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United States Department of Labor
Office of Administrative Law Judges Law Library



DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (4th Ed., Rev. 1991)

MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY

Since its inception, the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) has provided basic occupational information to many and varied users in both public and private sectors of the United States economy. This revised Fourth Edition of the DOT appears at a time when there is growing recognition of the need for lifetime learning, when rapid technological change is making the jobs of current workers more complex than they were even a few years ago, and when timely and accurate labor market information is an increasingly important component of personal and corporate decision-making.

Publication of this document reaffirms in the clearest way the Department's continuing commitment to assist jobseekers, employers, educational and training institutions, researchers, and other interested parties with the most current and accurate occupational information possible. I hope that publication of this revised Fourth Edition will constitute a public service as timely and valuable as was publication of its predecessor volumes.

LYNN MARTIN
Secretary of Labor

PREFATORY NOTE

In the 14 years since the release of the Fourth Edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), the American workplace has undergone revolutionary change. The skills most in demand are not what they were 14 years ago; educational requirements have steadily increased. Too many of America's young people are entering the world of work inadequately prepared. The resulting dislocation - the so-called ``skills gap'' - presents those of us who prepare, hire or support American workers with a serious challenge.

The revised Fourth Edition of the DOT is an important part of the Department of Labor's response. It provides an updated picture of the occupations for which America's workforce must be prepared. It details the tasks to be performed and the levels of education that must be achieved. The DOT offers a starting place from which to address issues of training and education, career guidance and employment counseling, job definition and wage restructuring.

We in ETA are pleased to present the revised Fourth Edition DOT. We hope that this update will make it an even more valuable reference for its substantial body of readers.

ROBERTS T. JONES
Assistant Secretary
for Employment and Training

FOREWORD

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) has been, since 1939, a vital part of the USES commitment to collect and disseminate occupational data that is comprehensive, up-to-date, and economically useful. This revision of the Fourth Edition culminates a decade of research and verification by more than 40 job analysts at five Occupational Analysis centers across the Nation and reflects the changing skills, knowledges and abilities of the American workforce.

As was true of earlier versions, this revised Fourth Edition provides a wide range of occupational information with application to job placement, occupational research, career guidance, labor-market information, curriculum development and long-range job planning. Data from the 1982 and 1986 DOT Supplements and part of the data from Selected Characteristics of Occupations Defined in the DOT are included in and superseded by this revision.

The revision has enhanced information contained in the occupational definitions in response to user feedback. A number of new occupations have also been added that were originally identified by DOT users and given temporary codes and titles under the Occupational Code Request program. We thank previous users for these improvements. We hope that users of this revised Fourth Edition will continue to help us keep the DOT up to date.

ROBERT A. SCHAERFL
Director
U. S. Employment Service

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The revised fourth edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles was produced by the U.S. Employment Service under the direction of Robert A. Schaerfl, Director. The Occupational Analysis Program was directed by Clay Cottrell, Chief, Division of Planning and Operations. Coordination and technical supervision of the data collection effort was directed by John Hawk, Personnel Research Psychologist, with additional technical planning and support from Russ Kile and Donna Dye of the OA unit.

The new data for this edition were developed through the efforts of the following Occupational Analysis Field Centers, operated through the State Employment Services: Boston, Massachusetts, Paul Cleary, Supervisor; Detroit, Michigan, Tom Kearney, Supervisor; St. Louis, Missouri, Doris Phelan, Supervisor; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah, Barbara Smith, Supervisor. Grateful acknowledgement is also made for the contribution of Jerome Stevens and Bessie Kuhn, former Supervisors of the Missouri Field Center.

The North Carolina Occupational Analysis Field Center served a pivotal role in the planning, collection, preparation, and technical review of data for this revised edition, as well as its computerization and publication. Special recognition is due the staff of that center, including Mike Swaim, Bruce Paige, Larry Patterson, and Sammie Batchelor, and to their Supervisor, Stanley Rose.

Space does not permit a listing of their names, but grateful acknowledgement is also given to those associations, business firms, labor organizations, other Federal Agencies, and individuals whose assistance and cooperation contributed significantly to the development of this publication.

SPECIAL NOTICE

Occupational information contained in the revised forth edition DOT reflects job as they have been found to occur, but they may not coincide in every respect with the content of jobs as performed in particular establishments or at certain localities. DOT users demanding specific job requirements should supplement this data with local information detailing jobs within their community.

In using the DOT, it should be noted the U.S. Employment Service has no responsibility for establishing appropriate wage levels for workers in the United States, or settling jurisdictional matters in relation to different occupations. In preparing occupational definitions, no data were collected concerning these and related matters. therefore, the occupational information in this edition cannot be regarded as determining standards for any aspect of the employer-employee relationship. Data contained in this publication should not be considered a judicial or legislative standard for wages, hours, or other contractual or bargaining elements.

Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced fully or partially, without the permission of the Federal Government. Source credit is requested but not required.

Comments or inquiries regarding definitions or data elements included in the revised fourth edition DOT are invited and should be addressed to:

Mr. Stanley Rose, Supervisor
North Carolina Occupational Analysis Field Center
North Carolina Employment Security Commission
Post Office Box 27625
Raleigh, North Carolina 27611

Telephone inquiries made be made by calling (919) 733-7917.

INTRODUCTION

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) was developed in response to the demand of an expanding public employment service for standardized occupational information to support job placement activities. The U.S. Employment Service recognized this need in the mid-1930's, soon after the passage of the Wagner- Peyser Act established a Federal-State employment service system, and initiated an occupational research program, utilizing analysts located in numerous field offices throughout the country, to collect the information required. The use of this information has expanded from job matching applications to various uses for employment counseling, occupational and career guidance, and labor market information services.

In order to properly match jobs and workers, the public employment service system requires that a uniform occupational language be used in all of its local job service offices. Highly trained occupational analysts must go out and collect reliable data which is provided to job interviewers so they may systematically compare and match the specifications of employer job openings with the qualifications of applicants who are seeking jobs through its facilities. The Occupational Analysis (OA) Program is currently supporting job analysis activity in the states of Michigan, Missouri, Massachusetts, and Utah, with North Carolina serving as the lead Field Center providing leadership and oversight.

Based on the data collected by occupational analysts, the first edition of the DOT was published in 1939. The first edition contained approximately 17,500 concise definitions presented alphabetically, by title, with a coding arrangement for occupational classification. Blocks of jobs were assigned 5- or 6-digit codes which placed them in one of 550 occupational groups and indicated whether the jobs were skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled.

The second edition DOT, issued in March 1949, combined material in the first edition with several supplements issued throughout the World War II period. The second edition and its supplements reflected the impact of the war on jobs in the U.S. economy including new occupations in the plastics, paper and pulp, and radio manufacturing industries.

The third edition DOT, issued in 1965, eliminated the previous designation of a portion of the occupations as ``skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled'' and substituted a classification system based on the nature of the work performed and the demands of such work activities upon the workers. These new indicators of work requirements included eight separate classification components: training time, aptitudes, interests, temperaments, physical demands, working conditions, work performed, and industry.

The fourth edition of the DOT published in 1977, contained over 2,100 new occupational definitions and several thousand other definitions were substantially modified or combined with related definitions. In order to document these changes, approximately 75,000 on-site job analysis studies were conducted from 1965 to the mid-1970's. These studies, supplemented by information obtained through extensive contacts with professional and trade associations, reflected the restructuring of the economy at that time.

Two supplements to the DOT have been released since the publication of the 1977 fourth edition DOT, one in 1982 and one in 1986. The 1982 supplement contained titles, codes, and definitions derived from Occupational Code Requests (see Appendix E) submitted by DOT users to local Job Service offices. The 1986 supplement continued this effort to publish new definitions as well as modify existing definitions consistent with new data collected. The 1986 supplement contained 840 occupational definitions; of these, 761 were not defined in the fourth edition.

Changes in occupational content and job characteristics due to technological advancement continue to occur at a rapid pace. This rapid change to occupations coupled with user demand for the most current information possible has resulted in a revised approach to the publication of the DOT. The OA network has focused its efforts on the study of selected industries in order to document the jobs that have undergone the most significant occupational changes since the publication, in 1977, of the fourth edition DOT.

This effort of gathering data and writing/revising definitions in these selected industries, including ``new'' and revised definitions from the 1986 fourth edition supplement, has resulted in the publication of this revised fourth edition DOT. This information is presented in the hope that it will provide the best ``snapshot'' of how jobs continue to be performed in the majority of industries across the country. Comments, suggestions, or criticism by DOT users concerning the content and format of this revised DOT are welcomed.

PARTS OF THE OCCUPATIONAL DEFINITION

Work is organized in a variety of ways. As a result of technological, economic, and sociological influences, nearly every job in the economy is performed slightly differently from any other job. Every job is also similar to a number of other jobs.

In order to look at the millions of jobs in the U.S. economy in an organized way, the DOT groups jobs into "occupations" based on their similarities and defines the structure and content of all listed occupations. Occupational definitions are the result of comprehensive studies of how similar jobs are performed in establishments across the nation and are composites of data collected from diverse sources. The term "occupation," as used in the DOT, refers to this collective description of a number of individual jobs performed, with minor variations, in many establishments.

There are seven basic parts to an occupational definition. They present data about a job in a systematic fashion. The parts are listed below in the order in which they appear in every definition:

1) The Occupational Code Number
2) The Occupational Title
3) The Industry Designation
4) Alternate Titles (if any)
5) The Body of the Definition
a) Lead Statement
b) Task Element Statements
c) "May" Items
d) Glossary words
e) Unbracketed Reference Title
f) Bracketed Title
6) Undefined Related Titles (if any)
7) Definition Trailer

The seven basic parts of a definition are preceded in the following example definition by their identifying number and/or letter and ) symbol as used in the list above. An explanation of each part, preceded by the same identifiers, follows the example.

EXAMPLE DEFINITION

1) 652.382-010 2) CLOTH PRINTER 3) (any industry) 4) alternate titles: printer; printing-machine operator 5) 5a) Sets up and operates machine to print designs on materials, such as cloth, fiberglass, plastic sheeting, coated felt, or oilcloth: 5b) Turns handwheel to set pressure on 5d) $T3printing rollers,$T1 according to specifications. 5b) Turns screws to align register marks on printing rollers with register marks on machine, using allen wrench. 5b) Sharpens doctor blade, using file and oilstone, and verifies evenness of blade, using straightedge. 5b) Aligns doctor blade against printing roller, using handtools. 5b) Dips color from tubs into color boxes to supply printing rollers. 5b) Scans cloth leaving machine for printing defects, such as smudges, variations in color shades, and designs that are out of register (alignment). 5b) Realigns printing rollers and adjusts position of blanket or back gray cloth to absorb excess color from printing rollers. 5b) Records yardage of cloth printed. 5b) Coordinates printing activities with activities of workers who feed and doff machine and aid in setting up and cleaning machine. 5c) May notify 5e) COLORIST (profess. & kin.) 022.161-014 when color shade varies from specifications. 5c) May mix own colors. 5c) May mount printing rollers on machine for change of pattern 5f) [PRINTING-ROLLER HANDLER (textile) 652.385-010]. 5c) May position knives specified distance from edge of plastic material to trim excess material from edges. When printing samples of new patterns and novelty designs, is designated 6) Novelty-Printing-Machine Operator (textile) or 6) Proofing-Machine Operator (print. & pub.). 5c) May set up and operate cloth printing machine utilizing caustic soda paste instead of color paste to print designs on cloth which shrink to form plisse and be designated 5c) Plisse-Machine Operator (textile). 7) GOE: 06.02.09 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M1 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

1) The Occupational Code Number

The first item in an occupational definition is the 9-digit occupational code (in the preceding example, 652.382-010). In the DOT occupational classification system, each set of three digits in the 9-digit code number has a specific purpose or meaning. Together, they provide a unique identification code for a particular occupation which differentiates it from all others.

The first three digits identify a particular occupational group. All occupations are clustered into one of nine broad "categories" (first digit), such as professional, technical and managerial, or clerical and sales occupations. These categories break down into 83 occupationally specific "divisions" (the first two digits), such as occupations in architecture and engineering within the professional category, or stenography, typing, and related occupations in the clerical and sales category. Divisions, in turn, are divided into small, homogeneous "groups" (the first three digits)-564 such groups are identified in the DOT. The nine primary occupational categories are listed below:

0/1 Professional, Technical, and Managerial Occupations
2 Clerical and Sales Occupations
3 Service Occupations
4 Agricultural, Fishery, Forestry, and Related Occupations
5 Processing Occupations
6 Machine Trades Occupations
7 Benchwork Occupations
8 Structural Work Occupations
9 Miscellaneous Occupations

In the example, the first digit (6) indicates that this particular occupation is found in the category, "Machine Trades Occupations." (For a listing of all occupational categories, divisions, and groups see page xxix.)

The second digit refers to a division within the category. The divisions within the "Machine Trades Occupations" category are as follows:

60 Metal Machining Occupations
61 Metalworking Occupations, n.e.c.
62/63 Mechanics and Machinery Repairers
64 Paperworking Occupations
65 Printing Occupations
66 Wood Machining Occupations
67 Occupations in Machining Stone, Clay, Glass, and Related Materials
68 Textile Occupations
69 Machine Trades Occupations, n.e.c.

Some divisions or groups end in the designation "n.e.c." (not elsewhere classified). This indicates that the occupations do not logically fit into precisely defined divisions or groups, or that they could fit into two or more of them equally well.

In the example, the second digit (5) locates the occupation in the "Printing Occupations" division.

The third digit defines the occupational group within the division. The groups within the "Printing Occupations" division are as follows:

650 Typesetters and Composers
651 Printing Press Occupations
652 Printing Machine Occupations
653 Bookbinding-Machine Operators and Related Occupations
654 Typecasters and Related Occupations
659 Printing Occupations, n.e.c.

In the example, the third digit (2) locates the occupation in the "Printing Machine Occupations" group.

