, and other material from one language to another for business establishments, government agencies, and academic institutions: Studies material, using knowledge of language and linguistics, to determine best qualified personnel for specific projects. Assigns projects to personnel and reviews work for quality. Attends meetings of groups and organizations engaged in international relations to promote translation service. Prepares budget for department and determines allocation of funds. Interviews and selects personnel for staff positions.
GOE: 11.08.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

137.267-010 INTERPRETER (profess. & kin.)

Translates spoken passages from one language into another: Provides consecutive or simultaneous translation between languages. In consecutive interpreting listens to complete statements in one language, translates to second, and translates responses from second into first language. Expresses either approximate or exact translation, depending on nature of occasion. In simultaneous interpreting renders oral translation of material at time it is being spoken, usually hearing material over electronic audio system and broadcasting translation to listeners. Usually receives briefing on subject discussed prior to interpreting session. May be designated according to language or languages interpreted. May specialize in specific subject area.
GOE: 11.08.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

137.267-014 INTERPRETER, DEAF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: translator, deaf

Provides translation between spoken and manual (sign language) communication: Translates spoken material into sign language for understanding of deaf. Interprets sign language of deaf into oral or written language for hearing individuals or others not conversant in sign language. May translate television news and other broadcasts for deaf viewers.
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

137.267-018 TRANSLATOR (profess. & kin.)

Translates documents and other material from one language to another: Reads material and rewrites material in specified language or languages, following established rules pertaining to factors, such as word meanings, sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. May specialize in particular type of material, such as news, legal documents, or scientific reports and be designated accordingly. May be identified according to language translated. May represent or spell characters of another alphabet and be designated Transliterator (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.08.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with writing.

139.087-010 CROSSWORD-PUZZLE MAKER (print. & pub.)

Devises and creates crossword puzzles: Draws form setting up numbered blank squares for insertion of words and black squares to complete design. Fits words, whose spelling coincides vertically and horizontally, into blank areas and composes short definitions numbered correspondingly with matching series of blank squares. Sets up filled puzzle as key to solution. May originate puzzles for specific purposes, such as advertisements or holiday specialities.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

139.167-010 PROGRAM COORDINATOR (amuse. & rec.)

Coordinates activities of amusement park educational department to present educational scripts during animal performances: Reviews educational materials to gather information for scripts. Confers with animal trainer to verify format of performance, and writes script to coincide with performance, or reviews scripts prepared by department researchers for suggested changes in format. Prepares brochures containing information, such as time of performances, theme of performances, and map of park facilities. Reads reservation log to determine information, such as name of visiting groups, size of groups, and time of arrival. Greets visitors, passes out brochures, answers questions, and escorts visitors to site of performance. May introduce trainer to audience and present memorized script during performance over speaker system and be designated Narrator (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 86


This division includes occupations concerned with integrating personal expression, knowledge of subject matter, and art concepts, techniques, and processes to develop ideas and create environments, products, and art works which elicit an emotional or esthetic response. Occupations concerned with teaching are included in Groups 091, 092, and 097. Occupations in performing arts are included in Groups 150, 151, and 152. Occupations in art museums are included in Group 102.


This group includes occupations concerned with designing and executing artwork to promote public consumption of materials, products, or services; influence others in their opinions of individuals or organizations; or illustrate and adorn subject matter. Includes preparing animated cartoons.

141.031-010 ART DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.)

Formulates concepts and supervises workers engaged in executing layout designs for art work and copy to be presented by visual communications media, such as magazines, books, newspapers, television, posters, and packaging: Reviews illustrative material and confers with client or individual responsible for presentation regarding budget, background information, objectives, presentation approaches, styles, techniques, and related production factors. Formulates basic layout design concept and conducts research to select and secure suitable illustrative material, or conceives and assigns production of material and detail to artists and photographers. Assigns and directs staff members to develop design concepts into art layouts and prepare layouts for printing. Reviews, approves, and presents final layouts to client or department head for approval. May perform duties of GRAPHIC DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) to design art layouts. May mark up, paste up, and finish layouts to prepare layouts for printing. May draw illustrations. May prepare detailed story board showing sequence and timing of story development when producing material for television. May specialize in particular field, media, or type of layout.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

141.051-010 COLOR EXPERT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: color consultant; colorist; color specialist

Advises clients relative to fashionable shades and color combinations in paper, paint, draperies, floor coverings, and other permanent installations for furnishing interiors of homes, offices, and other commercial establishments.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.061-010 CARTOONIST (print. & pub.)

Draws cartoons for publications to amuse readers and interpret or illustrate news highlights, advertising, stories, or articles: Develops personal ideas or reads written material to develop ideas from context. Discusses ideas with editor or publisher's representative or sketches cartoon drawing and submits drawing for approval. Makes changes and corrections as necessary and finishes drawing. May develop and draw comic strips. May be designated according to type of cartoons drawn as Editorial Cartoonist (print. & pub.); Sports Cartoonist (print. & pub.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.061-014 FASHION ARTIST (retail trade)

Draws or paints apparel and accessory illustrations for newspaper or related advertisements: Positions garment, accessory, or model to accentuate desired sales features. Renders drawing of garment or accessory, complementary articles, and background, using various art media and materials. May use models, props, and settings to accentuate subject materials. May draw lettering.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.061-018 GRAPHIC DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: layout artist

Designs art and copy layouts for material to be presented by visual communications media such as books, magazines, newspapers, television, and packaging: Studies illustrations and photographs to plan presentation of material, product, or service. Determines size and arrangement of illustrative material and copy, selects style and size of type, and arranges layout based upon available space, knowledge of layout principles, and esthetic design concepts. Draws sample of finished layout and presents sample to ART DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.) 141.031-010 for approval. Prepares notes and instructions for workers who assemble and prepare final layouts for printing. Reviews final layout and suggests improvements as needed. May prepare illustrations or rough sketches of material according to instructions of client or supervisor. May prepare series of drawings to illustrate sequence and timing of story development for television production. May mark up, paste, and assemble final layouts to prepare layouts for printer. May specialize in particular field, medium, or type of layout. May produce still and animated graphic formats for on-air and taped portions of television news broadcasts, using electronic video equipment. May photograph layouts, using camera, to make layout prints for supervisor or client. May develop negatives and prints, using negative and print developing equipment, tools and work aids to produce layout photographs for client or supervisor. May key information into computer equipment to create layouts for client or supervisor.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

141.061-022 ILLUSTRATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: artist; commercial artist; graphic artist

Draws or paints illustrations for use by various media to explain or adorn printed or spoken word: Studies layouts, sketches of proposed illustrations, and related materials to become familiar with assignment. Determines style, technique, and medium best suited to produce desired effects and conform with reproduction requirements, or receives specific instructions regarding these variables. Formulates concept and renders illustration and detail from models, sketches, memory, and imagination. Discusses illustration at various stages of completion and makes changes as necessary. May select type, draw lettering, lay out material, or perform related duties. May be identified according to specific style, technique, medium, subject material or combination of variables. May draw or paint graphic material and lettering to be used for title, background, screen advertising, commercial logo, and other visual layouts for motion picture production and television programming and be designated Title Artist (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.061-026 ILLUSTRATOR, MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: artist, scientific

Creates illustrations, graphics, and three dimensional models to demonstrate medical or biological subjects, using variety of artistic techniques: Develops drawings, paintings, diagrams, and models of medical or biological subjects in fields such as anatomy, physiology, histology, pathology, or in surgical procedures, for use in publications, exhibits, consultations, research, and teaching activities. Completes illustrations in pen and ink, oil, monochromatic wash, watercolor, carbon dust, and mixed media. Constructs or advises in construction of models in plaster, wax, plastics, and other materials. Devises visual aids, such as films, video tapes, charts, and computer graphics, to assist in teaching and research programs.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

141.061-030 ILLUSTRATOR, SET (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: sketch maker

Plans, develops, and prepares illustrations of scenes and backgrounds against which action is filmed for use in motion picture or television production: Reads script, reviews working drawings, conducts research and consults with ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) to develop illustration ideas. Performs duties of ILLUSTRATOR (profess. & kin.) to render illustrations.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

141.061-034 POLICE ARTIST (government ser.) alternate titles: forensic artist

Sketches likenesses of criminal suspects, according to descriptions of victims and witnesses, and prepares schematic drawings depicting scenes of crimes: Interviews crime victims and witnesses to obtain descriptive information concerning physical build, sex, nationality, facial features, and related characteristics of unidentified suspect. Prepares series of simple line drawings conforming to description of suspect and presents drawings to informant for selection of sketch that most resembles suspect. Questions informant to obtain additional descriptive information and draws and verifies details of features to improve resemblance of conception to recollection of informant. Measures distances and sketches layout of crime scene, or develops sketches from photographs and measurements taken at scene of crime by other police personnel to prepare schematic drawing of scene of crime.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

141.061-038 COMMERCIAL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

Creates and designs graphic material for use as ornamentation, illustration, advertising, or cosmetic on manufactured materials and packaging: Receives assignment from customer or supervisor. Studies traditional, period, and contemporary design styles and motifs to obtain perspective. Reviews marketing trends and preferences of target and related markets. Integrates findings with personal interests, knowledge of design, and limitations presented by methods and materials. Creates, draws, modifies, and changes design to achieve desired effect. Confers with customer or supervisor regarding approval or desired changes to design. May be required to have specialized knowledge of material designed. May prepare original artwork and design model. May perform related duties, such as fabricating silk screens, drawing full size patterns, or cutting stencils. May work with specific items, such as signs, packaging, wallpaper, ceramics, tile, glassware, monograms, crests, emblems, or embroidery. See INDUSTRIAL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) 142.061-026 for workers who design both product form and associated graphic materials.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

141.067-010 CREATIVE DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.)

Develops basic presentation approaches and directs layout design and copy writing for promotional material, such as books, magazines, newspapers, television, posters, and packaging: Reviews materials and information presented by client and discusses various production factors to determine most desirable presentation concept. Confers with heads of art, copy writing, and production departments to discuss client requirements and scheduling, outline basic presentation concepts, and coordinate creative activities. Reviews and approves art and copy materials developed by staff and presents final layouts to client for approval.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

141.081-010 CARTOONIST, MOTION PICTURES (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: animated-cartoon artist; animator

Draws animated cartoons for use in motion pictures or television: Renders series of sequential drawings of characters or other subject material which when photographed and projected at specific speed becomes animated. May label each section with designated colors when colors are used. May create and prepare sketches and model drawings of characters. May prepare successive drawings to portray wind, rain, fire, and similar effects and be designated Cartoonist, Special Effects (motion picture; radio-tv broad.). May develop color patterns and moods and paint background layouts to dramatize action for animated cartoon scenes and be designated Cartoon-Background Artist (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.137-010 PRODUCTION MANAGER, ADVERTISING (profess. & kin.)

Coordinates activities of design, illustration, photography, pasteup, and typography personnel to prepare advertisements for publication, and supervises workers engaged in pasting up advertising layouts in art department or studio: Determines arrangement of art work and photographs and selects style and size of type, considering factors such as size of advertisement, design, layout, sketches, and method or printing specified. Submits copy and typography instructions to printing firm or department for typesetting. Reviews proofs of printed copy for conformance to specifications. Assigns personnel to mount printed copy and illustration on final layouts, coordinating assignments with completion of art work to ensure that schedules are maintained. Writes instructions for final margin widths and type sizes, and submits layout for printing. Examines layout proofs for quality of printing and conformance to layout.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


This group includes occupations concerned with designing or arranging objects and materials to achieve aesthetically pleasing and functional effect for apparel, interiors, and other commercial items.

142.031-014 MANAGER, DISPLAY (retail trade)

Develops advertising displays for window or interior use and supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in laying out and assembling displays: Consults with advertising and sales officials to ascertain type of merchandise to be featured and time and place for each display. Develops layout and selects theme, colors, and props to be used. Oversees requisitioning and construction of decorative props from such materials as wood, plastics, paper, and glass. Plans lighting arrangement and selects coloring medium. May design store fixtures. May prepare sketches or floor plans of proposed displays. May develop merchandise displays at special exhibits, such as trade shows.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.051-010 DISPLAY DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: display and banner designer; flag decorator and designer

Designs displays, using paper, cloth, plastic, and other material to decorate streets, fairgrounds, buildings, and other places for celebrations, fairs, and special occasions: Confers with client regarding budget, theme, materials, colors, emblem styles, and related factors. Plans display and sketches rough design for client's approval. Selects stock decorations or directs construction according to design concepts. May construct decorations. May direct and supervise workers who put up decorations. May design, draw, paint, or sketch backgrounds and fixtures made of wood, cardboard, paper, plaster, canvas, or other material for use in windows or interior displays and be designated Display Artist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in designing outdoor displays and be designated Display Designer, Outside (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.051-014 INTERIOR DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

Plans, designs, and furnishes interior environments of residential, commercial, and industrial buildings: Confers with client to determine architectural preferences, purpose and function of environment, budget, types of construction, equipment to be installed, and other factors which affect planning interior environments. Integrates findings with knowledge of interior design and formulates environmental plan to be practical, esthetic, and conducive to intended purposes, such as raising productivity, selling merchandise, or improving life style of occupants. Advises client on interior design factors, such as space planning, layout and utilization of furnishings and equipment, color schemes, and color coordination. Renders design ideas in form of paste ups, drawings, or illustrations, estimates material requirements and costs, and presents design to client for approval. Selects or designs and purchases furnishings, art works, and accessories. Subcontracts fabrication, installation, and arrangement of carpeting, fixtures, accessories, draperies, paint and wall coverings, art work, furniture, and related items. May plan and design interior environments for boats, planes, buses, trains, and other enclosed spaces. May specialize in particular field, style, or phase of interior design. May specialize in decorative aspects of interior design and be designated Interior Decorator (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 85

142.061-010 BANK-NOTE DESIGNER (government ser.)

Designs engraving plate for printing government securities, such as currency, stamps, and bonds, according to preliminary drawings and knowledge of engraving and printing techniques: Examines preliminary sketch of design from government agency desiring to issue new or modified design. Modifies design to conform with technical characteristics and limitations of reproduction, engraving, and printing equipment and to introduce design elements to discourage counterfeiting, using drawing instruments. Selects or suggests colored inks pleasing to eye, consistent with dignity of security and need to discourage counterfeiting. Confers with representatives of issuing agency to obtain design approval. May originate designs and design suggestions for securities.
GOE: 01.06.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-014 CLOTH DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: cloth pattern maker; pattern designer; textile stylist

Originates designs for fabrication of cloth, specifying weave pattern, color, and gauge of thread, to create new fabrics according to functional requirements and fashion preferences of consumers: Develops new ideas for fabrics, utilizing knowledge of textiles and fashion trends. Consults with technical and merchandising staff to obtain design ideas, and to estimate consumer acceptance of new types of fabrics. Sketches designs for patterns on graph paper, using water colors, brushes, pens, and rulers, or prepares written instructions to specify details, such as finish, color, and construction of fabric. Examines fabricated sample on loom and modifies design as required. May be designated according to product designed as Rug Designer (carpet & rug); Woven-Label Designer (narrow fabrics).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.061-018 FASHION DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: clothes designer

Designs men's, women's, and children's clothing and accessories: Analyzes fashion trends and predictions, confers with sales and management executives, compares leather, fabrics, and other apparel materials, and integrates findings with personal interests, tastes, and knowledge of design to create new designs for clothing, shoes, handbags, and other accessories. Sketches rough and detailed drawings of apparel and writes specifications describing factors, such as color scheme, construction, and type of material to be used. Confers with and coordinates activities of workers who draw and cut patterns and construct garments to fabricate sample garment. Examines sample garment on and off model and modifies design as necessary to achieve desired effect. May draw pattern for article designed, using measuring and drawing instruments. May cut patterns. May construct sample, using sewing equipment. May arrange for showing of sample garments at sales meetings or fashion shows. May attend fashion and fabric shows to observe new fashions and materials. May be identified according to specific group designed for, such as men, women, or children or areas of specialization, such as sportswear, coats, dresses, suits, lingerie, or swimwear. May design custom garments for clients and be designated Custom Garment Designer (retail trade). May conduct research and design authentic period, country, or social class costumes to be worn by film, television, concert, stage, and other performers and be designated Costume Designer (profess. & kin.). May design, fabricate, repair, and sell leather articles and be designated Leather Crafter (leather prod.). May design, copy, or modify clothing accessories and be designated according to article designed as Handbag Designer (leather prod.); Hat Designer (hat & cap); or Shoe Designer (boot & shoe).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 78

142.061-022 FURNITURE DESIGNER (furniture)

Designs furniture for manufacture, according to knowledge of design trends, offerings of competition, production costs, capability of production facilities, and characteristics of company's market: Confers with production, design, and sales personnel to obtain design suggestions and customer orders. Evaluates orders and proposals to determine feasibility of producing item. Sketches freehand design of article. Obtains approval from customer, design committee, or authorized company officials, and originates scale or full size drawing, using drawing instruments. Prepares itemized production requirements to produce item. Traces drawing on material for use in production of blueprints, using drawing instruments. Prepares or directs preparation of blueprints containing manufacturing specifications, such as dimensions, kind of wood, and upholstery fabrics to be used in manufacturing article. Attends staff conference with plant personnel to explain and resolve production requirements. May design and prepare detailed drawings of jigs, fixtures, forms, or tools required to be used in production. May plan modifications for completed furniture to conform to changes in design trends and increase customer acceptance. May design custom pieces or styles according to specific period or country. May build or oversee construction of models or prototypes. May design fixtures and equipment, such as counters and display cases, and be designated Fixture Designer (furniture).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.061-026 INDUSTRIAL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

Originates and develops ideas to design the form of manufactured products: Reads publications, attends showings, and consults with engineering, marketing, production, and sales representatives to establish design concepts. Evaluates design ideas based on factors such as appealing appearance, design-function relationships, serviceability, materials and methods engineering, application, budget, price, production costs, methods of production, market characteristics, and client specifications. Integrates findings and concepts and sketches design ideas. Presents design to client or design committee and discusses need for modification and change. May design product packaging and graphics for advertising. May build simulated model, using hand and power tools and various materials. May prepare illustrations. May prepare or coordinate preparation of working drawings from sketches and design specifications. May design products for custom applications. May be required to have specialized product knowledge. Usually specializes in specific product or type of product including, but not limited to hardware, motor vehicle exteriors and interiors, scientific instruments, industrial equipment, luggage, jewelry, housewares, toys, or novelties and is designated accordingly.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.061-030 MEMORIAL DESIGNER (stonework)

Designs and builds plaster models of monuments, statues, and memorials: Interviews customer to obtain information regarding size, style, and motif of memorial. Draws sketches and detailed plans of memorial according to customer's suggestions. Casts plaster block and carves design in block, using chisels, mallets, knives, and files to form model of memorial. Routes finished model and work order specifications to STONE CARVER (stonework). May draw detailed sketches or plans of family burial plots. May build models of cemeteries used as displays.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.061-034 ORNAMENTAL-METALWORK DESIGNER (struct. metal) alternate titles: art-metal designer

Designs ornamental metal items, such as grills, lattice work, statuary, railings, displays, plaques, and light fixtures, and tooling for fabrication, utilizing knowledge of properties of metal, fabrication techniques, principles of design, and artistic talent: Analyzes sketches or observes and measures physical surroundings prior to installation. Selects designs from pattern book, alters or originates designs according to customer specifications. Draws detail sketches and prescribes fabricating techniques. Forges tools, such as peening hammers, bending jigs, and scroll forms, using forge, machine tools, welding equipment, and hand forming tools. May sculpture plastic patterns to form molding castings. Builds products from original design or working models [ORNAMENTAL-METAL WORKER (metal prod., nec)]. May prescribe colors for painted parts.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-038 SAFETY-CLOTHING-AND-EQUIPMENT DEVELOPER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: protective-clothing-and-equipment specialist

Designs safety clothing and equipment to protect personnel against hazards, such as fire and toxic fumes: Consults with employers and technical personnel to determine safety problem involved. Designs clothing and equipment, such as suits, helmets, and gloves, incorporating such devices as mechanical breathing apparatus and communication systems to meet specific hazards. Drafts pattern of garment parts on pattern paper in full scale, using ruler, drawing instruments, and pattern blocks, and cuts material to make first pattern. Gives instructions to workers engaged in cutting material and assembling sample garment. May estimate cost of production.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-042 SET DECORATOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

Selects decorations and coordinates activities of workers who decorate sets for motion picture or television production: Reads script to determine decoration requirements. Selects furniture, draperies, pictures, lamps, and rugs for decorative quality and appearance on film. Gives directions to GRIP (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) in placing items on set. Examines dressed sets to ensure props and scenery do not interfere with movements of cast or view of camera.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-046 SET DESIGNER (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

Designs motion picture or television production sets, signs, props, or scenic effects, and prepares scale drawings for use in construction, modification, or alteration: Confers with ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 142.061-062 and reviews illustrations to determine set requirements and discuss preliminary design ideas. Integrates requirements and concepts to conceive set design. Prepares rough draft and scale working drawings of set [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Presents drawings for approval and makes changes and corrections as directed. May design miniature motion picture or television production sets used in filming backgrounds, titles, and special effects and be designated Miniature Set Designer (motion picture; radio-tv broad.). May purchase construction materials and ready made props to ensure availability for use by freelance workers. May schedule times television production sets and props are to be used, and coordinate setup and storage of television production sets and props.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

142.061-050 SET DESIGNER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: scenic designer; theatrical-scenic designer

Designs sets for theatrical productions: Confers with play's director regarding interpretation and set requirements. Conducts research to determine appropriate architectural and furnishing styles. Integrates requirements, interpretation, research, design concepts, and practical considerations regarding factors, such as mobility, interchangeability, and budget to plan sets. Renders drawing or illustration of design concept, estimates costs, and presents drawing for approval. Prepares working drawings of floor plan, front elevation, scenery, and properties to be constructed. Prepares charts to indicate where items, such as curtains and borders are to be hung. Oversees building of sets, furniture, and properties. May build scale models from cardboard, plaster, or sponge. May design stage lighting to achieve dramatic or decorative effects.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-054 STAINED GLASS ARTIST (profess. & kin.)