The middle three digits of the DOT occupational code are the Worker Functions ratings of the tasks performed in the occupation. Every job requires a worker to function to some degree in relation to data, people, and things. A separate digit expresses the worker's relationship to each of these three groups:

DATA                 PEOPLE                  THINGS 
(4th Digit)           (5th Digit)                (6th Digit)

0 Synthesizing      0 Mentoring           0 Setting Up 
1 Coordinating      1 Negotiating         1 Precision Working 
2 Analyzing          2 Instructing           2 Operating-Controlling 
3 Compiling          3 Supervising         3 Driving-Operating 
4 Computing         4 Diverting             4 Manipulating 
5 Copying             5 Persuading           5 Tending 
6 Comparing         6 Speaking-            6 Feeding-Offbearing 
                                 Signalling            7 Handling 
                              7 Serving              
                              8 Taking 
                                  Instructions-Helping    
 

As a general rule, Worker Functions involving more complex responsibility and judgment are assigned lower numbers in these three lists while functions which are less complicated have higher numbers. For example, "synthesizing" and "coordinating" data are more complex tasks than "copying" data; "instructing" people involves a broader responsibility than "taking instructions-helping"; and "operating" things is a more complicated task than "handling" things.

The Worker Functions code in the example (382) relates to the middle three digits of the DOT occupational code and has a different meaning and no connection with group code 652 (first three digits).

The Worker Functions code (382) may be found in any occupational group. It signifies that the worker is "compiling" (3) in relation to data; "taking instructions-helping" (8) in relation to people; and "operating- controlling" (2) in relation to things. The Worker Functions code indicates the broadest level of responsibility or judgment required in relation to data, people, or things. It is assumed that, if the job requires it, the worker can generally perform any higher numbered function listed in each of the three categories. (See Appendix B for a more detailed discussion of Worker Functions codes.)

The last three digits of the occupational code number serve to differentiate a particular occupation from all others. A number of occupations may have the same first six digits, but no two can have the same nine digits. If a 6-digit code is applicable to only one occupational title, the final three digits assigned are always 010 (as in the example). If there is more than one occupation with the same first six digits, the final three digits are usually assigned in alphabetical order of titles in multiples of four (010, 014, 018, 022, etc.). If another printing machine occupation had the same six digits as CLOTH PRINTER (any industry) 652.382-010, and began with the letter "D," it would be assigned the occupational code 652.382-014. In order to minimize the number of changes made to the existing occupational classification structure, "new" occupations added to the DOT since the publication of the Fourth Edition have simply been added sequentially following the previous last entry for each of the 6-digit codes. The full nine digits thus provide each occupation with a unique code suitable for computerized operations.

2) The Occupational Title

Immediately following the occupational code in every definition is the occupational base title. The base title is always in upper-case boldface letters. It is the most common type of title found in the DOT, and is the title by which the occupation is known in the majority of establishments in which it was found. In the example, CLOTH PRINTER (any industry) 652.382-010 is a base title.

a) Master Titles

Some titles are classified as master titles. These titles are designed to eliminate unnecessary repetition of tasks common to a large number of occupations. Master titles define the common job tasks having a wide variety of job variables and wide variety of titles. An example is the title "SUPERVISOR (any industry)". Each individual supervisory occupation has its own separate definition in the DOT describing its unique duties, but at the end of the definition the reader is referred to the master definition; in this case by a sentence reading: "Performs other duties as described under SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title". By referring to this master definition, the user will learn about the typical supervisory duties which are commonly performed.

b) Term Titles

Another type of DOT title is a term title. These include occupations with the same title but few common duties. An example of a term definition is:

CONSULTING ENGINEER (profess. & kin.): A term applied to workers who consult with and advise clients on specialized engineering matters in a particular field of endeavor, such as chemical engineering, civil engineering, or mechanical engineering.

Since neither master nor term definitions are occupations, they are not coded in the Occupational Group Arrangement but are found in separate sections of the DOT (see Contents).

There are other major types of titles used in the DOT, including alternate titles and undefined related titles. These are discussed later in this section.

3) Industry Designation

The industry designation is in parentheses immediately following the occupational base title. It often differentiates between two or more occupations with identical titles but different duties. Because of this, it is an integral and inseparable part of any occupational title. An industry designation often tells one or more things about an occupation such as:

  • location of the occupation (hotel & rest.; machine shop)
  • types of duties associated with the occupation (education; forging)
  • products manufactured (optical goods; textile)
  • processes used (electroplating; petrol. refin.)
  • raw materials used (nonfer. metal; stonework)

While a definition usually receives the designation of the industry or industries in which it occurs, certain occupations occur in a large number of industries. When this happens, the industry assigned is a cross-industry designation. For example, clerical occupations are found in almost every industry. To show the broad, cross-industry nature of clerical occupations, "clerical" is an industry designation in itself. Among other cross-industry designations are: "profess. & kin.", "machine shop", and "woodworking".

Occupations which characteristically occur in nearly all industries, or which occur in a number of industries, but not in most industries and which are not considered to have any particular industrial attachment, are assigned the designation of "any industry." The job title in the example is assigned this designation. It should always be identified as CLOTH PRINTER (any industry) 652.382-010.

In compiling information for the DOT, analysts were not able to study each occupation in all industries where it occurs. The industry designation, therefore, shows in what industries the occupation was studied but does not mean that it may not be found in others. Therefore, industry designations are to be regarded as indicative of industrial location, but not necessarily restrictive.

4) Alternate Titles

An alternate title is a synonym for the base title. It is not as commonly used as the base title. Alternate titles are shown in lower-case letters immediately after the base title and its industrial designation. In the example, two alternate titles are given: "printer" and "printing-machine operator". Alternate titles may not be used by public employment service offices in assigning occupational classifications. Alternate titles are cross-referenced to their base titles in the Alphabetical Index of Occupational Titles. A particular occupation may have a large number of alternate titles or none at all. Alternate titles carry the code numbers and industry designations of the base title.

5) The Body of the Definition

The body of the definition usually consists of two or three main parts: a lead statement, a number of task element statements, and a third part known as a "may" item.

a) The Lead Statement

The first sentence following the industry designation and alternate titles (if any) is the lead statement. It is followed by a colon (:). The lead statement summarizes the entire occupation. It offers essential information such as:

  • worker actions
  • objective or purpose of the worker actions
  • machines, tools, equipment, or work aids used by the worker
  • materials used, products made, subject matter dealt with, or services rendered
  • instructions followed or judgments made

In the example, the sentence "Sets up and operates machine to print designs on materials, such as cloth, fiberglass, plastics sheeting, coated felt, or oilcloth:" is the lead statement. From it, the user can obtain an overview of the occupation.

b) Task Element Statements

Task element statements indicate the specific tasks the worker performs to accomplish the overall job purpose described in the lead statement. The sentences in the example beginning with "Turns handwheel . . . ", "Turns screws . . . ", "Sharpens doctor . . . ", "Aligns doctor . . . ", "Dips color . . . ", etc. are all task element statements. They indicate how the worker actually carries out the job duties.

c) "May" Items

Many definitions contain one or more sentences beginning with the word "May". They describe duties required of workers in this occupation in some establishments but not in others. The word "May" does not indicate that a worker will sometimes perform this task but rather that some workers in different establishments generally perform one of the varied tasks listed. In the example, the three sentences beginning "May notify. . .", "May mount. . .", "May position. . .", are "May" items. Do not confuse "May" items with the "May be designated. . ." sentence which introduces undefined related titles.

The definition also contains a number of additional information elements designed to assist the user. Among these elements are:

Italicized words: Any word in a definition shown in italics is defined in the "Glossary ". Italicized words are technical or special uses of words not ordinarily found in a dictionary. In the example, the words "printing rollers" are italicized. Their precise meaning can be found in the "Glossary".

[Editor's Note: These words are not italicized in this Web version of the DOT. Please consult a hard bound volume.]

Bracketed titles: A bracketed title indicates that the worker in the base title occupation performs some duties of the bracketed occupation as a part of the worker's regular duties. In the example, the CLOTH PRINTER (any industry) 652.382-010 "May mount printing rollers. . ." Since this task is usually performed by a PRINTING-ROLLER HANDLER (textile) 652.385-010, this occupation is bracketed. To learn more about this particular aspect of the occupation, the user can read the definition of the bracketed occupational title.

Unbracketed titles: Unbracketed titles are used for occupations that have a frequent working relationship with the occupation defined. In the example, the CLOTH PRINTER (any industry) 652.382-010 has a close working relationship with a COLORIST (profess. & kin.) 022.161-014. This unbracketed title is therefore included in the definition.

Roman numerals: Several somewhat different occupations with the same job title may be found in the same industry. In this event, a Roman numeral follows each title. For example, there are two titles in the DOT listed as ASSEMBLER (ordnance). In order to distinguish between them, a Roman numeral is assigned to each one: ASSEMBLER (ordnance) I 736.381-010 and ASSEMBLER (ordnance) II 736.684-014. There is no connection in the sequence of these numbers with the level of complexity of these occupations or the frequency with which they occur in the U.S. economy.

Statement of significant variables: Another element found in some definitions is a statement of significant variables. It appears near the end of a definition and indicates possible variations that can occur in jobs. This eliminates the need to include a large number of almost identical definitions in the DOT. The statement begins with "Important variations include. . .". There is no statement of significant variables in the definition of CLOTH PRINTER (any industry) 652.382-010.

6) Undefined Related Titles

Undefined related titles, when applicable, appear at the end of the occupational definition, with initial capital letters, preceded by a phrase, such as "May be designated according to. . .". In the example, three undefined related titles are given: Novelty-Printing-Machine-Operator (textile), Proofing-Machine Operator (print. & pub.), and Plisse-Machine Operator (textile). This type of title indicates a variation or specialization of the base occupation. It resembles the base enough to accompany it, but differs from it enough to require an explanatory phrase and its own unique title. An undefined related title has the same code as its base title. Undefined related titles found in occupational definitions are listed in the Alphabetical Index of Occupational Titles in initial capital letters. The entry includes the industry designation and the 9-digit code of the corresponding base title. In addition, undefined related titles appear in alphabetical order with their nine-digit code under their appropriate industry in the list of Occupational Titles Arranged by Industry Designation.

7) Definition Trailer

Selected characteristics and auxiliary profile data are contained in a "trailer" appended to each definition. The trailer contains the following selected occupational analysis characteristics: GOE Code; Strength rating; R, M, and L of GED; and SVP. (Refer to Appendix C for a detailed explanation of these characteristics.)

The Date of Last Update (DLU), the last item in the trailer, is the date of the most recent material gathered in support of that occupation. The date "1977" indicates that the job has not been studied since the publication of the Fourth Edition DOT in 1977. This entry allows the reader to identify the currency of each definition. It will also provide easy identification of definitions "new" to the DOT or alert the reader to previously published and recently updated definitions.

HOW TO FIND AN OCCUPATIONAL TITLE AND CODE

Occupational titles and codes in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) are based on the type of information presented in the lead statement and task element statements described in the previous section: worker actions; the purpose or objective of these actions; machines, tools, equipment, or work aids used; materials processed, products made, subject matter dealt with, or service rendered; the nature and complexity of instructions followed; and the job tasks actually performed by the worker. The more complete and comprehensive the information you are able to assemble about the tasks performed by a worker or required by an employer on a particular job, the easier it will be to determine the appropriate classification.

The Three Occupational Arrangements

There are three different arrangements of occupational titles in the DOT: the Occupational Group Arrangement, the Alphabetical Index, and the Industry Arrangement. All of these can assist you in identifying and classifying jobs.

1) The Occupational Group Arrangement

In this revised edition, as in the fourth edition, the primary method of identifying or classifying jobs is by use of the Occupational Group Arrangement (see Occupational Categories, Divisions, and Groups). For job placement and referral purposes, if you have obtained sufficient information from the worker seeking a job, or the employer placing an order, this is the preferred method to use. The other two arrangements of titles are supplementary and should be used in conjunction with the Occupational Group Arrangement. Using the Occupational Group Arrangement saves time by eliminating the extra step of referring to other sections of the DOT.

To use the Occupational Group Arrangement:
a) Obtain all the relevant facts about the job.

b) Find the 1-digit occupational category which seems most likely to contain the job.

c) Find the most appropriate 2-digit occupational division of the category.

d) Find the best 3-digit group within the division.

e) Examine the occupational definition under the group you have selected and choose the most appropriate title. Read the definition for the title selected carefully before deciding if this is the best possible classification. If it does not correspond closely with the information you have collected, repeat steps (b) to (d) to find the most appropriate classification.

In the process of choosing the appropriate occupational category, division, and group (steps b - d) you will develop information about the job which will be helpful in classifying it. When you are trying to find the most appropriate definition in the occupational group selected (step e), remember that jobs requiring more responsibility and independent judgment have lower worker functions numerals and will be found near the beginning of the occupational group, while those requiring less responsibility and independent judgment have higher numbers and will be found nearer the end.

2) The Alphabetical Index of Occupational Titles

The Alphabetical Index is the second basic arrangement of codes and titles in the DOT. In this section, titles are shown first, including their industry designation. Titles with two or more words, such as ACCOUNT-CLASSIFICATION CLERK (clerical), are treated as one word for purposes of alphabetizing. Following the industry designation, you will find the 9-digit code for the occupation. This will help to find quickly the title and its definition in the Occupational Group Arrangement (OGA). The Alphabetical Index is useful if you are sure of an occupational title, including its industry designation, and just need the 9-digit code, or if you are reasonably sure of a title and its industry designation, but there is more than one such title in the same industry (indicated by a Roman numeral), you could use this index to get the 9-digit codes of the various titles in order to locate and check out their definitions in the OGA. Although it is unwise to classify a job or application based on its title alone, the Alphabetical Index is useful in some situations to identify definitions that are possibly relevant.

To use the Alphabetical Index:

a) Look through the index for the title of the job as you know it. If you find it, write down the 9-digit code printed to the right of the title. Using this code as a guide, find the definition for the title in the Occupational Group Arrangement. Read the entire definition before deciding whether it is the most appropriate classification.

b) If you cannot find the job title, or if the definition appears inappropriate, look for another title. Some clues are:

Invert the title: maintenance carpenter CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

Contract the title: rubber-belt repairer BELT REPAIRER

Find a synonym: car mechanic AUTOMOBILE MECHANIC

Consider such factors as:

  • Job location PARKING LOT ATTENDANT; STOREROOM CLERK

  • Machines used PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR; MACHINE FEEDER

  • Materials used LOG LOADER; PLASTIC-TILE LAYER

  • Subject matter ACCOUNTING CLERK; CREDIT ANALYST

  • Services involved CLEANER AND PRESSER; BROKER

  • Activity performed TEACHER; INSPECTOR

  • Job complexity MACHINE SETTER; WELDING-MACHINE TENDER

If you have information on several of these factors, however, it may be more appropriate to use the Occupational Group Arrangement.