Creates original stained glass designs and artwork, draws cartoons (full size working drawings), and prepares glass for fabrication into windows, art objects, and other decorative articles: Consults client regarding theme and subject to be portrayed. Studies style of building architecture and shape of windows to plan conforming design. Integrates knowledge of glass cutting, stresses, portraiture, symbolism, heraldry, ornamental styles, and related factors with functional requirements to conceptualize design idea. Renders illustration of design and detail, estimates costs, and presents to client for approval. Prepares full size, detailed color cartoon indicating size, shape, shading, and detail of individual glass pieces. Transfers cartoon into pattern, selects colored glass, and cuts glass according to pattern. Assembles cut pieces into design pattern and waxes pieces in place to secure glass for painting. Paints artwork and detail on glass, using artist's brushes and ground glass mixed with enamel, and copper or iron oxide. Stains back of glass pieces prior to or after firing. Fires glass to fuse and stabilize colors. May assemble, lead, and solder finished glass to fabricate designed article. May install finished window in window frame or door. May restore damaged or broken stained glass objects. May only design, paint, or draw cartoons.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-058 EXHIBIT DESIGNER (museums)

Plans, designs, and oversees construction and installation of permanent and temporary exhibits and displays: Confers with administrative, curatorial, and exhibit staff members to determine theme, content, interpretative or informational purpose, and planned location of exhibit, to discuss budget, promotion, and time limitations, and to plan production schedule for fabrication and installation of exhibit components. Prepares preliminary drawings of proposed exhibit, including detailed construction, layout, and special effect diagrams and material specifications, for final drawing rendition by other personnel, basing design and specifications on knowledge of artistic and technical concepts, principles, and techniques. Submits plan for approval, and adapts plan as needed to serve intended purpose or to conform to budget or fabrication restrictions. Oversees preparation of artwork and construction of exhibit components to ensure intended interpretation of concepts and conformance to structural and material specifications. Arranges for acquisition of specimens or graphics or building of exhibit structures by outside contractors as needed to complete exhibit. Inspects installed exhibit for conformance to specifications and satisfactory operation of special effects components. Oversees placement of collection objects or informational materials in exhibit framework.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

142.061-062 ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

Formulates design concepts, selects locations and settings, and directs and coordinates set design, construction, and erection activities to produce sets for motion picture and television productions: Reads script and confers with heads of production and direction to establish budget, schedules, and determine setting requirement. Conducts research and consults experts to establish architectural styles which accurately depict given periods and locations. Conducts search for suitable locations and constructed sets. Assigns assistants and staff members to complete design ideas and prepare sketches, illustrations, and detailed drawings of sets. Directs design and production of graphics or animation to produce graphics or animation for on-air programs. Estimates construction costs and presents plans and estimates for approval. Directs and coordinates set construction, erection, and decoration activities to ensure that they conform to design, budget, and schedule requirements. Reviews budget and expenditures reports to monitor costs. May make rough drawings of design concepts. May formulate design concepts for costumes, makeup, photographic effects, titles, and related production items.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

142.081-010 FLORAL DESIGNER (retail trade) alternate titles: florist

Designs and fashions live, cut, dried, and artificial floral and foliar arrangements for events, such as holidays, anniversaries, weddings, balls, and funerals: Confers with client regarding price and type of arrangement desired. Plans arrangement according to client's requirements and costs, utilizing knowledge of design and properties of materials, or selects appropriate standard design pattern. Selects flora and foliage necessary for arrangement. Trims material and arranges bouquets, sprays, wreaths, dish gardens, terrariums, and other items, using wire, pins, floral tape, foam, trimmers, cutters, shapers, and other materials and tools. May decorate buildings, halls, churches, or other facilities where events are planned. May pack and wrap completed arrangements. May estimate costs and price arrangements. May conduct classes or demonstrations. May instruct and direct other workers. May arrange according to standard designs or under instruction of designer and be designated Floral Arranger (retail trade).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

142.081-014 FUR DESIGNER (fur goods)

Designs or redesigns custom and commercial fur garments: Analyzes fashion trends and predictions and confers with client or sales and management executives regarding design ideas. Sketches design on paper to make or restyle garment, utilizing knowledge of various kinds of fur, techniques for handling fur, and fashion trends. Obtains customer measurements, using tape measure. Draws pattern on paper according to customer measurements and cuts out pattern. Lays pattern on canvas and cuts out material, using scissors. Sews together sections of canvas to form mockup of garment. Fits mockup on customer and makes necessary alterations. Directs workers engaged in cutting and sewing garment. Examines completed garments for defects. May estimate cost of restyling or of making new garment.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.081-018 PACKAGE DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

Designs containers for products, such as foods, beverages, toiletries, cigarettes, and medicines: Confers with representatives of engineering, marketing, management, and other departments to determine packaging requirements and type of product market. Sketches design of container for specific product, considering factors, such as convenience in handling and storing, distinctiveness for identification by consumer, and simplicity to minimize production costs. Renders design, including exterior markings and labels, using paints and brushes. Typically fabricates model in paper, wood, glass, plastic, or metal, depending on material to be used in package. Makes changes or modifications required by approving authority.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.281-010 COPYIST (garment)

Gathers information on current trends in garment styling and sketches representations of competitors' garments, such as dresses, coats, and trousers: Attends garment fashion shows, concerts, and other public activities and reviews garment magazines and manuals to obtain information concerning style trends, consumer preferences, and price ranges. Sketches garments in pencil, crayon, or other medium to illustrate such details as garment style and type of fabric. May design original garments, incorporating features of observed garments.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with photographing people, events, fictionalized scenes, materials, and products with still or motion-picture cameras. Includes conceiving artistic photographic effects and arranging and preparing subject matter.

143.062-010 DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: camera operator, first; camera operator, head; cinematographer

Plans, directs, and coordinates motion picture filming: Confers with DIRECTOR, MOTION PICTURE (motion picture) regarding interpretation of scene and desired effects. Observes set or location and reviews drawings and other information relating to natural or artificial conditions to determine filming and lighting requirements. Reads charts and computes ratios to determine required lighting, film, shutter angles, filter factors, camera distance, depth of field and focus, angles of view, and other variables to produce desired effects. Confers with ELECTRICIAN, CHIEF (motion picture) to establish lighting requirements. Selects cameras, accessories, equipment, and film stock, utilizing knowledge of filming techniques, filming requirements, and computations. Instructs camera operators regarding camera setup, angles, distances, movement, and other variables and signals cues for starting and stopping filming. Surveys set or location for potential problems, observes effects of lighting, measures lighting levels, and coordinates necessary changes prior to filming. Views film after processing and makes adjustments, as necessary, to achieve desired effects. May direct television productions which utilize electronic cameras. May specialize in special effects and be designated Director Of Photography, Special Effects (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

143.062-014 PHOTOGRAPHER, AERIAL (profess. & kin.)

Photographs segments of earth and other subject material from aircraft to produce pictures used in surveying, mapping, volumetric surveying, or related purposes, such as recording effects of pollution or natural disasters, determining condition of crops and timberland, and planning cities or other large scale projects: Sets up and mounts camera in aircraft. Confers with pilot regarding plotted course, speed, altitude, and area to be photographed. Communicates with pilot during flight to ensure adherence to flight plan or make adjustments to equipment to compensate for changes. Calculates number of exposures and time lapse between them, using standard formulas to determine requirements for adequate area coverage. Adjusts camera shutter speed, lens aperture opening, and focus. Adjusts automatic exposure interval on camera equipped with time lapse control or times intervals with stopwatch and manually trips shutter. Maintains camera in level position and oriented to flight path when making photographs for mapping or surveying. May match individual photographs to form terrain map of photographed area.
GOE: 01.06.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

143.062-018 PHOTOGRAPHER, APPRENTICE (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: commercial photographer apprentice; portrait photographer apprentice

Performs duties as described under APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

143.062-022 CAMERA OPERATOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

Photographs various subjects and subject material, using motion picture, television broadcasting, or video recording cameras and equipment, utilizing knowledge of motion picture, television broadcasting, or video recording techniques, limitations, and advantages to photograph scenes: Resolves problems presented by exposure control, subject and camera movement, changes in subject distance during filming, and related variables. May receive directives from PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.) 159.117-010 or DIRECTOR, TELEVISION (radio-tv broad.) 159.067-014 over headset. May set up and operate dollies, cranes, camera mounting heads, power zooms, and related motion picture, television broadcasting, or video recording equipment and accessories. May maintain or repair equipment and accessories. May specialize in particular subject material or field, such as medical, scientific, news, or commercial. May photograph action on motion picture or television sets and locations, using shoulder held camera, and be designated Camera Operator, Second (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) or photograph special effects and be designated Camera Operator, Special Effects (motion picture; radio-tv broad.). May specialize in operation of television cameras and be designated Camera Operator, Television (radio-tv broad.). May specialize in operation of motion picture cameras and be designated Photographer, Motion Picture (motion picture).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

143.062-026 PHOTOGRAPHER, SCIENTIFIC (profess. & kin.)

Photographs variety of subject material to illustrate or record scientific data or phenomena, utilizing knowledge of scientific procedures and photographic technology and techniques: Plans methods and procedures for photographing subject material and setup of equipment required, such as microscopes, telescopes, infrared or ultraviolet lighting, and x ray. Sets up and positions camera for photographing material or subject. Trips shutter to expose film. May prepare microscope slides. May make photographic copies of fragile documents and other material. May engage in research to develop new photographic procedures, methods, and materials. May process film and photographic paper to produce transparencies, prints, slides, and motion picture film. Usually specializes in specific field, such as chemistry, biology, medicine, metallurgy, physiology, astronomy, aerodynamics, ballistics, or engineering and is designated accordingly.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

143.062-030 PHOTOGRAPHER, STILL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: commercial photographer

Photographs subjects, using still cameras, color or black-and-white film, and variety of photographic accessories: Selects and assembles equipment according to subject material, anticipated conditions, and knowledge of function and limitations of various types of cameras, lenses, films, and accessories. Views subject and setting and plans composition, camera position, and camera angle to produce desired effect. Arranges subject material, poses subject, or maneuvers into position to take candid photo. Estimates or measures light level, using light meter or creates artificial lighting with flash units, lights, and lighting equipment. Adjusts lens aperture and shutter speed based on combination of factors, such as lighting, depth of field, subject motion, and film speed. Determines subject-to-lens distance, using tape measure, range finder, ground glass, or reflex viewing system to adjust focus. Positions camera and trips shutter to expose film. May calculate variables, such as exposure time, exposure interval, filter effect, and color temperature using tables, standard formulas, and mechanical or electronic measuring instruments. May make adjustments to camera, lens, or equipment to compensate for factors, such as distorted perspective and parallax. May design, build, arrange, or secure properties and settings to be used as background for subject material. May direct activities of other workers. May mix chemicals, process film and photographic paper, and make contact and enlarged prints. May spot and retouch prints and negatives. May conceive and plan photographic sequence for effective presentation. May specialize in particular type of photography, such as illustrative, fashion, architectural, or portrait. May be required to have detailed knowledge of use and characteristics of various types of film, including specialty films, such as infrared.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

143.062-034 PHOTOJOURNALIST (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: photographer, news

Photographs newsworthy events, locations, people, or other illustrative or educational material for use in publications or telecasts, using still cameras: Travels to assigned location and takes pictures. Develops negatives and prints film. Submits negatives and pictures to editorial personnel. Usually specializes in one phase of photography, as news, sports, special features, or as freelance photographer.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

143.260-010 OPTICAL-EFFECTS-CAMERA OPERATOR (motion picture)

Sets up and operates optical printers and related equipment to produce fades, dissolves, superimpositions, and other optical effects required in motion pictures, applying knowledge of optical effects printing and photography: Reads work order and count sheet to ascertain optical effects specifications and location of subject material on original photography film. Analyzes specifications to determine work procedures, sequence of operations, and machine setup, using knowledge of optical effects techniques and procedures. Loads camera of optical effects printer with magazine of unexposed film stock. Mounts original photography film in transport and masking mechanism of optical-printer projector and moves film into designated position for optical effect, using counter and film markings to determine placement. Adjusts camera position, lens position, mask opening, lens aperture, focus, shutter angle, film transport speed, and related controls, using precision measuring instruments and knowledge of optical effects techniques to determine settings. Selects designated color and neutral density filters and mounts in filter holder to control light and intensity. Sets controls in automatic or manual mode, moves control to start camera, and observes printer operation and footage counter during filming. Adjusts controls during filming operation when operating in manual mode, and stops camera when designated counter reading is observed. Moves controls to rewind camera film and original photography film and repeats select portions or entire operation number of times necessary to produce designated effect. Sets up and operates animation and matte cameras and related equipment to photograph artwork, such as titles and painted mattes. Sets up and operates single pass optical printers when enlarging or reducing film or performing related operations. Sets up and operates subtitle camera and related equipment to photograph film subtitles. Examines frames of film exposed with different combinations of color filters (wedges) to select optimum color balance based on experience and judgment.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

143.362-010 BIOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

Photographs medical, biological, and allied phenomena to provide illustrations for scientific publications, records, and research and teaching activities: Makes still and motion picture reproductions of patients, anatomical structures, gross and microscopic specimens, plant and animal tissues, and physiological and pathological processes. Makes copies of x rays and similar materials, utilizing photographic techniques, such as time-lapse and ultraspeed pictures, and ultraviolet or infrared light to produce visible record of normally invisible phenomena. Processes photosensitive materials to make transparencies, lantern slides, photomontages, and color prints. Engages in research activities related to biological photography and presentation of scientific data. May design special equipment and processing formulas. May specialize in a particular technique, such as cinematography, color photography, or photomicrography. May specialize in a particular field, such as medicine, and be designated Medical Photographer (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

143.362-014 OPHTHALMIC PHOTOGRAPHER (medical ser.)

Photographs medical phenomena of eye to document diseases, surgeries, treatments, and congenital problems, to aid OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-058 in diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders: Focuses specialized microscope and cameras to take two- and three-dimensional photographs of external, anterior, and posterior segments of eye. Monitors patient's gaze through lens of microscope and camera to ensure that patient complies with instructions to obtain desired results. Selects filters to modify light. Injects contrast medium into vein of patient and photographs fluorescent dye as it flows through retina or iris vessels to obtain angiogram of eye. Develops exposed film, and mounts and labels slides for inclusion on patient's medical chart. May photograph eye to document research studies.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

143.382-010 CAMERA OPERATOR, ANIMATION (motion picture)

Operates special camera to make animated cartoon motion picture films: Places background drawing on horizontal easel over which camera is suspended. Positions transparent celluloid slide on which animation has been drawn over background and covers it with glass plate. Exposes frame of motion picture film and repeats process, using next drawing in animation sequence. Regulates exposure and aperture to obtain special effects, such as fade out or fade-ins.
GOE: 05.10.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

143.382-014 PHOTOGRAPHER, FINISH (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: photo-finish photographer

Operates photographic equipment to photograph finish of horse race: Loads film into camera and advances to picture taking position. Sights camera on finish line and adjusts exposure controls and focus. Observes race and starts camera as horses approach finish line. Stops camera after last horse has crossed finish line. Removes exposed film from camera and places it into film-developing machine that automatically develops film. Prints and enlarges photographs used to determine winner of race when finish is close.
GOE: 05.10.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

143.457-010 PHOTOGRAPHER (amuse. & rec.)

Persuades nightclub and restaurant patrons to pose for pictures and operates camera to photograph them: Carries camera and flashbulb equipment to tables and solicits customers' patronage. Adjusts camera and photographs customers. Takes exposed film to darkroom on premises for immediate processing by DEVELOPER (photofinishing). Returns to customers with finished photographs or proofs and writes orders for additional prints selected. Receives payment for photographs. May use camera which produces instant picture.
GOE: 08.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M1 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with creating fine arts works whose primary purpose is to be viewed for esthetic content. The major factor distinguishing occupations in this group from those in commercial art is the retention of responsibility for selection of theme, subject matter, medium, and manner of execution.

144.061-010 PAINTER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: artist

Paints variety of original subject material, such as landscapes, portraits, still lifes, and abstracts, using watercolors, oils, acrylics, tempera, or other paint medium: Conceives and develops ideas for painting, based on assignment, personality, interests, and knowledge of painting methods and techniques. Applies color medium to canvas or other surface, using brushes, pallet knives, and various other artist's tools and equipment. Integrates and develops visual elements, such as line, space, mass, color, and perspective to produce desired effect. May make preliminary sketch of painting. May coat finished painting with varnish or other preservative. May paint in particular style, such as realism, impressionism, naturalism, or regionalism. May specialize in particular media, or subject material. May teach painting [TEACHER, ART (education)]. May work in other art mediums, such as etching, drawing, or sculpture. May be identified according to specialization, style, media, technique, or subject matter. May paint scenic backgrounds, murals, portraiture, and other items for use on motion picture and television production sets and be designated Scenic Artist (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

144.061-014 PRINTMAKER (profess. & kin.)

Conceives and develops drawings and other art work and prepares printmaking medium used to print fine arts graphics: Determines printmaking method, such as recessed (intaglio), raised (relief), or flat (lithograph), which will be most effective to reproduce conceived art work. Renders art work on stone, metal, wood, linoleum, or other material, using various tools, procedures, and processes to etch, engrave, carve, paint, draw, or perform some similar operation, utilizing knowledge of art and printing to prepare image capable of being transferred. Inks surface of medium and transfers image to paper, using hand or machine press. Examines proofs and makes corrections to art work, if necessary. Approves and signs final proof. May prepare preliminary sketches. May use photographic or silk screen process to produce image. May use any suitable textured surface for printmaking medium. May use more than one process on single graphic. May print entire edition or instruct other workers to print it. May teach printmaking.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

144.061-018 SCULPTOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: statue maker

Designs and constructs three-dimensional art works, utilizing any combination of mediums, methods, and techniques: Carves objects from stone, concrete, plaster, wood, or other material, using abrasives, chisels, gouges, mallets, and other handtools and power tools. Models plastic substance, such as clay or wax, using fingers and small handtools to form objects which may be cast in bronze or concrete, or fired to harden objects. Constructs artistic forms from metal or stone, using metalworking, welding, or masonry tools and equipment. Cuts, bends, laminates, arranges, and fastens individual or mixed raw and manufactured materials and products to form art works. Usually works under contract or commission. May teach sculpturing [TEACHER, ART (education)]. May specialize in one technique or medium and be identified accordingly.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with art.

149.021-010 TEACHER, ART (education) alternate titles: art instructor

Instructs pupils in art, such as painting, sketching, designing, and sculpturing: Prepares lesson plans and establishes course goals. Selects books and art supplies for courses. Demonstrates method and procedure to pupils. Observes and evaluates pupils' work to determine student progress or to make suggestions for improvement. Confers with student, parent, and counselor to resolve student problem. Accompanies students on field trips to museums or art galleries. May specialize in teaching one or more areas of art, such as illustration, art history, or commercial art. May direct planning and supervision of student contests and arranging of art exhibits. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state. May be designated according to subject taught as Instructor, Illustration (education); Instructor, Industrial Design (education).
GOE: 01.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

149.031-010 SUPERVISOR, SCENIC ARTS (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

Creates layouts of scenery and backdrops for motion picture and television sets according to instructions, and supervises and coordinates activities of artists who paint them: Confers with ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 142.061-062 regarding details of background against which action is to be photographed. Directs preparation of sketches and designs or assigns work based on illustrations received from ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.). Computes amount of surface to be covered by specific color scheme in proportion to its application in scene. Requisitions paint and materials. Estimates costs of paints and other materials, using price lists and records of previous productions, to prepare budget. Estimates number of workers and time required to complete project. May prepare sketches or work drawings, including coloring details of scenery.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

149.041-010 QUICK SKETCH ARTIST (amuse. & rec.)