Some titles listed in the Alphabetical Index are not used in public employment service operations. ``Master'' and ``Term'' titles do not have occupational codes and consequently cannot be used. They are easily recognized since the words ``Master Title'' or ``Term Title'' appear in place of the code to the right of the title. Alternate titles, which are synonyms for, but less commonly used than base titles, are not standard titles for classification purposes in Job Service operations. They are also easily recognizable since they are in lower-case letters.

3) Occupational Titles Arranged by Industry Designation

The Industry Arrangement of titles may be useful if you have limited information about a job. You may know the industry in which the job is located, but have little or no information about such things as products made, materials used, services rendered, and other essential data. The Industry Arrangement can also be of assistance if a person wants to work in a particular industry, or if you need to learn more about related jobs in the industry.

To use the Industry Arrangement:

a) Look through the industry titles and read their definitions. Select the one most likely to contain the particular job.

b) Survey the occupational titles listed under the selected industry. Choose the title which seems appropriate to the job, and write down the nine-digit code to the right of the title. Using this code as a guide, find the definition in the Occupational Group Arrangement. Read the entire occupational definition before deciding if it is the most appropriate classification.
Summary

The basic purpose and use of each of the three arrangements of occupational titles is shown below:

Use . . .     If you . . .

 

THE                     have sufficient information about the job tasks

OCCUPATIONAL            want to know about other closely related occupations
 
GROUP                   want to be sure you have chosen the most appropriate

ARRANGEMENT             classification using the other arrangements

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OCCUPATIONAL TITLES     know only the industry in which the job is located 
 
ARRANGED BY             want to know about other jobs in an industry
 
INDUSTRY DESIGNATION    your client wants to work in a specific industry 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
THE ALPHABETICAL        know only the job title 

INDEX OF                and cannot obtain better 

OCCUPATIONAL TITLES     information 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (4th Ed., Rev. 1991) -- OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES, DIVISIONS, AND GROUPS

OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES, DIVISIONS, AND GROUPS

ONE-DIGIT OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES

   0/1 PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS

   2 CLERICAL AND SALES OCCUPATIONS

   3 SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   4 AGRICULTURAL, FISHERY, FORESTRY, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   5 PROCESSING OCCUPATIONS

   6 MACHINE TRADES OCCUPATIONS

   7 BENCHWORK OCCUPATIONS

   8 STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS

   9 MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS

   

TWO-DIGIT OCCUPATIONAL DIVISIONS

   

0/1 PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS

   00/01 OCCUPATIONS IN ARCHITECTURE, ENGINEERING, AND SURVEYING

   02 OCCUPATIONS IN MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES

   03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   04 OCCUPATIONS IN LIFE SCIENCES

   05 OCCUPATIONS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES

   07 OCCUPATIONS IN MEDICINE AND HEALTH

   09 OCCUPATIONS IN EDUCATION

   10 OCCUPATIONS IN MUSEUM, LIBRARY, AND ARCHIVAL SCIENCES

   11 OCCUPATIONS IN LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE

   12 OCCUPATIONS IN RELIGION AND THEOLOGY

   13 OCCUPATIONS IN WRITING

   14 OCCUPATIONS IN ART

   15 OCCUPATIONS IN ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION

   16 OCCUPATIONS IN ADMINISTRATIVE SPECIALIZATIONS

   18 MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS, N.E.C.

   19 MISCELLANEOUS PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS

   

2 CLERICAL AND SALES OCCUPATIONS

   20 STENOGRAPHY, TYPING, FILING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   21 COMPUTING AND ACCOUNT-RECORDING OCCUPATIONS

   22 PRODUCTION AND STOCK CLERKS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   23 INFORMATION AND MESSAGE DISTRIBUTION OCCUPATIONS

   24 MISCELLANEOUS CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS

   25 SALES OCCUPATIONS, SERVICES

   26 SALES OCCUPATIONS, CONSUMABLE COMMODITIES

   27 SALES OCCUPATIONS, COMMODITIES, N.E.C.

   29 MISCELLANEOUS SALES OCCUPATIONS

   

3 SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   30 DOMESTIC SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   31 FOOD AND BEVERAGE PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   32 LODGING AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   33 BARBERING, COSMETOLOGY, AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   34 AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   35 MISCELLANEOUS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   36 APPAREL AND FURNISHINGS SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   37 PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   38 BUILDING AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   

4 AGRICULTURAL, FISHERY, FORESTRY, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   40 PLANT FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   41 ANIMAL FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   42 MISCELLANEOUS AGRICULTURAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   44 FISHERY AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   45 FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS

   46 HUNTING, TRAPPING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   

5 PROCESSING OCCUPATIONS

   50 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF METAL

   51 ORE REFINING AND FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS

   52 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF FOOD, TOBACCO, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   53 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF PAPER AND RELATED MATERIALS

   54 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF PETROLEUM, COAL, NATURAL AND MANUFACTURED GAS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   55 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, SYNTHETICS, RUBBER, PAINT, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   56 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS

   57 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF STONE, CLAY, GLASS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   58 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF LEATHER, TEXTILES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   59 PROCESSING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

6 MACHINE TRADES OCCUPATIONS

   60 METAL MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

   61 METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   62/63 MECHANICS AND MACHINERY REPAIRERS

   64 PAPERWORKING OCCUPATIONS

   65 PRINTING OCCUPATIONS

   66 WOOD MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

   67 OCCUPATIONS IN MACHINING STONE, CLAY, GLASS, AND RELATED MATERIALS

   68 TEXTILE OCCUPATIONS

   69 MACHINE TRADES OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

7 BENCHWORK OCCUPATIONS

   

70 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND REPAIR OF METAL PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   71 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF SCIENTIFIC, MEDICAL, PHOTOGRAPHIC, OPTICAL, HOROLOGICAL, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   72 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

   73 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF PRODUCTS MADE FROM ASSORTED MATERIALS

   74 PAINTING, DECORATING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   75 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF PLASTICS, SYNTHETICS, RUBBER, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   76 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF WOOD PRODUCTS

   77 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF SAND, STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS

   78 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF TEXTILE, LEATHER, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   79 BENCHWORK OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

8 STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS

   80 OCCUPATIONS IN METAL FABRICATING, N.E.C.

   81 WELDERS, CUTTERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   82 ELECTRICAL ASSEMBLING, INSTALLING, AND REPAIRING OCCUPATIONS

   84 PAINTING, PLASTERING, WATERPROOFING, CEMENTING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   85 EXCAVATING, GRADING, PAVING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   86 CONSTRUCTION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   89 STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

9 MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS

   90 MOTOR FREIGHT OCCUPATIONS

   91 TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   92 PACKAGING AND MATERIALS HANDLING OCCUPATIONS

   93 OCCUPATIONS IN EXTRACTION OF MINERALS

   95 OCCUPATIONS IN PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF UTILITIES

   96 AMUSEMENT, RECREATION, MOTION PICTURE, RADIO AND TELEVISION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   97 OCCUPATIONS IN GRAPHIC ART WORK

   

   

THREE-DIGIT OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS

   

PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS

   

00/01 OCCUPATIONS IN ARCHITECTURE, ENGINEERING, AND SURVEYING

   001 ARCHITECTURAL OCCUPATIONS

   002 AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   003 ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   005 CIVIL ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   006 CERAMIC ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   007 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   008 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   010 MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   011 METALLURGY AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   012 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   013 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   014 MARINE ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   015 NUCLEAR ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS

   017 DRAFTERS, N.E.C.

   018 SURVEYING/CARTOGRAPHIC OCCUPATIONS

   019 OCCUPATIONS IN ARCHITECTURE, ENGINEERING, AND SURVEYING, N.E.C.

   

02 OCCUPATIONS IN MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES

   020 OCCUPATIONS IN MATHEMATICS

   021 OCCUPATIONS IN ASTRONOMY

   022 OCCUPATIONS IN CHEMISTRY

   023 OCCUPATIONS IN PHYSICS

   024 OCCUPATIONS IN GEOLOGY

   025 OCCUPATIONS IN METEOROLOGY

   029 OCCUPATIONS IN MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, N.E.C.

   

03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   030 OCCUPATIONS IN SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND PROGRAMMING

   031 OCCUPATIONS IN DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS

   032 OCCUPATIONS IN COMPUTER SYSTEM USER SUPPORT

   033 OCCUPATIONS IN COMPUTER SYSTEMS TECHNICAL SUPPORT

   039 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

04 OCCUPATIONS IN LIFE SCIENCES

   040 OCCUPATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

   041 OCCUPATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

   045 OCCUPATIONS IN PSYCHOLOGY

   049 OCCUPATIONS IN LIFE SCIENCES, N.E.C.

   

05 OCCUPATIONS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES

   050 OCCUPATIONS IN ECONOMICS

   051 OCCUPATIONS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

   052 OCCUPATIONS IN HISTORY

   054 OCCUPATIONS IN SOCIOLOGY

   055 OCCUPATIONS IN ANTHROPOLOGY

   059 OCCUPATIONS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES, N.E.C.

   

07 OCCUPATIONS IN MEDICINE AND HEALTH

   070 PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS

   071 OSTEOPATHS

   072 DENTISTS

   073 VETERINARIANS

   074 PHARMACISTS

   075 REGISTERED NURSES

   076 THERAPISTS

   077 DIETITIANS

   078 OCCUPATIONS IN MEDICAL AND DENTAL TECHNOLOGY

   079 OCCUPATIONS IN MEDICINE AND HEALTH, N.E.C.

   

09 OCCUPATIONS IN EDUCATION

   090 OCCUPATIONS IN COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

   091 OCCUPATIONS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION

   092 OCCUPATIONS IN PRESCHOOL, PRIMARY SCHOOL, AND KINDERGARTEN EDUCATION

   094 OCCUPATIONS IN EDUCATION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

   096 HOME ECONOMISTS AND FARM ADVISERS

   097 OCCUPATIONS IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

   099 OCCUPATIONS IN EDUCATION, N.E.C.

   

10 OCCUPATIONS IN MUSEUM, LIBRARY, AND ARCHIVAL SCIENCES

   100 LIBRARIANS

   101 ARCHIVISTS

   102 MUSEUM CURATORS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   109 OCCUPATIONS IN MUSEUM, LIBRARY, AND ARCHIVAL SCIENCES, N.E.C.

   

11 OCCUPATIONS IN LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE

   110 LAWYERS

   111 JUDGES

   119 OCCUPATIONS IN LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE, N.E.C.

   

12 OCCUPATIONS IN RELIGION AND THEOLOGY

   120 CLERGY

   129 OCCUPATIONS IN RELIGION AND THEOLOGY, N.E.C.

   

13 OCCUPATIONS IN WRITING

   131 WRITERS

   132 EDITORS: PUBLICATION, BROADCAST, AND SCRIPT

   137 INTERPRETERS AND TRANSLATORS

   139 OCCUPATIONS IN WRITING, N.E.C.

   

14 OCCUPATIONS IN ART

   141 COMMERCIAL ARTISTS: DESIGNERS AND ILLUSTRATORS, GRAPHIC ARTS

   142 ENVIRONMENTAL, PRODUCT, AND RELATED DESIGNERS

   143 OCCUPATIONS IN PHOTOGRAPHY

   144 FINE ARTISTS: PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   149 OCCUPATIONS IN ART, N.E.C.

   

15 OCCUPATIONS IN ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION

   150 OCCUPATIONS IN DRAMATICS

   151 OCCUPATIONS IN DANCING

   152 OCCUPATIONS IN MUSIC

   153 OCCUPATIONS IN ATHLETICS AND SPORTS

   159 OCCUPATIONS IN ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION, N.E.C.

   

16 OCCUPATIONS IN ADMINISTRATIVE SPECIALIZATIONS

   160 ACCOUNTANTS, AUDITORS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   161 BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OCCUPATIONS

   162 PURCHASING MANAGEMENT OCCUPATIONS

   163 SALES AND DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT OCCUPATIONS

   164 ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT OCCUPATIONS

   165 PUBLIC RELATIONS MANAGEMENT OCCUPATIONS

   166 PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION OCCUPATIONS

   168 INSPECTORS AND INVESTIGATORS, MANAGERIAL AND PUBLIC SERVICE

   169 OCCUPATIONS IN ADMINISTRATIVE SPECIALIZATIONS, N.E.C.

   

18 MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS, N.E.C.

   180 AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND FISHING INDUSTRY MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   181 MINING INDUSTRY MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   182 CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   183 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   184 TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION, AND UTILITIES INDUSTRY MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   185 WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   186 FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   187 SERVICE INDUSTRY MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   188 PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS

   189 MISCELLANEOUS MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS, N.E.C.

   

19 MISCELLANEOUS PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS

   191 AGENTS AND APPRAISERS, N.E.C.

   193 RADIO OPERATORS

   194 SOUND, FILM, AND VIDEOTAPE RECORDING, AND REPRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS

   195 OCCUPATIONS IN SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORK

   196 AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS

   197 SHIP CAPTAINS, MATES, PILOTS, AND ENGINEERS

   198 RAILROAD CONDUCTORS

   199 MISCELLANEOUS PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

CLERICAL AND SALES OCCUPATIONS

   