Sketches likeness of customers: Poses subject to accentuate most pleasing features and draws likeness, using pencil, charcoal, pastels, or other medium. May draw sketch from photograph. May only draw exaggerated likenesses and be designated Caricaturist (amuse. & rec.). May be identified according to medium worked in.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M1 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

149.051-010 SILHOUETTE ARTIST (amuse. & rec.)

Cuts silhouettes of customers: Poses subject to present pleasing profile and cuts freehand outline of profile from paper (silhouette). Glues silhouette on paper of contrasting color or mounts silhouette in frame or folder. May draw profile prior to cutting it. May cut profile from photograph. May use strong lights adjusted to cast subject's shadow on backdrop as aid in viewing subject's profile.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M1 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

149.061-010 AUDIOVISUAL PRODUCTION SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: instructional technology specialist

Plans and produces audio, visual, and audiovisual material for communication and learning: Develops production ideas based on assignment or generates own ideas based on objectives and personal interest. Conducts research or utilizes knowledge and training to determine format, approach, content, level, and medium which will be most effective, meet objectives, and remain within budget. Plans and develops, or directs assistants to develop, preproduction ideas into outlines, scripts, continuity, story boards, and graphics. Executes, or directs assistants to execute, rough and finished graphics and graphic designs. Locates and secures settings, properties, effects, and other production necessities. Directs and coordinates activities of assistants and other personnel during production. May review, evaluate, and direct modifications to material produced independently by other personnel. May set up, adjust, and operate equipment, such as cameras, sound mixers, and recorders during production. May perform narration or present announcements. May construct and place in position properties, sets, lighting equipment, and other equipment. May develop manuals, texts, workbooks, or related materials for use in conjunction with production materials. May conduct training sessions on selection, use, and design of audiovisual materials, and operation of presentation equipment. May perform duties listed under DIRECTOR, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (education) 099.167-018.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

149.261-010 EXHIBIT ARTIST (museums)

Produces artwork for use in permanent or temporary exhibit settings of museum, zoo, or similar establishment, performing any combination of following duties to prepare exhibit setting and accessories for installation: Confers with professional museum personnel to discuss objectives of exhibits and type of artwork needed. Makes scale drawing of exhibit design, indicating size, position, and general outlines of artwork needed for use of installation and other fabrication personnel. Paints scenic, panoramic, or abstract composition on canvas, board, burlap, or other material to be used as background or component of exhibit, following layout prepared by designer. Paints or stencils exhibit titles and legends on boards, or cuts letters from plastic or plywood to form title and legend copy, and mounts letters on panel or board, using adhesives or handtools. Photographs persons, artifacts, scenes, plants, or other objects, and develops negatives to obtain prints to be used in exhibits. Enlarges, intensifies, or otherwise modifies prints, according to exhibit design specifications. Fashions exhibit accessories, such as human figures, tree parts, or relief maps, from clay, plastic, wood, fiberglass, papier mache, or other materials, using hands, handtools, or molding equipment to cut, carve, scrape, mold, or otherwise shape material to specified dimensions. Brushes or sprays protective or decorative finish on completed background panels, informational legends, and exhibit accessories. Maintains files of photographs, paintings, and accessories for use in exhibits.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

149.281-010 FURNITURE REPRODUCER (furniture)

Prepares working drawings and templates of antique or custom furniture to facilitate reproduction: Draws sketches of piece, freehand or with drawing instruments. Measures piece with rule and calipers and notes dimensions on drawing. Makes detailed drawing of joints, carvings, and milled sections for shop use [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.)]. Traces or draws outlines of parts on plywood or cardboard and cuts out part along outline to make template. Marks templates to indicate name of part, type of construction, variety of wood, and finish. May make drawings from pictures when models are not available.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This division includes occupations concerned with amusing, diverting, or informing others by such means as sound or physical movement. Includes teaching these skills (except occupations in primary, secondary, and vocational schools which are included in Groups 091, 092, and 097).


This group includes occupations concerned with interpreting roles to audiences in dramatic productions or readings.

150.027-010 DRAMATIC COACH (profess. & kin.)

Coaches performers in acting techniques: Conducts reading to evaluate performer's acting ability. Adapts training methods to improve and develop performer's competence. Coaches performers in camera or stage techniques, script analysis, voice projection, and character interpretation, to prepare them for stage, motion picture, or television production. Advises clients regarding wardrobe, grooming, and audition methods, to prepare them for professional contacts. May be designated according to area of specialization as Screen Coach (profess. & kin.); Theater Coach (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

150.027-014 TEACHER, DRAMA (education) alternate titles: instructor, dramatic arts; teacher, dramatics; teacher, theater arts

Teaches acting principles and techniques to individuals or groups: Conducts readings to evaluate student's talent. Adapts course of study and training methods to meet student's need and ability. Teaches enunciation, diction, voice development, and dialects, using voice exercises, speech drills, explanation, lectures, and improvisation. Discusses and demonstrates vocal and body expression to teach acting styles, character development, and personality projection. Produces and directs plays for school and public performances. Auditions students to select cast and assign parts. Rehearses and drills students to ensure they master parts. Assigns nonperforming students to backstage production tasks, such as constructing, painting, moving scenery, operating stage light, and sound equipment. May direct activities of students involved in constructing, painting, and lighting scenery. May teach elements of stagecraft, stage makeup, costume craft, play writing, or play direction.
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

150.047-010 ACTOR (amuse. & rec.)

Portrays role in dramatic production to interpret character or present characterization to audience: Rehearses part to learn lines and cues as directed. Interprets serious or comic role by speech, gesture, and body movement to entertain or inform audience for stage, motion picture, television, radio, or other media production. May write or adapt own material. May dance and sing. May direct self and others in production [DIRECTOR, MOTION PICTURE (motion picture); DIRECTOR, STAGE (amuse. & rec.)]. May read from script or book, utilizing minimum number of stage properties and relying mainly on changes of voice and inflection to hold audience's attention and be designated Dramatic Reader (amuse. & rec.). May be designated according to gender of worker or type of role portrayed as Actress (amuse. & rec.); Character Actor (amuse. & rec.); Character Actress (amuse. & rec.); Ingenue (amuse. & rec.); Juvenile (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

150.067-010 DIRECTOR, STAGE (amuse. & rec.)

Interprets script, directs technicians, and conducts rehearsals to create stage presentation: Confers with PLAYWRIGHT (profess. & kin.) and PRODUCER (amuse. & rec.) to discuss script changes. Confers with MANAGER, STAGE (amuse. & rec.) to coordinate production plans. Rehearses cast in individual roles to elicit best possible performance. Suggests changes, such as voice and movement, to develop performance based on script interpretation and using knowledge of acting techniques. Approves scenic and costume designs, sound, special effects, and choreography. May select cast. May select SET DESIGNER (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

150.147-010 NARRATOR (motion picture) alternate titles: motion-picture commentator

Makes explanatory comments to accompany action parts of motion picture: Reads from script and speaks into microphone as film is being projected, timing comments to fit action portrayed. May write script.
GOE: 01.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the interpretation of ideas through rhythmic expression.

151.027-010 CHOREOGRAPHER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: director, dance

Creates and teaches original dances for ballet, musical, or revue to be performed for stage, television, motion picture, or nightclub production: Composes dance designed to suggest story, interpret emotion, or enliven show, coordinating dance with music. Instructs performers at rehearsals to achieve desired effect. May audition performers for specific parts. May direct and stage presentation.
GOE: 01.05.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

151.027-014 INSTRUCTOR, DANCING (education) alternate titles: professor, dance; teacher, dancing

Instructs pupils in ballet, ballroom, tap, and other forms of dancing: Observes students to determine physical and artistic qualifications and limitations and plans programs to meet students' needs and aspirations. Explains and demonstrates techniques and methods of regulating movements of body to musical or rhythmic accompaniment. Drills pupils in execution of dance steps. May teach history of dance. May teach theory and practice of dance notation. May choreograph and direct dance performance. May be designated according to style of dancing taught as Instructor, Ballroom Dancing (education); Instructor, Tap Dancing (education); Teacher, Ballet (education). May be employed by ballet company to train corps de ballet and be designated Ballet Master/Mistress (education).
GOE: 01.05.01 STRENGTH: H GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 80

151.047-010 DANCER (amuse. & rec.)

Dances alone, with partner, or in group to entertain audience: Performs classical, modern, or acrobatic dances, coordinating body movements to musical accompaniment. Rehearses dance movements developed by CHOREOGRAPHER (amuse. & rec.). May choreograph own dance. May sing and provide other forms of entertainment. May specialize in particular style of dancing and be designated according to specialty as Acrobatic Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Ballet Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Ballroom Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Belly Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Chorus Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Interpretative Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Strip-Tease Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Tap Dancer (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.05.02 STRENGTH: H GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with the composition, arrangement, rendition, or direction of instrumental or vocal music.

152.021-010 TEACHER, MUSIC (education) alternate titles: music instructor

Teaches individuals or groups instrumental or vocal music in public or private school: Plans daily classroom work based on teaching outline prepared for course of study to meet curriculum requirements. Evaluates students' interests, aptitudes, temperament, and individual characteristics to determine suitable instrument for beginner. Sings or plays instrument to demonstrate musical scales, tones, and rhythm. Instructs students in music theory, harmony, score and sight reading, composition, music appreciation, and provides individual or group vocal and instrumental lessons using technical knowledge, aesthetic appreciation, and prescribed teaching techniques. Conducts group rehearsals and instructs and coaches members in their individual parts, in fundamentals of musicianship, and ensemble performance. Critiques performance to identify errors and reinforce correct techniques. Leads orchestra and choral groups in regular and special performances for school program, community activities, concerts, and festivals. Meets with parents of student to resolve student problem. May accompany students on field trips to musical performances. May order, store, and inventory musical instruments, music, and supplies. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state. May be designated Teacher, Instrumental (education); Teacher, Vocal (education).
GOE: 01.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

152.041-010 MUSICIAN, INSTRUMENTAL (amuse. & rec.)

Plays musical instrument as soloist or as member of musical group, such as orchestra or band, to entertain audience: Studies and rehearses music to learn and interpret score. Plays from memory or by following score. May transpose music to play in alternate key. May improvise. May compose. May play instrument to signal activity, such as flag raising, post time, or arrival of dignitaries at sporting or other events. May be designated according to instrument played as Calliope Player (amuse. & rec.); Drummer (amuse. & rec.); Harpist (amuse. & rec.); Organist (amuse. & rec.); Pianist (amuse. & rec.); Violinist (amuse. & rec.). May accompany soloist or another MUSICIAN, INSTRUMENTAL (amuse. & rec.) and be designated Accompanist (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.04.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L3 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.047-010 CHORAL DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: choir leader;

Conducts vocal music groups, such as choirs and glee clubs: Auditions and selects members of group. Selects music to suit performance requirements and accommodate talent and ability of group. Directs group at rehearsals and performance to achieve desired effects, such as tonal and harmonic balance, dynamics, rhythm, tempo, and shading, utilizing knowledge of conducting techniques and music theory. May schedule tours and performances and arrange for transportation and lodging. May transcribe musical compositions and melodic lines to adapt them to or create particular style for group [ARRANGER (profess. & kin.)]. May conduct group with instrumental accompaniment [CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.)].
GOE: 01.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.047-014 CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: band leader; director, music; orchestra leader

Conducts instrumental music groups, such as orchestras and dance bands: Auditions and selects members of group. Selects music to accommodate talents and abilities of group and to suit type of performance to be given. Positions members within group to obtain balance among instrumental sections. Directs group at rehearsals and performances to achieve desired effects, such as tonal and harmonic balance, dynamics, rhythms, tempos, and shadings, utilizing knowledge of conducting techniques, music theory and harmony, range and characteristics of instruments, and talents of individual performers. May transcribe musical compositions and melodic lines to adapt them to or create particular style for group [ARRANGER (profess. & kin.)]. May schedule tours and performances and arrange for transportation and lodging. May be designated according to specialization as Conductor, Dance Band (profess. & kin.); Conductor, Symphonic-Orchestra (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 01.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L3 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

152.047-018 DIRECTOR, MUSIC (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: musical director; music department head

Plans and directs activities of personnel in studio music department and conducts studio orchestra: Selects vocal, instrumental, and recorded music suitable to type of program or motion picture and to entertainers who are to render selections. Engages services of COMPOSER (profess. & kin.) 152.067-014, as required, to write score for motion picture or television program. Issues assignments and reviews work of staff in such areas as scoring, arranging, and copying music, lyric writing, and vocal coaching. Auditions and selects vocal and instrumental talent for musical shows. Auditions and hires studio orchestra personnel. Conducts orchestra in recording or broadcast of music [CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) 152.047-014].
GOE: 01.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

152.047-022 SINGER (amuse. & rec.; motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

Sings as soloist or member of vocal ensemble: Interprets music, using knowledge of harmony, melody, rhythm, and voice production, to present characterization or to achieve individual style of vocal delivery. Sings, following printed text and musical notation, or memorizes score. May sing a cappella or with musical accompaniment. May watch CHORAL DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.) or CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) for directions and cues. May be known according to voice range as soprano, contralto, tenor, baritone, or bass. May specialize in one type of music, such as opera, lieder, choral, gospel, folk, or country and western and be identified according to specialty.
GOE: 01.04.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.067-010 ARRANGER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: adapter; transcriber; transcripter

Transcribes musical composition for orchestra, band, choral group, or individual to adapt composition to particular style for which it was not originally written: Determines voice, instrument, harmonic structure, rhythm, tempo, and tone balance to achieve desired effect. Writes score, utilizing knowledge of music theory and instrumental and vocal capabilities [ORCHESTRATOR (profess. & kin.)]. May copy parts from score for individual performers within group [COPYIST (any industry)].
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.067-014 COMPOSER (profess. & kin.)

Writes musical compositions: Creates musical ideas, using knowledge of harmonic, rhythmic, melodic, and tonal structure and other elements of music theory, such as instrumental and vocal capabilities. Creates original musical form or writes within circumscribed musical form, such as sonata, symphony, or opera. Transcribes ideas into musical notation.
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

152.067-018 CUE SELECTOR (radio-tv broad.)

Integrates prerecorded theme, background, and bridge music with story line and film sequence to arrange musical score for episode of television series, using knowledge of film scoring: Reads script of episode to become familiar with story line. Confers with DIRECTOR, TELEVISION (radio-tv broad.) to coordinate interpretation of script, including mood to be conveyed or quality of character stressed. Listens to tape recording of theme, background, and bridge music to become familiar with them. Notes key of music, length of passage, and identification number. Selects passages which match story line of script to form tentative score. Views episode to align selections with action on screen. Gives directions to technical personnel during electronic recording of score from tapes, making changes as needed.
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

152.067-022 ORCHESTRATOR (profess. & kin.)

Writes score for orchestra, band, choral group, or individual instrumentalist or vocalist: Transposes music from one voice or instrument to another to accommodate particular musician or musical group. Scores composition consistent with instrumental and vocal capabilities, such as range and key, using knowledge of music theory. May transcribe composition to adapt it to particular style [ARRANGER (profess. & kin.)]. May copy parts from score for individual performers [COPYIST (any industry)].
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.267-010 COPYIST (any industry)

Transcribes musical parts onto staff paper from score written by ARRANGER (profess. & kin.) or ORCHESTRATOR (profess. & kin.) for each instrument or voice, utilizing knowledge of music notation and experience and background in music. May transpose score to different key.
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

152.367-010 PROMPTER (amuse. & rec.)

Prompts performers in operatic productions: Marks copy of vocal score to note cues. Observes CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) and follows vocal score to time cues accurately. Speaks or sings in language required by opera to prompt performers.
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations concerned with application of the theoretical or practical aspects of athletics and sports. Includes teaching physical education at speciality schools or health clubs; scouting for professional athletes; coaching nonschool athletes; and giving instructions in golf, skiing, and similar activities.

153.117-010 HEAD COACH (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: manager, athletic team

Plans and directs training and recommends acquisition or trade of players for professional athletic team: Directs conditioning of players to achieve maximum athletic performance. Assesses player's skills and assigns team positions. Evaluates own and opposition team capabilities to determine game strategy. Coaches or directs COACH, PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) to instruct players in techniques of game. Participates in discussions with other clubs to sell or trade players. May participate on team managed and be designated Coach-Player (amuse. & rec.); Player-Manager (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

153.117-014 MANAGER, ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.)

Manages affairs of PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.) by negotiating with promoters or others to settle contracts and business matters and directs training: Negotiates with team management and promoters to obtain favorable contracts for client [BUSINESS MANAGER (amuse. & rec.)]. May prescribe exercises, rest periods, and diet to be followed by PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.). May direct ATHLETIC TRAINER (amuse. & rec.; education) in conditioning PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.). May give directions to protege in athletic techniques. May determine strategy to be followed by PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.) in competition with others. May be designated according to type of PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.) managed as Manager, Boxer (amuse. & rec.); Manager, Wrestler (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 11.12.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

153.117-018 SCOUT, PROFESSIONAL SPORTS (amuse. & rec.)

Evaluates athletic skills of PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) to determine fitness and potentiality for professional sports and negotiates with them to obtain services: Reviews prospects' exhibitions and past performance records. Negotiates with PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) to arrange contracts. Reports to team management results of scouting assignments, such as selection or rejection of PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) scouted and persons and areas sighted for future recruitment. May be designated according to type of sport in which engaged as Baseball Scout (amuse. & rec.); Basketball Scout (amuse. & rec.); Football Scout (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.117-022 STEWARD, RACETRACK (amuse. & rec.)

Coordinates and directs racing activities at racetrack: Confers with track management and studies prior racing and attendance records to plan types of races to schedule. Confers with officials of other tracks to plan racing dates to coincide with number of days allotted by state racing commission. Assigns workers to duties, such as inspecting entrants, starting, and judging races to comply with racing commission regulations. Observes workers performing duties to ensure compliance with commission rules and track policy. Approves or disapproves requests of handlers to change equipment on horses. Confers with veterinary personnel regarding horses unfit to race. Serves as member of judiciary board that exercises control over racing participants and makes decisions in accordance with state racing commission rules on such matters as validity of complaints and order of finishes. Writes reports to comply with state racing commission rules, such as recording and reporting all complaints, actions taken, penalties imposed, and voting record of board members.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.137-010 MANAGER, POOL (amuse. & rec.)

Supervises and coordinates activities of swimming pool staff to prevent accidents and provide assistance to swimmers, and conducts swimming classes: Assigns duties to lifeguards, locker room attendants, and clerical staff. Schedules swimming classes for basic and specialty techniques, according to enrollment, age, and number of instructors. Meets with employees to discuss and resolve work related problems. Completes staff evaluation forms reflecting information such as work habits, effectiveness in interpersonal relations, and acceptance of responsibility. Instructs individuals or groups in swimming classes, principles of water confidence, and lifesaving. Administers first aid, according to prescribed procedures, or calls emergency medical facility, when necessary. Determines chlorine content, pH value, and color of pool water at periodic intervals during day, using testing kit. Completes forms indicating time, date, and pool water test results. Routes forms to supervisor for evaluation and filing. Maintains required forms, such as time and attendance, inventory list, and program of facility activities.
GOE: 11.11.02 STRENGTH: H GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 86

153.167-010 PADDOCK JUDGE (amuse. & rec.)

Inspects equipment of horses and riders in paddock at racetrack before each race to determine that equipment meets track and state racing commission specifications: Reads racing programs to schedule arrival of horses and riders in paddock area. Examines horse's equipment and rider's attire to assure compliance with racing specifications. Orders equipment changes to conform to racing rules. Refers requests for equipment changes to racing officials. Tells riders to mount and dismount. Signals winning horse and rider to winner's circle. Reports delays in paddock area and equipment changes to racing officials. Examines credentials to prevent unauthorized persons from entering paddock area.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

153.167-014 PIT STEWARD (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: pit boss; referee

Directs activities at automobile or motorcycle racetrack: Determines qualifying order of vehicles for each race based on trial event results or by drawing numbers. Assigns STARTERS (amuse. & rec.) to position on track. Controls traffic to ensure only authorized number of vehicles are in pit. Directs vehicles to assigned places in pit. Ascertains legality of pit stops according to rules set by sanctioning body authorizing race. Consults with SCORERS (amuse. & rec.) to resolve scoring disputes. Determines penalties to be assessed for rules violation. May inspect vehicles and drivers for safety equipment, such as seat belts, harnesses, and helmets.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.167-018 RACING SECRETARY AND HANDICAPPER (amuse. & rec.)