20 STENOGRAPHY, TYPING, FILING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   201 SECRETARIES

   202 STENOGRAPHERS

   203 TYPISTS AND TYPEWRITING-MACHINE OPERATORS

   205 INTERVIEWING CLERKS

   206 FILE CLERKS

   207 DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATORS AND TENDERS

   208 MAILING AND MISCELLANEOUS OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS

   209 STENOGRAPHY, TYPING, FILING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

21 COMPUTING AND ACCOUNT-RECORDING OCCUPATIONS

   210 BOOKKEEPERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   211 CASHIERS AND TELLERS

   213 COMPUTER AND PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS

   214 BILLING AND RATE CLERKS

   215 PAYROLL, TIMEKEEPING, AND DUTY-ROSTER CLERKS

   216 ACCOUNTING AND STATISTICAL CLERKS

   217 ACCOUNT-RECORDING-MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C.

   219 COMPUTING AND ACCOUNT-RECORDING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

22 PRODUCTION AND STOCK CLERKS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   221 PRODUCTION CLERKS

   222 SHIPPING, RECEIVING, STOCK, AND RELATED CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS

   229 PRODUCTION AND STOCK CLERKS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

23 INFORMATION AND MESSAGE DISTRIBUTION OCCUPATIONS

   230 HAND DELIVERY AND DISTRIBUTION OCCUPATIONS

   235 TELEPHONE OPERATORS

   236 TELEGRAPH OPERATORS

   237 INFORMATION AND RECEPTION CLERKS

   238 ACCOMMODATION CLERKS AND GATE AND TICKET AGENTS

   239 INFORMATION AND MESSAGE DISTRIBUTION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

24 MISCELLANEOUS CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS

   241 INVESTIGATORS, ADJUSTERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   243 GOVERNMENT SERVICE CLERKS, N.E.C.

   245 MEDICAL SERVICE CLERKS, N.E.C.

   247 ADVERTISING-SERVICE CLERKS, N.E.C.

   248 TRANSPORTATION-SERVICE CLERKS, N.E.C

   249 MISCELLANEOUS CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

25 SALES OCCUPATIONS, SERVICES

   250 SALES OCCUPATIONS, REAL ESTATE, INSURANCE, SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES

   251 SALES OCCUPATIONS, BUSINESS SERVICES, EXCEPT REAL ESTATE, INSURANCE, SECURITIES, AND FINANCIAL SERVICES

   252 SALES OCCUPATIONS, TRANSPORTATION SERVICES

   253 SALES OCCUPATIONS, UTILITIES

   254 SALES OCCUPATIONS, PRINTING AND ADVERTISING

   259 SALES OCCUPATIONS, SERVICES, N.E.C.

   

26 SALES OCCUPATIONS, CONSUMABLE COMMODITIES

   260 SALES OCCUPATIONS, AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PRODUCTS

   261 SALES OCCUPATIONS, TEXTILE PRODUCTS, APPAREL, AND NOTIONS

   262 SALES OCCUPATIONS, CHEMICALS, DRUGS, AND SUNDRIES

   269 SALES OCCUPATIONS, MISCELLANEOUS CONSUMABLE COMMODITIES, N.E.C.

   

27 SALES OCCUPATIONS, COMMODITIES, N.E.C.

   270 SALES OCCUPATIONS, HOME FURNITURE, FURNISHINGS, AND APPLIANCES

   271 SALES OCCUPATIONS, ELECTRICAL GOODS, EXCEPT HOME APPLIANCES

   272 SALES OCCUPATIONS, FARM AND GARDENING EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

   273 SALES OCCUPATIONS, TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, PARTS, AND SUPPLIES

   274 SALES OCCUPATIONS, INDUSTRIAL AND RELATED EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

   275 SALES OCCUPATIONS, BUSINESS AND COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

   276 SALES OCCUPATIONS, MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

   277 SALES OCCUPATIONS, SPORTING, HOBBY, STATIONERY, AND RELATED GOODS

   279 SALES OCCUPATIONS, MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES, N.E.C.

   

29 MISCELLANEOUS SALES OCCUPATIONS

   290 SALES CLERKS

   291 VENDING AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SELLING OCCUPATIONS

   292 ROUTE SALES AND DELIVERY OCCUPATIONS

   293 SOLICITORS

   294 AUCTIONEERS

   295 RENTAL CLERKS

   296 SHOPPERS

   297 SALES PROMOTION OCCUPATIONS

   298 MERCHANDISE DISPLAYERS

   299 MISCELLANEOUS SALES OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   

30 DOMESTIC SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   301 HOUSEHOLD AND RELATED WORK

   302 LAUNDERERS, PRIVATE FAMILY

   305 COOKS, DOMESTIC

   309 DOMESTIC SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

31 FOOD AND BEVERAGE PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   310 HOSTS/HOSTESSES AND STEWARDS/STEWARDESSES, FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE, EXCEPT SHIP STEWARDS/STEWARDESSES

   311 WAITERS/WAITRESSES, AND RELATED FOOD SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   312 BARTENDERS

   313 CHEFS AND COOKS, HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS

   315 MISCELLANEOUS COOKS, EXCEPT DOMESTIC

   316 MEATCUTTERS, EXCEPT IN SLAUGHTERING AND PACKING HOUSES

   317 MISCELLANEOUS FOOD AND BEVERAGE PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS

   318 KITCHEN WORKERS, N.E.C.

   319 FOOD AND BEVERAGE PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

32 LODGING AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   320 BOARDING-HOUSE AND LODGING-HOUSE KEEPERS

   321 HOUSEKEEPERS, HOTELS AND INSTITUTIONS

   323 HOUSECLEANERS, HOTELS, RESTAURANTS, AND RELATED ESTABLISHMENTS

   324 BELLHOPS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   329 LODGING AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

33 BARBERING, COSMETOLOGY, AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   330 BARBERS

   331 MANICURISTS

   332 HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS

   333 MAKE-UP OCCUPATIONS

   334 MASSEURS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   335 BATH ATTENDANTS

   338 EMBALMERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   339 BARBERING, COSMETOLOGY, AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

34 AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   340 ATTENDANTS, BOWLING ALLEY AND BILLIARD PARLOR

   341 ATTENDANTS, GOLF COURSE, TENNIS COURT, SKATING RINK, AND RELATED FACILITIES

   342 AMUSEMENT DEVICE AND CONCESSION ATTENDANTS

   343 GAMBLING HALL ATTENDANTS

   344 USHERS

   346 WARDROBE AND DRESSING-ROOM ATTENDANTS

   349 AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

35 MISCELLANEOUS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   350 SHIP STEWARDS/STEWARDESSES AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   351 TRAIN ATTENDANTS

   352 HOSTS/HOSTESSES AND STEWARDS/STEWARDESSES, N.E.C.

   353 GUIDES

   354 UNLICENSED BIRTH ATTENDANTS AND PRACTICAL NURSES

   355 ATTENDANTS, HOSPITALS, MORGUES, AND RELATED HEALTH SERVICES

   357 BAGGAGE HANDLERS

   358 CHECKROOM, LOCKER ROOM, AND REST ROOM ATTENDANTS

   359 MISCELLANEOUS PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

36 APPAREL AND FURNISHINGS SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   361 LAUNDERING OCCUPATIONS

   362 DRY CLEANING OCCUPATIONS

   363 PRESSING OCCUPATIONS

   364 DYEING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   365 SHOE AND LUGGAGE REPAIRER AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   366 BOOTBLACKS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   369 APPAREL AND FURNISHINGS SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

37 PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   371 CROSSING TENDERS AND BRIDGE OPERATORS

   372 SECURITY GUARDS AND CORRECTION OFFICERS, EXCEPT CROSSING TENDERS

   373 FIRE FIGHTERS, FIRE DEPARTMENT

   375 POLICE OFFICERS AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE

   376 POLICE OFFICERS AND DETECTIVES, EXCEPT IN PUBLIC SERVICE

   377 SHERIFFS AND BAILIFFS

   378 ARMED FORCES ENLISTED PERSONNEL

   379 PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

38 BUILDING AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   381 PORTERS AND CLEANERS

   382 JANITORS

   383 BUILDING PEST CONTROL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   388 ELEVATOR OPERATORS

   389 BUILDING AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   AGRICULTURAL, FISHERY, FORESTRY, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   

40 PLANT FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   401 GRAIN FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   402 VEGETABLE FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   403 FRUIT AND NUT FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   404 FIELD CROP FARMING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   405 HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS

   406 GARDENING AND GROUNDSKEEPING OCCUPATIONS

   407 DIVERSIFIED CROP FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   408 PLANT LIFE AND RELATED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   409 PLANT FARMING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

41 ANIMAL FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   410 DOMESTIC ANIMAL FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   411 DOMESTIC FOWL FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   412 GAME FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   413 LOWER ANIMAL FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   418 ANIMAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

   419 ANIMAL FARMING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

42 MISCELLANEOUS AGRICULTURAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   421 GENERAL FARMING OCCUPATIONS

   429 MISCELLANEOUS AGRICULTURAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

44 FISHERY AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   441 NET, SEINE, AND TRAP FISHERS

   442 LINE FISHERS

   443 FISHERS, MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT

   446 AQUATIC LIFE CULTIVATION AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   447 SPONGE AND SEAWEED GATHERERS

   449 FISHERY AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

45 FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS

   451 TREE FARMING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   452 FOREST CONSERVATION OCCUPATIONS

   453 OCCUPATIONS IN HARVESTING FOREST PRODUCTS, EXCEPT LOGGING

   454 LOGGING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   455 LOG GRADING, SCALING, SORTING, RAFTING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   459 FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

46 HUNTING, TRAPPING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   461 HUNTING AND TRAPPING OCCUPATIONS

   

PROCESSING OCCUPATIONS

   

50 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF METAL

   500 ELECTROPLATING OCCUPATIONS

   501 DIP PLATING OCCUPATIONS

   502 MELTING, POURING, CASTING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   503 PICKLING, CLEANING, DEGREASING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   504 HEAT-TREATING OCCUPATIONS

   505 METAL SPRAYING, COATING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   509 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF METAL, N.E.C.

   

51 ORE REFINING AND FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS

   510 MIXING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   511 SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   512 MELTING OCCUPATIONS

   513 ROASTING OCCUPATIONS

   514 POURING AND CASTING OCCUPATIONS

   515 CRUSHING AND GRINDING OCCUPATIONS

   518 MOLDERS, COREMAKERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   519 ORE REFINING AND FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

52 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF FOOD, TOBACCO, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   520 MIXING, COMPOUNDING, BLENDING, KNEADING, SHAPING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   521 SEPARATING, CRUSHING, MILLING, CHOPPING, GRINDING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   522 CULTURING, MELTING, FERMENTING, DISTILLING, SATURATING, PICKLING, AGING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   523 HEATING, RENDERING, MELTING, DRYING, COOLING, FREEZING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   524 COATING, ICING, DECORATING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   525 SLAUGHTERING, BREAKING, CURING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   526 COOKING AND BAKING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   529 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF FOOD, TOBACCO, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

53 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF PAPER AND RELATED MATERIALS

   530 GRINDING, BEATING, AND MIXING OCCUPATIONS

   532 COOKING AND DRYING OCCUPATIONS

   533 COOLING, BLEACHING, SCREENING, WASHING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   534 CALENDERING, SIZING, COATING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   535 FORMING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   539 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF PAPER AND RELATED MATERIALS, N.E.C.

   

54 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF PETROLEUM, COAL, NATURAL AND MANUFACTURED GAS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   540 MIXING AND BLENDING OCCUPATIONS

   541 FILTERING, STRAINING, AND SEPARATING OCCUPATIONS

   542 DISTILLING, SUBLIMING, AND CARBONIZING OCCUPATIONS

   543 DRYING, HEATING, AND MELTING OCCUPATIONS

   544 GRINDING AND CRUSHING OCCUPATIONS

   546 REACTING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   549 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF PETROLEUM, COAL, NATURAL AND MANUFACTURED GAS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

55 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, SYNTHETICS, RUBBER, PAINT, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   550 MIXING AND BLENDING OCCUPATIONS

   551 FILTERING, STRAINING, AND SEPARATING OCCUPATIONS

   552 DISTILLING OCCUPATIONS

   553 HEATING, BAKING, DRYING, SEASONING, MELTING, AND HEAT-TREATING OCCUPATIONS

   554 COATING, CALENDERING, LAMINATING, AND FINISHING OCCUPATIONS

   555 GRINDING AND CRUSHING OCCUPATIONS

   556 CASTING AND MOLDING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   557 EXTRUDING OCCUPATIONS

   558 REACTING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   559 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, SYNTHETICS, RUBBER, PAINT, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

56 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS

   560 MIXING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   561 WOOD PRESERVING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   562 SATURATING, COATING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   563 DRYING, SEASONING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   564 GRINDING AND CHOPPING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   569 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

57 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF STONE, CLAY, GLASS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   570 CRUSHING, GRINDING, AND MIXING OCCUPATIONS

   571 SEPARATING OCCUPATIONS

   572 MELTING OCCUPATIONS

   573 BAKING, DRYING, AND HEAT-TREATING OCCUPATIONS

   574 IMPREGNATING, COATING, AND GLAZING OCCUPATIONS

   575 FORMING OCCUPATIONS

   579 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF STONE, CLAY, GLASS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

58 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF LEATHER, TEXTILES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   580 SHAPING, BLOCKING, STRETCHING, AND TENTERING OCCUPATIONS

   581 SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND DRYING OCCUPATIONS

   582 WASHING, STEAMING, AND SATURATING OCCUPATIONS

   583 IRONING, PRESSING, GLAZING, STAKING, CALENDERING, AND EMBOSSING OCCUPATIONS

   584 MERCERIZING, COATING, AND LAMINATING OCCUPATIONS

   585 SINGEING, CUTTING, SHEARING, SHAVING, AND NAPPING OCCUPATIONS

   586 FELTING AND FULLING OCCUPATIONS

   587 BRUSHING AND SHRINKING OCCUPATIONS

   589 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING OF LEATHER, TEXTILES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

59 PROCESSING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   590 OCCUPATIONS IN PROCESSING PRODUCTS FROM ASSORTED MATERIALS

   599 MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   MACHINE TRADES OCCUPATIONS

   

60 METAL MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

   600 MACHINISTS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   601 TOOLMAKERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   602 GEAR MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

   603 ABRADING OCCUPATIONS

   604 TURNING OCCUPATIONS

   605 MILLING, SHAPING, AND PLANING OCCUPATIONS

   606 BORING OCCUPATIONS

   607 SAWING OCCUPATIONS

   609 METAL MACHINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

61 METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   610 HAMMER FORGING OCCUPATIONS

   611 PRESS FORGING OCCUPATIONS

   612 FORGING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   613 SHEET AND BAR ROLLING OCCUPATIONS

   614 EXTRUDING AND DRAWING OCCUPATIONS

   615 PUNCHING AND SHEARING OCCUPATIONS

   616 FABRICATING MACHINE OCCUPATIONS

   617 FORMING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   619 MISCELLANEOUS METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

62/63 MECHANICS AND MACHINERY REPAIRERS

   620 MOTORIZED VEHICLE AND ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   621 AIRCRAFT MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   622 RAIL EQUIPMENT MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   623 MARINE MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   624 FARM MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   625 ENGINE, POWER TRANSMISSION, AND RELATED MECHANICS

   626 METALWORKING MACHINERY MECHANICS

   627 PRINTING AND PUBLISHING MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   628 TEXTILE MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   629 SPECIAL INDUSTRY MACHINERY MECHANICS

   630 GENERAL INDUSTRY MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   631 POWERPLANT MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   632 ORDNANCE AND ACCESSORIES MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   633 BUSINESS AND COMMERCIAL MACHINE REPAIRERS

   637 UTILITIES SERVICE MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

   638 MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS IN MACHINE INSTALLATION AND REPAIR

   639 MECHANICS AND MACHINERY REPAIRERS, N.E.C.

   

64 PAPERWORKING OCCUPATIONS

   640 PAPER CUTTING, WINDING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   641 FOLDING, CREASING, SCORING, AND GLUING OCCUPATIONS

   649 PAPERWORKING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

65 PRINTING OCCUPATIONS

   650 TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSERS

   651 PRINTING PRESS OCCUPATIONS

   652 PRINTING MACHINE OCCUPATIONS

   653 BOOKBINDING-MACHINE OPERATORS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   654 TYPECASTERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   659 PRINTING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

66 WOOD MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

   660 CABINETMAKERS

   661 PATTERNMAKERS

   662 SANDING OCCUPATIONS

   663 SHEARING AND SHAVING OCCUPATIONS

   664 TURNING OCCUPATIONS

   665 MILLING AND PLANING OCCUPATIONS

   666 BORING OCCUPATIONS

   667 SAWING OCCUPATIONS

   669 WOOD MACHINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

67 OCCUPATIONS IN MACHINING STONE, CLAY, GLASS, AND RELATED MATERIALS

   670 STONECUTTERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   673 ABRADING OCCUPATIONS

   674 TURNING OCCUPATIONS

   675 PLANING AND SHAPING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   676 BORING AND PUNCHING OCCUPATIONS

   677 CHIPPING, CUTTING, SAWING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   679 OCCUPATIONS IN MACHINING STONE, CLAY, GLASS, AND RELATED MATERIALS, N.E.C.

   

68 TEXTILE OCCUPATIONS

   680 CARDING, COMBING, DRAWING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   681 TWISTING, BEAMING, WARPING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   682 SPINNING OCCUPATIONS

   683 WEAVERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   684 HOSIERY KNITTING OCCUPATIONS

   685 KNITTING OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT HOSIERY

   686 PUNCHING, CUTTING, FORMING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   687 TUFTING OCCUPATIONS

   689 TEXTILE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

69 MACHINE TRADES OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   690 PLASTICS, SYNTHETICS, RUBBER, AND LEATHER WORKING OCCUPATIONS

   691 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION OF INSULATED WIRE AND CABLE

   692 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION OF PRODUCTS FROM ASSORTED MATERIALS

   693 MODELMAKERS, PATTERNMAKERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   694 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION OF ORDNANCE, AMMUNITION, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   699 MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE TRADES OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

BENCHWORK OCCUPATIONS

   

70 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND REPAIR OF METAL PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   700 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND REPAIR OF JEWELRY, SILVERWARE, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   701 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND REPAIR OF TOOLS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   703 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF SHEETMETAL PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   704 ENGRAVERS, ETCHERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   705 FILING, GRINDING, BUFFING, CLEANING, AND POLISHING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   706 METAL UNIT ASSEMBLERS AND ADJUSTERS, N.E.C.

   709 MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND REPAIR OF METAL PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

71 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF SCIENTIFIC, MEDICAL, PHOTOGRAPHIC, OPTICAL, HOROLOGICAL, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   710 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING, CONTROLLING, AND INDICATING PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

   711 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

   712 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF SURGICAL, MEDICAL, AND DENTAL INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES

   713 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF OPHTHALMIC GOODS

   714 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

   715 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF WATCHES, CLOCKS, AND PARTS

   716 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT, N.E.C.

   719 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF SCIENTIFIC AND MEDICAL APPARATUS, PHOTOGRAPHIC AND OPTICAL GOODS, HOROLOGICAL, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

72 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

   720 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF RADIO AND TELEVISION RECEIVING SETS AND PHONOGRAPHS

   721 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF MOTORS, GENERATORS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   722 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

   723 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND FIXTURES

   724 OCCUPATIONS IN WINDING AND ASSEMBLING COILS, MAGNETS, ARMATURES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   725 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY OF LIGHT BULBS AND ELECTRONIC TUBES

   726 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND ACCESSORIES, N.E.C.

   727 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY OF STORAGE BATTERIES

   728 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION OF ELECTRICAL WIRE AND CABLE

   729 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, N.E.C.

   

73 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF PRODUCTS MADE FROM ASSORTED MATERIALS

   730 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS AND PARTS

   731 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF GAMES AND TOYS

   732 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF SPORTING GOODS

   733 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF PENS, PENCILS, AND OFFICE AND ARTISTS' MATERIALS, N.E.C.

   734 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF NOTIONS

   735 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF JEWELRY, N.E.C.

   736 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF ORDNANCE AND ACCESSORIES

   737 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION OF AMMUNITION, FIREWORKS, EXPLOSIVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   739 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF PRODUCTS MADE FROM ASSORTED MATERIALS, N.E.C.

   

74 PAINTING, DECORATING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   740 PAINTERS, BRUSH

   741 PAINTERS, SPRAY

   742 STAINING, WAXING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   749 PAINTING, DECORATING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

75 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF PLASTICS, SYNTHETICS, RUBBER, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   750 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF TIRES, TUBES, TIRE TREADS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   751 LAYING OUT AND CUTTING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   752 FITTING, SHAPING, CEMENTING, FINISHING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   753 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF RUBBER AND PLASTIC FOOTWEAR

   754 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF MISCELLANEOUS PLASTICS PRODUCTS

   759 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF PLASTICS, SYNTHETICS, RUBBER, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

76 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF WOOD PRODUCTS

   760 BENCH CARPENTERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   761 OCCUPATIONS IN LAYING OUT, CUTTING, CARVING, SHAPING, AND SANDING WOOD PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   762 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLING WOOD PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   763 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF FURNITURE, N.E.C.

   764 COOPERAGE OCCUPATIONS

   769 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF WOOD PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

77 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF SAND, STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS

   770 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF JEWELRY, ORNAMENTS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   771 STONE CUTTERS AND CARVERS

   772 GLASS BLOWING, PRESSING, SHAPING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   773 OCCUPATIONS IN COLORING AND DECORATING BRICK, TILE, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   774 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF POTTERY AND PORCELAIN WARE

   775 GRINDING, FILING, POLISHING, FROSTING, ETCHING, CLEANING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   776 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF ASBESTOS AND POLISHING PRODUCTS, ABRASIVES, AND RELATED MATERIALS

   777 MODELMAKERS, PATTERNMAKERS, MOLDMAKERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   779 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF SAND, STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

78 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF TEXTILE, LEATHER, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   780 OCCUPATIONS IN UPHOLSTERING AND IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF STUFFED FURNITURE, MATTRESSES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   781 LAYING OUT, MARKING, CUTTING, AND PUNCHING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   782 HAND SEWERS, MENDERS, EMBROIDERERS, KNITTERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   783 FUR AND LEATHER WORKING OCCUPATIONS

   784 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF HATS, CAPS, GLOVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS

   785 TAILORS AND DRESSMAKERS

   786 SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS, GARMENT

   787 SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS, NONGARMENT

   788 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF FOOTWEAR

   789 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF TEXTILE, LEATHER, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

79 BENCHWORK OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   790 OCCUPATIONS IN PREPARATION OF FOOD, TOBACCO, AND RELATED PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   794 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION OF PAPER PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   795 GLUING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS

   

80 OCCUPATIONS IN METAL FABRICATING, N.E.C.

   800 RIVETERS, N.E.C.

   801 FITTING, BOLTING, SCREWING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   804 TINSMITHS, COPPERSMITHS, AND SHEET METAL WORKERS

   805 BOILERMAKERS

   806 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   807 STRUCTURAL REPAIRERS, TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT

   809 MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS IN METAL FABRICATING, N.E.C.

   

81 WELDERS, CUTTERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   810 ARC WELDERS AND CUTTERS

   811 GAS WELDERS

   812 RESISTANCE WELDERS

   813 BRAZING, BRAZE-WELDING, AND SOLDERING OCCUPATIONS

   814 SOLID STATE WELDERS

   815 ELECTRON-BEAM; ELECTROSLAG; THERMIT; INDUCTION; AND LASER-BEAM WELDERS

   816 THERMAL CUTTERS AND ARC CUTTERS

   819 WELDERS, CUTTERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

82 ELECTRICAL ASSEMBLING, INSTALLING, AND REPAIRING OCCUPATIONS

   820 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF GENERATORS, MOTORS, ACCESSORIES, AND RELATED POWERPLANT EQUIPMENT

   821 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION LINES AND CIRCUITS

   822 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF WIRE COMMUNICATION, DETECTION AND SIGNALING EQUIPMENT

   823 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION, DETECTION, AND SIGNALING EQUIPMENT

   824 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT AND BUILDING WIRING, N.E.C.

   825 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL-HANDLING EQUIPMENT, N.E.C.

   826 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF INDUSTRIAL APPARATUS, N.E.C.

   827 OCCUPATIONS IN ASSEMBLY, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF LARGE HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND SIMILAR COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT

   828 OCCUPATIONS IN FABRICATION, INSTALLATION, AND REPAIR OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   829 OCCUPATIONS IN INSTALLATION AND REPAIR OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   

84 PAINTING, PLASTERING, WATERPROOFING, CEMENTING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   840 CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE PAINTERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   841 PAPERHANGERS

   842 PLASTERERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   843 WATERPROOFING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   844 CEMENT AND CONCRETE FINISHING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   845 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT PAINTERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   849 PAINTING, PLASTERING, WATERPROOFING, CEMENTING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

85 EXCAVATING, GRADING, PAVING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   850 EXCAVATING, GRADING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   851 DRAINAGE AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   853 PAVING OCCUPATIONS, ASPHALT AND CONCRETE

   859 EXCAVATING, GRADING, PAVING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

86 CONSTRUCTION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   860 CARPENTERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   861 BRICK AND STONE MASONS AND TILE SETTERS

   862 PLUMBERS, GAS FITTERS, STEAM FITTERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   863 ASBESTOS AND INSULATION WORKERS

   864 FLOOR LAYING AND FINISHING OCCUPATIONS

   865 GLAZIERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   866 ROOFERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   869 MISCELLANEOUS CONSTRUCTION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

89 STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   891 OCCUPATIONS IN STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE, N.E.C.

   899 MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS

   

90 MOTOR FREIGHT OCCUPATIONS

   900 CONCRETE-MIXING-TRUCK DRIVERS

   902 DUMP-TRUCK DRIVERS

   903 TRUCK DRIVERS, INFLAMMABLES

   904 TRAILER-TRUCK DRIVERS

   905 TRUCK DRIVERS, HEAVY

   906 TRUCK DRIVERS, LIGHT

   909 MOTOR FREIGHT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

91 TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   910 RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS

   911 WATER TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS

   912 AIR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS

   913 PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   914 PUMPING AND PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS

   915 ATTENDANTS AND SERVICERS, PARKING LOTS AND AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE FACILITIES

   919 MISCELLANEOUS TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

92 PACKAGING AND MATERIALS HANDLING OCCUPATIONS

   920 PACKAGING OCCUPATIONS

   921 HOISTING AND CONVEYING OCCUPATIONS

   922 OCCUPATIONS IN MOVING AND STORING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

   929 PACKAGING AND MATERIALS HANDLING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

93 OCCUPATIONS IN EXTRACTION OF MINERALS

   930 EARTH BORING, DRILLING, CUTTING, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   931 BLASTING OCCUPATIONS

   932 LOADING AND CONVEYING OPERATIONS

   933 CRUSHING OCCUPATIONS

   934 SCREENING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   939 OCCUPATIONS IN EXTRACTION OF MINERALS, N.E.C.

   

95 OCCUPATIONS IN PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF UTILITIES

   950 STATIONARY ENGINEERS

   951 FIRERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   952 OCCUPATIONS IN GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER

   953 OCCUPATIONS IN PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF GAS

   954 OCCUPATIONS IN FILTRATION, PURIFICATION, AND DISTRIBUTION OF WATER

   955 OCCUPATIONS IN DISPOSAL OF REFUSE AND SEWAGE

   956 OCCUPATIONS IN DISTRIBUTION OF STEAM

   959 OCCUPATIONS IN PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF UTILITIES, N.E.C.

   

96 AMUSEMENT, RECREATION, MOTION PICTURE, RADIO AND TELEVISION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   960 MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS

   961 MODELS, STAND-INS, AND EXTRAS, N.E.C.

   962 OCCUPATIONS IN MOTION PICTURE, TELEVISION, AND THEATRICAL PRODUCTIONS, N.E.C.

   969 MISCELLANEOUS AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   

97 OCCUPATIONS IN GRAPHIC ART WORK

   970 ART WORK OCCUPATIONS, BRUSH, SPRAY, OR PEN

   971 PHOTOENGRAVING OCCUPATIONS

   972 LITHOGRAPHERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   973 HAND COMPOSITORS, TYPESETTERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   974 ELECTROTYPERS, STEREOTYPERS, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   976 DARKROOM OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C.

   977 BOOKBINDERS AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

   979 OCCUPATIONS IN GRAPHIC ART WORK, N.E.C.

   


MASTER TITLES AND DEFINITIONS

Master definitions describe work duties that are common or potentially common to a number of jobs. Jobs in which the common duties are an essential part refer to the Master definition title as a device to save space and to avoid repetition of the common duties. Clues to classifications of jobs utilizing Master definitions are provided.