Plans and arranges racing schedules and assigns handicapped weights to horses at racetrack: Analyzes official workout and past performance records to arrange races between horses of equal experience and ability. Handicaps horse in each race by assigning weight it will carry, using knowledge of handicapping and based on data, such as age, sex, total winnings of horse, and distances of races won. Confers with track management personnel to plan types of races to schedule and to determine purse for each race. Reviews application requesting permission to enter and train horse for competition. Accepts application and entrance fee from owner. Registers names of persons having financial interest in horse. Reviews racing information to be published in newspaper, racing form, and daily racing program. Directs activities of workers engaged in duties, such as compiling racing information and assigning stable space. Records information regarding official racing result to keep file on each horse's ability. Records changes of ownership and submits report to track officials. May observe race to study ability and form of horse, verify selection of entries, and assignment of handicap weights.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.224-010 ATHLETIC TRAINER (amuse. & rec.; education)

Evaluates physical condition and advises and treats professional and amateur athletes to maintain maximum physical fitness for participation in athletic competition: Prescribes routine and corrective exercises to strengthen muscles. Recommends special diets to build up health and reduce overweight athletes. Massages parts of players' bodies to relieve soreness, strains, and bruises. Renders first aid to injured players, such as giving artificial respiration, cleaning and bandaging wounds, and applying heat and cold to promote healing. Calls physician for injured persons as required. Wraps ankles, fingers, or wrists of athletes in synthetic skin, protecting gauze, and adhesive tape to support muscles and ligaments. Treats chronic minor injuries and related disabilities to maintain athletes' performance. May give heat and diathermy treatments as prescribed by health service. Workers are identified according to type of sport.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.227-010 COACH, PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: coach

Analyzes performance and instructs PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) in game strategies and techniques to prepare them for athletic competition: Observes players while they perform to determine need for individual or team improvement. Coaches players individually or in groups, demonstrating techniques of sport coached. Oversees daily practice of players to instruct them in areas of deficiency. Determines strategy during game, independently or in conference with other COACH, PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) or HEAD COACH (amuse. & rec.) based on factors as weakness in opposing team. May be designated according to phase of game coached as Defensive-Line Coach (amuse. & rec.); Pitching Coach (amuse. & rec.). May be designated according to game coached as Basketball Coach (amuse. & rec.); Football Coach (amuse. & rec.); Swimming Coach (amuse. & rec.); Tennis Coach (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.01 STRENGTH: H GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.227-014 INSTRUCTOR, PHYSICAL (amuse. & rec.; education)

Teaches individuals or groups beginning or advanced calisthenics, gymnastics, and reducing or corrective exercises, in private health club or gymnasium, evaluating abilities of individual to determine suitable training program: Teaches and demonstrates use of gymnastic apparatus, such as trampolines, corrective weights, and mechanical exercisers. Demonstrates and teaches body movements and skills used in sports. Advises clients in use of heat or ultraviolet treatments and hot baths. Lubricates mechanical equipment and reports malfunctioning equipment to maintenance personnel.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.227-018 INSTRUCTOR, SPORTS (amuse. & rec.; education) alternate titles: athletic coach

Teaches sport activity to individual or groups at private or public recreational facility or school: Explains and demonstrates use of apparatus and equipment. Explains and demonstrates principles, techniques, and methods of regulating movement of body, hands, or feet to achieve proficiency in activity. Observes students during practice to detect and correct mistakes. Explains and enforces safety rules and regulations. Explains method of keeping score. May organize and conduct competition and tournaments. May participate in competition to demonstrate skill. May purchase, display, sell, maintain, or repair equipment. May keep record of receipts and expenditures. May lecture on history and purpose of sport. Workers are identified according to sport instructed, such as golf, fencing, or tennis.
GOE: 12.01.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

153.243-010 AUTOMOBILE RACER (amuse. & rec.)

Drives automobile racing car in competition road races: Drives car over track where race is to be run to familiarize self with course. Participates in speed and elimination trial races to qualify car for race. Drives car in race and analyzes speed and position of other cars to determine when and where to drive car so as to be in favorable position to win. Observes fuel, oil, and compression gauges on dashboard of car to ensure that car is operating efficiently. Watches for warning signs, such as flags or flares, that indicate an accident is present and drives car accordingly. May perform maintenance work on car.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.243-014 MOTORCYCLE RACER (amuse. & rec.)

Rides motorcycle over track, course, or natural terrain in competitive races: Operates motorcycle, using hands and feet to manipulate controls. Evaluates power, speed, maneuverability, and position of own and other motorcycles in race to determine strategy. Listens to engine and reads tachometer to determine gear change and maximum speed which obstacles, such as turns and jumps can be taken. Maneuvers motorcycles to avoid track accident, unexpected barrier, or other emergency situation. Watches for warning flags, and other signals to follow instructions given by track officials. May perform maintenance work on motorcycle. May specialize in one type of competition, such as road, dirt track, motocross, off road, or speedway racing.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: H GED: R3 M2 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

153.244-010 JOCKEY (amuse. & rec.)

Rides racehorse at racetrack: Confers with training personnel to plan strategy for race, based on ability and peculiarities of own and other horses in competition. Mounts horse in paddock after weighing-in, and rides horse to specified numbered stall of starting gate. Races from starting gate to finish line. Talks to training personnel after race to analyze horse's performance.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.244-014 SULKY DRIVER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: harness racer

Drives horse-drawn, two-wheel sulky in harness race: Studies performance record of competing horses to plan race strategy. Controls speed of horse in specific sections of racetrack, applying knowledge of harness racing to determine when to challenge for lead of race. May train own harness racing horses. May direct activities of workers involved in grooming, training, feeding, stabling, handling and transporting harness race horses.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.267-010 HORSE-RACE STARTER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: starter

Determines entry sequence into starting gate and gives directions to riders and other track personnel to get horses into position for horse race: Evaluates performance and training record and observes horse's behavior to determine entry sequence. Directs entry of horse and rider into starting gate according to planned sequence and stall number. Gives directions to track personnel to assist rider when horse refuses to enter starting gate. Reports undue starting delay to racing officials. Presses button to open gate automatically when horses are correctly aligned. May recommend removal of horse unfit to start race. May schedule morning workouts for horses requiring familiarization with starting gate procedures.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

153.267-014 PATROL JUDGE (amuse. & rec.)

Observes horse race at racetrack to detect infractions of racing rules and resolve claims of fouls committed: Watches race from elevated stand at one of several locations around track, using binoculars to detect infractions of rules, such as action of JOCKEY (amuse. & rec.) causing another horse to change stride. Reports name and number of horse and rider guilty of foul to racing officials for disciplinary action. Confers with racing officials and watches motion picture of race to verify infractions and to determine validity of complaints lodged by participants. Submits report to racing officials concerning infractions of rules and disciplinary action taken. When flashing numbers of first three horses as race progresses or observing horses in stretch in order to post first four horses crossing finish line, is designated Placing Judge (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.267-018 UMPIRE (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: field captain; judge; referee

Officiates at sporting events: Observes actions of participants to detect infractions of rules. Decides disputable matters according to established regulations. When concerned only with determining validity of goals, finish line order, or out-of-bound plays, may be designated Finish Judge (amuse. & rec.); Goal Umpire (amuse. & rec.); Line Umpire (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.287-010 HOOF AND SHOE INSPECTOR (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: plating inspector

Inspects hoofs and shoes (plates) of horses at racetrack to determine that hoofs have been trimmed to prevent stumbling during race and to detect loose or broken shoes: Records names of horse, owner, and RACEHORSE TRAINER (amuse. & rec.) and condition of horse's hoofs and shoes. Presents information to STEWARD, RACETRACK (amuse. & rec.) for further action. May remove and replace broken or cracked plates. May instruct handlers to secure plates or trim horses hoofs as required.
GOE: 03.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M1 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.341-010 PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.)

Participates in professional competitive athletic events, such as football, boxing, and hockey, to entertain audience: Exercises and practices under direction of ATHLETIC TRAINER (amuse. & rec.; education) 153.224-010 or COACH, PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) 153.227-010 to train for sport. Plays game and engages in sport conforming to established rules and regulations. Athletes are identified according to professional sport in which engaged. May speak, as representative of team or professional sports club, to groups involved in activities, such as sports clinics and fund raisers.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 81

153.367-010 CLOCKER (amuse. & rec.)

Clocks (times) racehorses at racetrack during morning workouts to obtain speed information: Identifies each horse on track by its particular identifying marks and color, and records name. Observes horse during workout and assigns speed rating according to effort extended by horse and rider, distance run, and time required as measured by stopwatch. Records information and submits it to track management.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M2 L2 SVP: 2 DLU: 77

153.367-014 HORSE-RACE TIMER (amuse. & rec.)

Clocks and records time required for horse leading in race to run specified distance: Observes signal for official start and activates stopwatch to time race. Observes leading horse crossing markers denoting fractional parts and finish line of race to note and record time elapsed. Compares recorded results with those obtained by automatic electronic timer and reports difference to racing officials. Writes daily report of name, number of leading horse, fractional and total time required for each race to submit to track officials.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 77

153.384-010 MARSHAL (amuse. & rec.)

Rides saddle horse to lead parade of horserace entrants onto track to mobile-starting-gate assembly area. Mounts quarter horse and chases and restrains runaways to prevent injury to horses and thrown riders and disruption of race.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: H GED: R3 M1 L1 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

153.387-010 IDENTIFIER, HORSE (amuse. & rec.)

Verifies identification of horses at receiving barn of racetrack: Checks identifying features, such as tattooed registration number on lip and physical appearance with official records and photographs to ensure only horses scheduled to race are permitted in paddock. Releases identified horses to handlers for transfer to paddock for saddling. Notifies track officials when doubt exists as to horses' identity. Records physical changes in horses, such as weight increase or scar received since last inspection, to keep identification records current.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 77

153.387-014 SCORER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: lap checker

Records laps completed by drivers in automobile or motorcycle race: Observes vehicles passing start-finish line to obtain count of laps completed by each competitor. Enters lap count onto scoresheet. Totals laps at end of race to determine winner, order of finish, and lap count for each racer. May clock and record time during race and be designated Timer (amuse. & rec.). May give directions to other SCORERS (amuse. & rec.) and be designated Head Scorer (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

153.467-010 CLERK-OF-SCALES (amuse. & rec.)

Weighs JOCKEYS (amuse. & rec.) and riding equipment before and after each race to ensure that assigned handicapped weights have been carried during race: Weighs rider and saddle on scale to assure that weight is as specified on racing program. Directs rider to insert or remove lead pads from saddle pocket to meet specified weight. Notifies racing officials of rider unable to meet weight limit. Weighs rider and equipment after race to assure that lead pads were not lost during race.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 77

153.667-010 STARTER (amuse. & rec.)

Waves signal flags of different color and design to start and stop automobile or motorcycle race and to inform drivers of track condition: Signals slower driver to move aside to allow passage of faster vehicles. Signals drivers to slow down or stops race for clearing of track following accidents. Signals specific driver to return to pit for consultation upon request of AUTOMOBILE MECHANIC (automotive ser.); MOTORCYCLE REPAIRER (automotive ser.); PIT STEWARD (amuse. & rec.), or other track official.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M2 L2 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

153.674-010 EXERCISER, HORSE (amuse. & rec.)

Rides racehorses to exercise and condition them for racing: Rides racehorse during workout and training races, following specific instructions of training personnel. Informs training personnel of horses' temperament, peculiarities, and physical condition as demonstrated during exercise so that training plans can be modified to prepare horse for racing.
GOE: 03.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R2 M1 L1 SVP: 3 DLU: 77

153.674-014 LEAD PONY RIDER (amuse. & rec.)

Rides lead pony to lead JOCKEY (amuse. & rec.) and mount from paddock to starting gate at racetrack: Leads horse scheduled to race from receiving barn to paddock to be saddled. Leads procession of riders in post position order to starting gate. Rides after runaway horse to aid rider regain control. Diverts riders from competitor involved in accident on racetrack. Leads race horse to paddock or receiving barn after race. Assists horse ambulance workers to remove injured horse from track, using block and tackle. Grooms and feeds lead pony.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R2 M1 L1 SVP: 2 DLU: 77


This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with entertainment.

159.041-010 MAGICIAN (amuse. & rec.)

Performs original and stock tricks of illusion and sleight of hand to entertain and mystify audience, using props, such as illusion boxes, scarf, cards, rabbit, and jewelry. May include participant from audience in act to remove personal valuables, such as wallets or jewelry, without participant's knowledge.
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

159.041-014 PUPPETEER (amuse. & rec.)

Originates puppet shows, designs and constructs puppets and moves controls of puppets to animate them for entertainment of audience: Studies media for ideas that relate to fads, stories, plays, and seasonal themes and confers with other staff to develop ideas for new show. Writes or adapts script for use in puppet theater. Sketches designs for puppets based on script. Constructs hand, string, rod, and shadow puppets from materials, such as wood, papier mache, styrofoam, wires, metal, and rubber, using handtools and machine tools. Sews clothing for puppets by hand or machine. Animates puppets, using string, wire, rod, fingers or hand from position above, below, or at level with stage. Talks or sings during performance to give illusion of voice to puppets. May operate audio equipment, such as tape deck, during performance and simultaneously move puppet's mouth in synchronization with music to create illusion of singing.
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 79

159.042-010 LASERIST (amuse. & rec.)

Creates optical designs-and-effects show for entertainment of audiences, using control console and related laser projection and recording equipment: Sets up and operates console to control laser projection, recording equipment, and house lights. Presses switches and turns dials to dim house lights, cue opening music, and begin programmed laser sequence. Moves controls to orchestrate colors, patterns, and movements in concert with musical accompaniment. Tests, repairs, and adjusts laser and sound systems, using circuit schematics and test equipment. Examines, cleans, and maintains system cooling, optical, and sound equipment according to preventive maintenance schedule. Discusses show concepts and laser equipment operation with press representatives to promote public relations.
GOE: 05.03.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

159.044-010 VENTRILOQUIST (amuse. & rec.)

Entertains audience by projecting voice so that it appears to come from dummy or puppet: Changes position of dummy or puppet during performance to give illusion of life. May construct puppet or dummy. May write script for show.
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

159.047-010 CLOWN (amuse. & rec.)

Dresses in comical costume and makeup and performs original or stock comedy routines to entertain audience.
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

159.047-014 COMEDIAN (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: comic

Attempts to make audience laugh by telling jokes, delivering comic lines, singing humorous songs, performing comedy dances or walks, or facial contortions, wearing funny costumes, or resorting to any similar device to amuse audience. May do impersonations [IMPERSONATOR (amuse. & rec.)].
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

159.047-018 IMPERSONATOR (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: imitator; mimic

Entertains by impersonating another person, or type of person, or animal, or some inanimate object, usually by copying mannerisms, form, expression, dress, voice, or sound of character or thing impersonated. May be designated according to character impersonated as Animal Impersonator (amuse. & rec.); Female Impersonator (amuse. & rec.); Male Impersonator (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

159.047-022 MIME (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: pantomimist

Presents serious, humorous, or burlesqued interpretations of emotions, dramatic actions, and various situations through body movements, facial expressions, and gestures.
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

159.067-010 DIRECTOR, MOTION PICTURE (motion picture)

Reads and interprets script, conducts rehearsals, and directs activities of cast and technical crew for motion picture film: Confers with ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) to ensure that music, sets, scenic effects, and costumes conform to script interpretation. Confers with DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY (motion picture) to explain details of scene to be photographed and to consider utilization of miniatures, stock film, inserts, transparencies, backgrounds, or trick shots. Schedules sequences of scenes to be filmed for each day of shooting, grouping scenes together according to set and cast of characters. Rehearses cast and suggests changes, using knowledge of acting, voice, and movement to elicit best possible performance. Informs technicians of scenery, lights, props, and other equipment desired. Approves scenery, costumes, choreography, and music. Directs cast, DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY (motion picture; radio-tv broad.), and other technicians during rehearsals and final filming. May audition and select cast. May cut and edit film. May direct film on set in studio or on location. May direct film for television.
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

159.067-014 DIRECTOR, TELEVISION (radio-tv broad.)

Plans and directs audio and video aspects of television programs, based on program specifications and knowledge of television programming techniques: Interprets script, rehearses cast, and establishes pace of program to stay within time requirements. Informs technicians of scenery, lights, props, and other equipment desired. Approves scenery, costumes, choreography, and music. Issues instructions to technicians from control room during telecast to keep them informed of effects desired, such as dissolves, long shots, medium shots, superimpositions, fade-ins, and fade-outs. May move controls to integrate material from multisite origins into live program. May direct news and special events programs. May direct program for live broadcast or for electronic video recording. May direct nonbroadcast television presentation, such as program for sales, medical, educational, or industrial purposes. May direct commercials. May operate viewing/editing equipment to review and edit program tapes, using personal knowledge of television programming and editing techniques. May key information into computer, using keyboard, to compile letters, memos, and other program material, such as scripts and notes. May be designated Producer-Director (radio-tv broad.) in small station.
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

159.117-010 PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: associate producer

Plans and coordinates various aspects of radio, television, or cable television programs: Interviews and selects SCREEN WRITERS (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 131.067-050 and cast principals from staff members or outside talent. Outlines program to be produced to SCREEN WRITERS (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) and evaluates finished script. Composes or edits program script to meet management or other requirements, using typewriter or computer terminal. Coordinates various aspects of production, such as audio work, scenes, music, timing, camera work, and script writing. Gives instructions to staff to schedule broadcast and to develop and coordinate details to obtain desired production. Reviews production to ensure objectives are attained. Views taped program to select scenes to be used for promotional purposes, using video equipment. Listens to audio tape recording to verify program, script, or sound effects conform to broadcast standards, using audio equipment. May obtain costumes, props, music, or other equipment or personnel to complete production. May represent television network, acting as liaison to independent producer of television series produced for network broadcast. May review budget and expenditures for programs or commercial productions for conformance to budgetary restrictions. May coordinate production details to produce live television programs from locations distant from station. May be designated according to level of responsibility and by type of show produced as Executive Producer (radio-tv broad.); or by type of media as Radio Producer (radio-tv broad.); Television Producer (radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

159.124-010 COUNSELOR, CAMP (amuse. & rec.)

Directs activities of children at vacation camp: Plans activities, such as hikes, cookouts, and campfires, to provide wide variety of camping experiences. Demonstrates use of camping equipment and explains principles and techniques of activities, such as backpacking, nature study, and outdoor cooking, to increase campers' knowledge and competence. Plans and arranges competition in activities, such as team sports or housekeeping, to stimulate campers' interest and participation. Demonstrates use of materials and tools to instruct children in arts and crafts. Instructs campers in skills, such as canoeing, sailing, swimming, archery, horseback riding, and animal care, explaining and demonstrating procedures and safety techniques. Organizes, leads, instructs, and referees games. Enforces camp rules and regulations to guide conduct, maintain discipline, and safeguard health of campers. May be identified according to type of camp activity.
GOE: 09.01.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 80

159.147-010 ANNOUNCER (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: radio board operator-announcer

Announces radio and television programs to audience: Memorizes script, reads, or ad-libs to identify station, introduce and close shows, and announce station breaks, commercials, or public service information. Cues worker to transmit program from network central station or other pick-up points according to schedule. Reads news flashes to keep audience informed of important events. May rewrite news bulletin from wire service teletype to fit specific time slot. May describe public event such as parade or convention. May interview guest, such as sport or other public personality, and moderate panel or discussion show to entertain audience. May keep daily program log. May operate control console (radio board). May perform additional duties in small stations, such as operating radio transmitter [TRANSMITTER OPERATOR (radio-tv broad.) 193.262-038], selling time, or writing advertising copy. May be designated according to media as Radio Announcer (radio-tv broad.); Television Announcer (radio-tv broad.). May announce program of local interest and be designated Local Announcer (radio-tv broad.). May announce program for transmission over network and affiliated stations and be designated Network Announcer (radio-tv broad.). May announce in foreign language for international broadcast and be designated Announcer, International Broadcast (radio-tv broad.). May describe sporting event during game from direct observation or announce sports news received at station for radio or television broadcasting and be designated Sports An