APPRENTICE (any industry)

A worker who learns, according to written or oral contractual agreement, a recognized skilled craft or trade requiring one or more years of on-the-job training through job experience supplemented by related instruction, prior to being considered a qualified skilled worker. High school or vocational school education is often a prerequisite for entry into an apprenticeship program. Provisions of apprenticeship agreement regularly include length of apprenticeship; a progressive scale of wages; work processes to be taught; and amount of instruction in subjects related to the craft or trade, such as characteristics of materials used, physics, mathematics, estimating, and blueprint reading. Apprenticeability of a particular craft or trade is best evidenced by its acceptability for registration as a trade by a State Apprenticeship agency or the Federal Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training. Generally, where employees are represented by a union, apprenticeship programs come under the guidance of joint apprenticeship committees composed of representatives of the employers or the employer association and representatives of the employees. These committees may determine need for apprentices in a locality and establish minimum apprenticeship standards of education, experience, and training. In instances where committees do not exist, apprenticeship agreement is made between apprentice and employer, or an employer group. The title APPRENTICE is often loosely used as a synonym for beginner, HELPER (any industry) Master Title, or TRAINEE (any industry). This practice is technically incorrect and leads to confusion in determining what is meant. Typical classifications for apprentices are BLACKSMITH APPRENTICE (forging); MACHINIST APPRENTICE (machine shop); PLUMBER APPRENTICE (construction).

CLEANER I (any industry)

Maintains premises of commercial, institutional, or industrial establishments, office buildings, hotels and motels, apartment houses, retirement homes, nursing homes, hospitals, schools, or similar establishments in clean and orderly condition, performing the following duties: Cleans rooms, hallways, lobbies, lounges, rest rooms, corridors, elevators, stairways, and locker rooms and other work areas. Sweeps, scrubs, waxes, and polishes floors, using brooms and mops and powered scrubbing and waxing machines. Cleans rugs, carpets, upholstered furniture, and draperies, using vacuum cleaner. Dusts furniture and equipment. Polishes metalwork, such as fixtures and fittings. Washes walls, ceiling, and woodwork. Washes windows, door panels, and sills. Empties wastebaskets, and empties and cleans ashtrays. Transports trash and waste to disposal area. Replenishes bathroom supplies. Replaces light bulbs. Classifications are made according to type of establishment in which work is performed. Typical classifications are CLEANER, COMMERCIAL OR INSTITUTIONAL (any industry); CLEANER, HOSPITAL (medical ser.); CLEANER, HOUSEKEEPING (any industry); CLEANER, INDUSTRIAL (any industry); HOUSECLEANER (hotel & rest.).

DESIGN ENGINEER, FACILITIES (profess. & kin.)

Applies engineering principles to design, modify, or develop facilities, testing, machines, equipment, or processes used in processing or manufacturing products: Analyzes product or equipment specifications and performance requirements to determine designs which can be produced by existing manufacturing or processing facilities and methods. Analyzes engineering proposals, process requirements, and related technical data pertaining to industrial machinery and equipment design. Determines feasibility of designing new plant equipment or modifying existing facilities considering costs, available space, time limitations, company planning, and other technical and economic factors. Provides technical information concerning manufacturing or processing techniques, materials, properties, and process advantages and limitations which affect long range plant and product engineering planning. Compiles and analyzes operational, test, and research data to establish performance standards for newly designed or modified equipment. Studies engineering and technical publications to keep abreast of technological changes and developments in industry. Classifications are made according to type of process or specialization. May use computer-assisted engineering software and equipment.

DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.)

Conducts analytical studies on engineering proposals to develop design for products, such as engines, equipment, machines, associated and subsystems components, and aerospace structures, utilizing and applying engineering principles, research data, and proposed product specifications. Analyzes data to determine feasibility of product proposal. Confers with research personnel to clarify or resolve problems and develops design. Prepares or directs preparation of product or system layout and detailed drawings and schematics. Directs and coordinates manufacturing or building of prototype product or system. Plans and develops experimental test programs. Analyzes test data and reports to determine if design meets functional and performance specifications. Confers with research and other engineering personnel and prepares design modifications as required. Evaluates engineering test results for possible application to development of systems or other uses. Design engineering personnel are classified according to discipline. May use computer-assisted engineering software and equipment.

DRAFTER (profess. & kin.)

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from rough or detailed sketches and notes for engineering or manufacturing purposes according to dimensional specifications: Calculates and lays out dimensions, angles, curvature of parts, materials to be used, relationship of one part to another, and relationship of various parts to entire structure or project, utilizing knowledge of engineering practices, mathematics, building materials, manufacturing technology, and related physical sciences. Creates preliminary or final sketch of proposed drawing, using standard drafting techniques and devices, such as drawing board, T-square, protractor, and drafting machine, or using computer-assisted design/drafting equipment. Modifies drawings as directed by engineer or architect. Classifications are made according to type of drafting, such as electrical, electronic, aeronautical, civil, mechanical, or architectural.

HELPER (any industry)

A worker who assists another worker, usually of a higher level of competence or expertness, by performing a variety of duties, such as furnishing another worker with materials, tools, and supplies; cleaning work area, machines, and equipment; feeding or off bearing machines; holding materials or tools; and performing other routine duties. A HELPER (any industry) Master Title may learn a trade but does so without an agreement with employer that such is the purpose of their relationship. Consequently, the title HELPER (any industry) is sometimes used as synonym for APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title, a practice that is incorrect technically. A worker whose duties are limited or restricted to one type of activity, such as moving materials from one department to another, feeding machines, removing products from conveyors or machines, or cleaning machines or work areas is not technically a HELPER (any industry) and is classified according to duties performed as MATERIAL HANDLER (any industry); MACHINE CLEANER (any industry); CLEANER, INDUSTRIAL (any industry). A worker who performs a variety of duties to assist another worker is a HELPER (any industry) technically and is classified according to worker assisted as BRICKLAYER HELPER (construction); DRY-CLEANER HELPER (laundry & rel.).

RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: development engineer

Conducts research in a field or specialization of an engineering discipline to discover facts, or performs research directed toward investigation, evaluation, and application of known engineering theories and principles. Plans and conducts, or directs engineering personnel performing, complex engineering experiments to test, prove, or modify theoretical propositions on basis of research findings and experiences of others researching in related technological areas. Evaluates findings to develop new concepts, products, equipment, or processes; or to develop applications of findings to new uses. Prepares technical reports for use by engineering or management personnel for long- and short-range planning, or for use by sales engineering personnel in sales or technical services activities. Classifications are made according to discipline. May use computer-assisted engineering software and equipment.

SALES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: marketing engineer

Sells chemical, mechanical, electromechanical, electrical, electronic equipment and supplies or services requiring knowledge of engineering and cost effectiveness: Calls on management representatives, such as engineers, architects, or other professional and technical personnel at commercial, industrial, and other establishments in attempt to convince prospective client of desirability and practicability of products or services offered. Reviews blueprints, plans, and other customer documents to develop and prepare cost estimates or projected increases in production from client's use of proposed equipment or services. Draws up or proposes changes in equipment, processes, or use of materials or services which would result in cost reduction or improvement in operations. Provides technical services to clients relating to use, operation, and maintenance of equipment. May draw up sales or service contract for products or services. May provide technical training to employees of client. Usually specializes in sale of one or more closely related group of products or types of services, such as electrical or electronic equipment or systems, industrial machinery, processing equipment or systems, air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment, electric power equipment, or chemical goods.

SALES REPRESENTATIVE (retail trade; wholesale tr.) alternate titles: sales agent; sales associate

Sells products to business and industrial establishments or individual for manufacturer or distributor at sales office, store, showroom, or customer's place of business, utilizing knowledge of product sold: Compiles lists of prospective customers for use as sales leads, based on information from newspapers, business directories, and other sources. Travels throughout assigned territory to call on regular and prospective customers to solicit orders or talks with customers on sales floor or by phone. Displays or demonstrates product, using samples or catalog, and emphasizes salable features. Quotes prices and credit terms and prepares sales contracts for orders obtained. Estimates date of delivery to customer, based on knowledge of own firm's production and delivery schedules. Prepares reports of business transactions and keeps expense accounts. Classifications are made according to products sold as SALES REPRESENTATIVE, FOOD PRODUCTS (wholesale tr.); SALES REPRESENTATIVE, INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY (wholesale tr.).

SALESPERSON (retail trade; wholesale tr.)

Sells merchandise to individuals in store or showroom, utilizing knowledge of products sold: Greets customer on sales floor and ascertains make, type, and quality of merchandise desired. Displays merchandise, suggests selections that meet customer's needs, and emphasizes selling points of article, such as quality and utility. Prepares sales slip or sales contract. Receives payment or obtains credit authorization. Places new merchandise on display. May wrap merchandise for customer. May take inventory of stock. May requisition merchandise from stockroom. May visit customer's home by appointment to sell merchandise on shop-at-home basis. Classifications are made according to products sold as SALESPERSON, AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES (retail trade; wholesale tr.); SALESPERSON, BOOKS (retail trade); SALESPERSON, SURGICAL APPLIANCES (retail trade).

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR, AUTOMATIC (any industry)

Tends one or more sewing machines that automatically join, reinforce, or decorate material or fabricated articles: Places spool of thread on spindle and draws thread through guides, tensions, and eye of needle. Inserts bobbin into shuttle and draws thread through slot in shuttle wall, or draws thread through guides and looper eyes. May pull boxes of flatfolded material into feeding position or place roll of material on brackets at entry end of machine. May thread material through feed rollers and guides. Depresses pedal or moves lever to raise presser foot; positions article parts or material under needle, using edges, seams, or markings on fabric as guides, and lowers presser foot. Presses pedal or button to start machine that stops as material runs out or thread breaks. May cut material, using scissors, when specified length of cloth has been sewn. Observes sewing operation to detect defective stitching, breaks in thread, or machine malfunction. Rethreads machine, replaces defective or broken needles, using pliers, or notifies SEWING-MACHINE REPAIRER (any industry) of machine malfunction. May remove rolls or trucks of material from discharge end of machine. May select supplies, such as fasteners or thread, according to specifications or color of fabric. May oil machine. May cut excess thread, using scissors or blade attachment on machine. May tend machine equipped with blade attachment that automatically trims selvages. May tend multiple-needle machine that joins two or more layers of cloth to reinforce them. Classifications are usually made according to function of machine as FASTENER-SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR (any industry); HEMMER, AUTOMATIC (tex. prod., nec); SERGING-MACHINE OPERATOR, AUTOMATIC (any industry); TACKING-MACHINE OPERATOR (any industry).

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR, REGULAR EQUIPMENT (any industry)

Operates various sewing machines to join parts of fabricated articles or garments: Places spool of thread on spindle of machine and draws thread through machine guides, tensions, and eye of needle. Inserts bobbin into shuttle and draws thread through slot in shuttle wall, or draws thread through guide and looper eye. Presses knee lever, depresses pedal, or moves hand lever to raise presser foot or spread feed cups. Positions parts to be joined under presser foot and needle and lowers presser foot. Starts, stops, and controls speed of machine, using pedal or knee lever. Guides parts under needle, using fingers and hands, and following edges, seams, guides on machine bed, or markings on part. Observes stitching to detect defects and notifies supervisor or SEWING-MACHINE REPAIRER (any industry) when defects are caused by machine malfunction. May select sewing supplies, such as binding, braid, cord, piping, tape, thread, or welt, according to specifications or color of material. May cut excess material or thread, using blade attached to machine or scissors. May oil machine, change needles, or secure modifying attachments to machine. Classifications are usually made according to type of machine, garment part sewn, product fabricated, or modifying attachment on machine.

SUPERVISOR (any industry) alternate titles: boss; chief; leader; manager; overseer; principal; section chief; section leader

Supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in one or more occupations: Studies production schedules and estimates worker-hour requirements for completion of job assignment. Interprets company policies to workers and enforces safety regulations. Interprets specifications, blueprints, and job orders to workers, and assigns duties. Establishes or adjusts work procedures to meet production schedules, using knowledge of capacities of machines and equipment. Recommends measures to improve production methods, equipment performance, and quality of product, and suggests changes in working conditions and use of equipment to increase efficiency of shop, department, or work crew. Analyzes and resolves work problems, or assists workers in solving work problems. Initiates or suggests plans to motivate workers to achieve work goals. Recommends or initiates personnel actions, such as promotions, transfers, discharges, and disciplinary measures. May train new workers. Maintains time and production records. May estimate, requisition, and inspect materials. May confer with other SUPERVISORS (any industry) to coordinate activities of individual departments. May confer with workers' representatives to resolve grievances. May set up machines and equipment. When supervising workers engaged chiefly in one occupation or craft, is required to be adept in the activities of the workers supervised. When supervising workers engaged in several occupations, is required to possess general knowledge of the activities involved. Classifications are made according to process involved, craft of workers supervised, product manufactured, or according to industry in which work occurs. Classifications are made according to workers supervised.

SUPERVISOR (clerical) alternate titles: section chief; section head

Supervises and coordinates activities of clerical workers: Determines work procedures, prepares work schedules, and expedites workflow. Issues written and oral instructions. Assigns duties and examines work for exactness, neatness, and conformance to policies and procedures. Studies and standardizes procedures to improve efficiency of subordinates. Prepares composite reports from individual reports of subordinates. Adjusts errors and complaints. May perform or assist subordinates in performing duties. May keep time and personnel records, and oversee preparation of payrolls. May hire, train, and discharge workers. Classifications are made according to type of work or functions of unit supervised as SUPERVISOR, COMPUTER OPERATIONS (clerical) 213.132-010; SUPERVISOR, TELEPHONE CLERKS (tel. & tel.) 239.132-010; TYPING SECTION CHIEF (clerical) 203.137-014.

TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

Conducts environmental, operational, or performance tests on electrical, mechanical, electromechanical, general industrial, or experimental products, such as aircraft, automotive equipment, industrial machinery and equipment, controls, and systems: Designs, and directs engineering and technical personnel in fabrication of testing and test-control apparatus and equipment. Directs and coordinates engineering activities concerned with development, procurement, installation, and calibration of instruments, equipment, and control devices required to test, telemeter, record, and reduce test data. Determines conditions under which tests are to be conducted and sequences and phases of test operations. Directs and exercises control over operational, functional, and performance phases of tests. Confers with scientific, engineering, and technical personnel to resolve testing problems, such as product or system malfunctions, incomplete test data, and data interpretation, considering such factors as conditions under which test was conducted and instrumentation, procedures, and phase of test used to obtain and record data. Analyzes and interprets test data and prepares technical reports for use by engineering and management personnel. Testing engineers are classified by field of engineering. May use computer-assisted engineering software and equipment.

TERM TITLES AND DEFINITIONS

Terms are titles that are common to a number of jobs that may differ widely in job knowledge required, tasks performed, and job location. Definitions for Terms indicate broadly the jobs that are known by the title and provide information to aid in finding appropriate specific job titles and codes.

ACCOUNTANT, CERTIFIED PUBLIC (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: certified public accountant; c.p.a.

A term applied to an accountant who has met state legal requirements for public practice, and who has been certified by a state as possessing appropriate education and experience as evidenced by passing grade in nationally uniform examination. ACCOUNTANTS, CERTIFIED PUBLIC (profess. & kin.) may be employed by individual establishments, but usually provide a variety of accounting services to general public, either as individual on fee basis or as member or salaried employee of firm which provides such services.

AEROSPACE ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to engineering personnel engaged in research, planning, and development of flight systems and aerovehicles for use in terrestrial atmosphere and outer space. Includes engineering work on aerovehicles, missiles, rockets, space systems research and development, and test and evaluation functions. Classifications are made according to specialization as AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER (aircraft mfg.); ELECTRICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); MECHANICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.).

AGRICULTURAL AIDE (agriculture)

A term applied to farm workers who plant, harvest, and cultivate crops and tend animals according to specific instructions of research workers. Classifications are made according to work performed as ANIMAL CARETAKER (any industry); FARMWORKER, POULTRY (agriculture); FARMWORKER, VEGETABLE (agriculture) I.

AGRICULTURIST (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to persons with broad scientific knowledge of theoretical and actual agricultural practices and of livestock, such as varieties, breeds, feeding problems, and propagation of livestock; harvesting and marketing methods; and specialized areas of production. Provides technical and professional advice concerning agriculture to interested persons. Classifications are made according to specialty as AGRONOMIST (profess. & kin.); COUNTY-AGRICULTURAL AGENT (government ser.).
AIR-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry) alternate titles: pneumatic-press operator

A term applied to workers who operate, tend, or feed $T3power presses$T1 actuated by air pressure to cut, form, forge, straighten, attach, compress, or imprint materials. Classifications are made according to type of press as ASSEMBLY-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry); PLATEN-PRESS FEEDER (print. & pub.); PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry) I; PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry) II.

AIR-TOOL OPERATOR (construction) alternate titles: pneumatic-tool operator

A term applied to any worker when operating a tool driven by compressed air to perform such work as breaking old pavement, loosening or digging hard earth, trimming bottom and sides of trenches, breaking large rocks, driving sheeting, chipping concrete, trimming or cutting stone, or caulking steel plates. Classifications are made according to kind of work performed as ROCK-DRILL OPERATOR (construction) I; SHEET-PILE-HAMMER OPERATOR (construction); STEEL-PLATE CAULKER (any industry); STONE DRILLER (stonework).

APPLIANCE REPAIRER (any industry)

A term applied to workers engaged in installing, servicing, and repairing electrical or gas appliances. Classifications are made according to type of appliance serviced as ELECTRICAL-APPLIANCE REPAIRER (any industry); ELECTRICAL-APPLIANCE SERVICER (any industry); GAS-APPLIANCE SERVICER (any industry).

APPLICATIONS ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term for engineers concerned with developing new applications for products and systems, and providing technical sales and marketing support to customers, distributors, and sales representatives. Classifications are made according to engineering specialization as ELECTRONICS ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); MECHANICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.).

AREA ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to an engineer who is assigned duties within a specific manufacturing area or department of industrial organization. Classifications are made according to field of engineering specialization.

ASSISTANT (any industry) alternate titles: assistant superintendent; assistant supervisor

A term applied to a worker who assists another by performing similar duties and by assuming authority and responsibilities of worker assisted during worker's absence. The same classification should be assigned an ASSISTANT (any industry) as is assigned worker assisted. When duties performed by ASSISTANT (any industry) are clearly subordinate to and different from those of worker assisted, job may be that of HELPER (any industry) Master Title, or possibly APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title, if there is a contractual agreement according to which worker receives training to learn job. See TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) for workers assisting engineers and other scientists.

AUTHOR (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to individuals who produce original written works, such as articles, biographies, fiction, plays, poems, and essays. Classifications are made according to type of writing as HUMORIST (profess. & kin.); LIBRETTIST (profess. & kin.); PLAYWRIGHT (profess. & kin.); POET (profess. & kin.); WRITER, PROSE, FICTION AND NONFICTION (profess. & kin.).

BACKFILLER OPERATOR (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who operates power equipment to replace dirt removed from an excavation, such as a pipeline trench or foundation pit. Classifications are made according to type of equipment operated as BULLDOZER OPERATOR (any industry) I; DRAGLINE OPERATOR (any industry); POWER-SHOVEL OPERATOR (any industry).

BELTER (construction)

A term applied to a CEMENT-MASON HELPER (construction) when pushing and pulling a canvas belt or burlap strip back and forth across finished surface of concrete pavement to smooth surface and remove trowel and float marks left by CEMENT MASON, HIGHWAYS AND STREETS (construction).

BRIMMER (hat & cap)

A term for workers who perform any of various operations on brims of hats. Classifications are made according to type of work performed as BRIM-STRETCHING-MACHINE OPERATOR (hat & cap); HYDRAULIC BLOCKER (hat & cap).

BRUSHER (any industry)

A term applied to workers who clean or finish materials or articles. Operations may involve brushing, grinding, or scraping by hand or machine. Classifications are made according to article processed as BISQUE CLEANER (pottery & porc.); WARE DRESSER (pottery & porc.); or method employed as DUSTER (hat & cap); NAPPER TENDER (tex. prod., nec; textile).

BRUSHER (construction; furniture)

A term applied to a PAINTER (construction) or FURNITURE FINISHER (woodworking) when applying coloring, decorative, or protective coats of finish to structures or furniture by means of a brush rather than spray gun.

BUILDING SUPERVISOR (construction)

A term applied to a SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title who supervises work crew engaged in building construction activities, such as installing electrical, heating, plumbing, and other fixtures and equipment, painting and decorating the building, and other work related to building construction. Classifications are made according to activity of workers supervised. Classifications are SUPERVISOR, ADJUSTABLE-STEEL-JOIST-SETTING (construction); SUPERVISOR, CARPENTERS (construction); CARPENTER-LABOR SUPERVISOR (construction); CLEARING SUPERVISOR (construction); CONCRETING SUPERVISOR (construction); SUPERVISOR, GRADING (construction); SUPERVISOR, REINFORCED-STEEL-PLACING (construction); SUPERVISOR, WATERPROOFING (construction).

BULL-GANG WORKER (construction)

A term applied to any member of a crew engaged in manually lifting or moving heavy objects or materials. Usually these workers exercise considerable physical exertion to accomplish a specified task. Classifications are made according to the nature of the work activity as CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) II; LABORER, STORES (any industry); or MATERIAL HANDLER (any industry).

CABLESHIP WORKER (tel. & tel.)

A term applied to officers and crew of cable-laying or cable-repair ships trained in special duties of maneuvering ship and handling submarine cable. Classifications are based on position held as MATE, SHIP (water trans.); ORDINARY SEAMAN (water trans.).

CAISSON WORKER (construction)

A term applied to a CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) II or other worker when performing manual labor within compressed-air chamber or caisson in connection with submarine or other foundation work where compressed air is required to keep out water during construction.

CARDROOM WORKER (nonmet. min.; textile)

A term applied to workers in carding department of textile mill who prepare natural or synthetic fibers for spinning into yarn or thread. Classifications are made according to process performed or machine tended as CARD TENDER (nonmet. min.; textile); SLIVER-LAP-MACHINE TENDER (textile).

CARETAKER, FARM (agriculture)

A term applied to workers engaged to live on and care for farm in absence of owner. Classifications are made according to duties performed as ANIMAL CARETAKER (any industry); FARMWORKER, GENERAL (agriculture) II; YARD WORKER (domestic ser.).

CARTOGRAPHIC TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to workers who collect, evaluate, and select source materials to be used in constructing maps and charts; and compile, draft, and edit maps and charts of the earth and extraterrestrial bodies. Classifications are made according to area of specialization as DRAFTER, CARTOGRAPHIC (profess. & kin.); PHOTOGRAMMETRIST (profess. & kin.); STEREO-PLOTTER OPERATOR (profess. & kin.).

CATALYST OPERATOR (chemical)

A term applied to workers engaged in preparation of catalysts for use in the manufacture of chemicals, such as butadiene and styrene. Classifications are made according to processing step in production of catalytic material as DISSOLVER OPERATOR (chemical); GRINDER OPERATOR (chemical).

CAULKER (construction; ship-boat mfg.)

A term applied to any worker who makes watertight or airtight joints in pipes, tunnel linings, and steel plates by forcing sealing material into joints with hand or compressed-air-driven caulking tool. Classifications are made according to material being caulked as PIPE CAULKER (construction); STEEL-PLATE CAULKER (any industry); WOOD CAULKER (ship-boat mfg.).

CHEMICAL-DEPARTMENT WORKER (plastic-synth.) alternate titles: chemical-building worker; chemical operator

A term for workers engaged in treating raw materials to produce chemical constituents of synthetic fibers. Classifications are made according to equipment utilized as CHURN TENDER (plastic-synth.); RIPENING-ROOM ATTENDANT (plastic-synth.).

CHEMICAL OPERATOR I (chemical)

A term for workers engaged in tending or controlling equipment used in processing chemical products. Classifications are made according to equipment unit operated as BATCH-STILL OPERATOR (chemical) I; BLEACHER OPERATOR (chemical; soap & rel.); ELECTRIC-CELL TENDER (chemical); or process involved as ABSORPTION OPERATOR (chemical).

CHIMNEY ERECTOR (construction)

A term applied to workers engaged in the construction and repair of brick or concrete chimneys. Classifications are made according to work performed as CHIMNEY BUILDER, BRICK (construction); CHIMNEY BUILDER, REINFORCED CONCRETE (construction); CHIMNEY REPAIRER (construction).

CHLOROPRENE OPERATOR (chemical)

A term applied to workers engaged in production or refining of chlorobutadiene (chloroprene) for polymerization into synthetic rubber. Classifications are made according to equipment-unit operated or tended as CD-REACTOR OPERATOR (chemical); CD-REACTOR OPERATOR, HEAD (chemical).

CIGAR MAKER, LONG-FILLER MACHINE (tobacco)

A term applied to any of the four operators of a fresh-work or long-filler cigar machine. Classifications are made according to work performed as BINDER LAYER (tobacco); FILLER FEEDER (tobacco); FRESH-WORK INSPECTOR (tobacco); WRAPPER LAYER (tobacco).

CLOTH FOLDER (textile)

A term applied to workers engaged in folding cloth for shipment. Classifications are made according to task performed as CLOTH FOLDER, HAND (tex. prod., nec; textile); or according to machine tended as FOLDING-MACHINE OPERATOR (textile).

CLOTHING MAKER (garment) alternate titles: clothing operator; garment maker

A term applied to garment workers engaged in laying out, marking, and cutting material; operating or tending sewing machines or sewing by hand to join, hem, reinforce, or decorate garments and garment parts; and performing finishing operations, such as pressing and folding. For classifications see three-digit groups 781, 782, 785, and 786.

COLOR MIXER (textile)

A term applied to workers engaged in weighing and blending ingredients to make dyestuffs and color for dyeing, printing, or coating of cloth and yarn. Classifications are made according to task performed as COLOR-PASTE MIXER (textile); DYE WEIGHER (any industry); or according to machine tended as GUM MIXER (textile).

COMMERCIAL DECORATOR (any industry)

A term applied to workers who paint designs on commercial products, such as china, novelties, furniture, and tinware. Classifications are made according to work performed as LINER (pottery & porc.); PAINTER, HAND (any industry).

CONCRETE CHIPPER (construction)

A term applied to a CONCRETE RUBBER (concrete prod.); CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) I; or CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) II when chipping away concrete with chisel driven by hammer or air tool to remove bulges, rough spots, and defective concrete from walls, beams, and other parts of concrete structures.

CONCRETE CURER (construction) alternate titles: pavement curer

A term applied to a CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) I; or CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) II when covering fresh concrete with curing mats (light canvas mats quilted with cotton to retain water), earth, straw, or waterproof paper, and sprinkling water over concrete with hose to prevent too rapid drying.

CONCRETE PUDDLER (construction) alternate titles: concrete shoveler; concrete spader; concrete spreader; concrete tamper

A term applied to a CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) II; LABORER, CONCRETE-MIXING PLANT (construction); or LABORER, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE (concrete prod.) when spreading wet concrete evenly over subgrade in front of concrete-paving finishing machine or in concrete forms, using shovel, and tamping it around form and reinforcing material, using puddling pole, tamper, or concrete vibrator.

CONCRETE SCREEDER (construction)

A term applied to a CEMENT MASON (construction); CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) II; or LABORER, CONCRETE-MIXING PLANT (construction) when leveling surface of fresh concrete to desired shape and grade by pushing screed over surface of concrete.

CONSULTING ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to workers who consult with and advise clients on specialized engineering matters in particular field of endeavor, such as chemical engineering, civil engineering, or mechanical engineering.

COOK, BREAKFAST (hotel & rest.)

A term applied to any COOK (hotel & rest.) or COOK, FAST FOOD (hotel & rest.) when preparing, cooking, and portioning all foods on breakfast menu, such as hot cereals, bacon, and eggs.

COOK, SECOND (hotel & rest.)

A term applied to a SOUS CHEF (hotel & rest.) when acting as assistant to CHEF (hotel & rest.); EXECUTIVE CHEF (hotel & rest.); or SUPERVISING CHEF (hotel & rest.), performing their duties in their absence. Typically found in large establishments.

COUPLE (any industry)

A term used for designating two jobs or positions found in the same environment or industry where two persons are required to perform duties. The workers are usually furnished board and room or lodging in addition to remuneration for services performed. Classifications are made according to specific duties performed by each worker, such as BUTLER (domestic ser.) and COOK (domestic ser.) or where both workers participate in performing overall duties, such as maintenance, housekeeping, and managing as MANAGER, MOTEL (hotel & rest.); MANAGER, TOURIST CAMP (hotel & rest.); MANAGER, TRAILER PARK (hotel & rest.); or as MAINTENANCE REPAIRER, BUILDING (any industry).

CRANE OPERATOR (any industry) alternate titles: crane engineer

A term applied to workers who operate cranes to hoist, move, and place materials and objects, using attachments, such as sling, electromagnet, grapple hook, bucket, demolition ball, and clamshell. Classifications are made according to type of crane operated as OVERHEAD CRANE OPERATOR (any industry) 921.663-010; LOCOMOTIVE-CRANE OPERATOR (any industry) 921.663-038; MONORAIL CRANE OPERATOR (any industry) 921.663-042; TRUCK-CRANE OPERATOR (any industry) 921.663-062.

CUTTER (any industry)

A term applied to workers engaged in cutting materials, such as cloth, leather, or plastic, by hand or machine, according to pattern, layout lines, or specified dimensions. Classifications are made according to method of cutting as CUTTER, HAND (any industry) I; CUTTER, MACHINE (any industry) I; DIE CUTTER (any industry); or according to material cut as LEATHER CUTTER (leather prod.).

DIAMOND CUTTER (jewelry-silver.)

A term applied to workers who prepare diamonds for use in making jewelry. Classifications are made according to specific occupations as BRILLIANDEER-LOPPER (jewelry-silver.); DIAMOND CLEAVER (jewelry-silver.); GEM CUTTER (jewelry-silver.); GIRDLER (jewelry-silver.); LATHE OPERATOR (jewelry-silver.).

DIETITIAN (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to persons who possess educational qualifications, work experience, and license or certificate for employment in various fields of dietetics, such as research, consultation, administration, community, and clinical. Classifications are made according to specialized area of employment as DIETITIAN, CLINICAL (profess. & kin.); DIETITIAN, CONSULTANT (profess. & kin.); DIETITIAN, RESEARCH (profess. & kin.).

DITCH DIGGER (construction) alternate titles: backfiller, hand; laborer, excavation; trench backfiller; trench digger

A term applied to a CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) I; CONSTRUCTION WORKER (construction) II; or LABORER, CONCRETE-MIXING PLANT (construction) when digging trenches, footing holes, and similar excavations to specified depth and width, and refilling trenches with excavated material, using pick and shovel.

DIVISION OFFICER (r.r. trans.)

A term applied to railroad officials who administer activities of specified sector of railroad operations, such as segment of line between prescribed points, terminal, classification yard, or other facility. Classifications are made according to operations or facility administered as SUPERINTENDENT, DIVISION (motor trans.; r.r. trans.); YARD MANAGER (r.r. trans.).

DYEING-MACHINE OPERATOR (knitting)

A term applied to workers engaged in dyeing yarn, stockings, and knitted cloth, garments, and tubing. Workers are classified according to material dyed as DYE-REEL OPERATOR (textile); SKEIN-YARN DYER (textile); or according to type of machine utilized as DYE-TUB OPERATOR (knitting).

ECOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to persons who study plants or animals in relation to effect of environmental influences, such as rainfall, temperature, altitude, and kind and quantity of food. Classifications are made according to field of specialization as BOTANIST (profess. & kin.); ZOOLOGIST (profess. & kin.).

ELECTRICAL TESTER (utilities)

A term applied to a worker who carries out prescribed tests on electric power equipment used in production, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electricity, using various types of electrical testing equipment. Classifications are made according to type of equipment tested as RELAY TESTER (utilities); TRANSFORMER TESTER (utilities); or according to purpose of test as VOLTAGE TESTER (utilities).

ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: professional engineer

A term applied to persons who possess educational qualifications, work experience, and legal certification where required as established by engineering schools, employers, and licensing authorities for employment in various fields of engineering. Engineers typically function in one or more activities, such as research, development, design, production, consulting, administration and management, teaching, technical writing, or technical sales and service. Classifications are made according to one or more engineering fields in which individual is qualified for employment, such as aeronautical, electrical, mechanical, chemical, mining, marine, or nuclear engineering.

ENTERTAINER (amuse. & rec.; motion pictureradio-tv broad.) alternate titles: performer; theatrical performer

A term for persons who entertain and amuse audiences by means of an act or skit, dance, reading, feat of skill, songs, or comedy act. Classifications are made according to type of entertainment provided.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: public-health engineer

A term applied to engineering personnel who utilize engineering knowledge and technology to identify, solve, or alleviate environmental problems. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS (profess. & kin.) typically apply knowledge of chemical, civil, mechanical, or other engineering discipline to preserve the quality of life by correcting and improving various areas of environmental concern, such as air, soil, or water pollution. However, any engineer whose technology is adaptable to solution of environmental problems, generates a need for environmental impact analysis, or affects the quality of life, is included in this term. This term may be used to denote engineering personnel in specific industries, such as mining and quarrying, petroleum production, or petroleum refining, who function at an administrative level to plan and coordinate pollution monitoring activities within a particular industrial framework. Classifications are made according to area or specialization as INDUSTRIAL-HEALTH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); NUCLEAR ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); POLLUTION-CONTROL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); PROJECT MANAGER, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (profess. & kin.); SANITARY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.).

ENVIRONMENTALIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: ecologist

A term applied to workers who study, analyze, and evaluate environmental problems; apply scientific knowledge to prevent pollution; develop solutions to existing environmental problems; and predict possibility of future environmental pollution, including that concerned with air, water, land and land use, noise, and radioactivity. May prepare environmental impact reports or studies detailing types and causes of pollution and probability of future environmental problems. May work with federal, state, and local governmental agencies and community groups in establishing and promoting environmental policies. General classifications are ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYST (profess. & kin.) and POLLUTION-CONTROL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.). Since environmental work activities are interdisciplinary in nature, classifications are also made according to specific fields of specialization, such as civil engineering, soils engineering, chemistry, biology, geophysics, geology, geography, architecture, or forestry. Workers may direct and coordinate activities of other environmental scientists and be classified PROJECT MANAGER, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (profess. & kin.). Workers may function at the technician level, providing scientific or engineering support to environmental projects, and be classified BIOLOGICAL AIDE (agriculture); LABORATORY TESTER (any industry); POLLUTION-CONTROL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.); SCIENTIFIC HELPER (profess. & kin.); or LABORATORY TESTER (any industry).

EQUIPMENT MECHANIC (tel. & tel.)

A term applied to workers who install, relocate, and remove telephone and telegraph equipment. Classifications are made according to type of equipment worked on as TELEGRAPH-PLANT MAINTAINER (tel. & tel.); EQUIPMENT INSTALLER (tel. & tel.).

EXECUTIVE TRAINEE (any industry)

A term for a worker who acts in junior supervisory capacities, such as assistant department manager or staff assistant supervisor in an organization, to learn company policies and procedures, and functions and activities of departments with view toward acquiring knowledge of all business phases. Attends personnel training classes to acquire knowledge of organizational setup, staff and line functions, and long and short range business objectives. Acquires, through on-the-job training in departments, such as credit, sales, engineering, production, and personnel, an overall knowledge of company business functions and activities. Workers are classified according to designation of supervisory personnel assisted or department staff activity.

EXPLOSIVE HANDLER (chemical)

A term applied to any worker who processes, stores, or otherwise handles explosives, observing specified safety regulations to prevent explosions. Classifications are made according to equipment used as BOILING-TUB OPERATOR (chemical); MIXER OPERATOR (chemical) I; POACHER OPERATOR (chemical); or according to material handled as DYNAMITE-CARTRIDGE CRIMPER (chemical); NITROGLYCERIN NEUTRALIZER (chemical); TETRYL-DISSOLVER OPERATOR (chemical).

FARMER (agriculture)

A term used to designate a person who manages a tract of land devoted to production or exploitation of plants and animals. Classifications are made according to duties performed as FARMER, FIELD CROP (agriculture); FARMER, GENERAL (agriculture); FARMER, FRUIT CROPS, BUSH AND VINE (agriculture); LIVESTOCK RANCHER (agriculture); POULTRY FARMER (agriculture).

FARMER, CONTRACT (agriculture)

A term applied to a farmer working on a contract basis for another farmer. Classifications are made according to kind of work contracted for as FARM-MACHINE OPERATOR (agriculture); FARMWORKER, GRAIN (agriculture) I.

FARMER, DRY LAND (agriculture)

A term applied to one who practices diversified or specialized farming and depends on limited rainfall for moisture as opposed to one who irrigates. Classifications are made according to type of crop grown as FARMER, CASH GRAIN (agriculture); FARMER, VEGETABLE (agriculture); FLOWER GROWER (agriculture); HAY FARMER (agriculture).

FARMER, TENANT (agriculture)

A term used to designate a worker who plants, cultivates, and harvests crops or raises animals on rented land for which payment is made in specified amount of money or fixed quantity of crops or animals. Machinery, tools, livestock, labor, seed, and fertilizer are provided by tenant. Classifications are made according to kind of farm rented or crop raised as FARMER, CASH GRAIN (agriculture); FARMER, FIELD CROP (agriculture); FARMER, VEGETABLE (agriculture).

FARMWORKER (agriculture)

A term applied to worker who performs variety of duties on farm including planting, cultivating, and harvesting crops, operating farm equipment, and attending to livestock. Classifications are made according to duties performed as FARM-MACHINE OPERATOR (agriculture); FARMWORKER, POULTRY (agriculture); FARMWORKER, VEGETABLE (agriculture) I; FARMWORKER, VEGETABLE (agriculture) II; HARVEST WORKER, FRUIT (agriculture).

FARMWORKER, SEASONAL (agriculture) alternate titles: wage worker

A term applied to workers who are engaged in farm work on seasonal basis. Workers may specialize in planting, weeding, irrigating, harvesting, or packing crops, but do not follow crop maturities over wide areas. Classifications are made according to duties performed, as FARM-MACHINE OPERATOR (agriculture); HARVEST WORKER, FRUIT (agriculture); HARVEST WORKER, VEGETABLE (agriculture); IRRIGATOR, GRAVITY FLOW (agriculture); PACKER, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE (agriculture); SORTER, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE (agriculture; can. & preserv.; wholesale tr.); WEEDER-THINNER (agriculture).

FEATURED PLAYER (amuse. & rec.)

A term applied to any stage, motion picture, or television performer who receives prominent billing for an entertainment production. Classifications are made according to type of role as ACTOR (amuse. & rec.); COMEDIAN (amuse. & rec.).

FISHER (fishing & hunt.)

A term applied to any worker who hunts, catches, and traps aquatic animals, such as finfish and shellfish, including mollusks and crustaceans, or gathers aquatic shells, mosses, seaweeds, and sponges. Classifications are made according to equipment used as FISHER, LINE (fishing & hunt.); FISHER, NET (fishing & hunt.); FISHER, POT (fishing & hunt.); SHELLFISH DREDGE OPERATOR (fishing & hunt.); or according to type of aquatic life taken as IRISH-MOSS GATHERER (fishing & hunt.); KELP CUTTER (fishing & hunt.); SPONGE HOOKER (fishing & hunt.).

FISHER, SPONGE (fishing & hunt.)

A term applied to any worker when gathering sponges from the sea. Classifications are made according to method used as FISHER, DIVING (fishing & hunt.); SPONGE HOOKER (fishing & hunt.).

FOREIGN-BROADCAST SPECIALIST (radio-tv broad.)

A term applied to individuals who are involved with planning, writing, producing, and announcing for or acting in radio and television programs produced for broadcast to or in another country. Classifications are made according to work performed, without regard to specific language requirements. Typical classifications include NEWSCASTER (radio-tv broad.); NEWSWRITER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); SCREEN WRITER (motion picture; radio-tv broad.); TRANSLATOR (profess. & kin.).

FORM CLEANER (construction) alternate titles: form scraper

A term applied to a CARPENTER HELPER, HARDWOOD FLOORING (construction); FORM-SETTER HELPER (construction); LABORER, CONCRETE-MIXING PLANT (construction) or LABORER, CONCRETE PAVING (construction) when cleaning wooden or metal concrete molds, using scraper, pick, shovel, or other tools to remove hardened concrete.

FORM STRIPPER (construction) alternate titles: form puller; form remover; form wrecker; paving-form mover

A term applied to a CARPENTER HELPER, HARDWOOD FLOORING (construction); FORM-SETTER HELPER (construction); or LABORER, CONCRETE PAVING (construction) when removing wooden or steel forms from concrete paving or other concrete work after concrete has hardened.

FRUIT WORKER (agriculture)

A term applied to a worker who cultivates, picks, grades, or packs fruits. Classifications are made according to duties performed as FARMWORKER, FRUIT (agriculture) I; HARVEST WORKER, FRUIT (agriculture); PACKER, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE (agriculture); SORTER, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE (agriculture; can. & preserv.; wholesale tr.).

GAS-METER TESTER (utilities)

A term applied to workers performing tasks concerned with dismantling, testing, and repairing gas meters. Classifications are made according to work performed as GAS-METER MECHANIC (utilities) I; GAS-METER MECHANIC (utilities) II; GAS-METER PROVER (utilities).

GENERATOR OPERATOR (utilities) alternate titles: dynamo operator

A term applied to a worker who controls operation of generator producing electricity for plant processes or for distribution by tending driving engine. Classifications are made according to type of driving engine as DIESEL-PLANT OPERATOR (utilities); TURBINE OPERATOR (utilities).

GOAT-TRUCK DRIVER (agriculture)

A term applied to workers who drive truck or farm equipment to transport empty containers to workers engaged in picking fruit and vegetables and to transport filled containers to shed or warehouse. Classifications are made according to equipment used as FARM-MACHINE OPERATOR (agriculture); TRUCK DRIVER, HEAVY (any industry).

GREIGE-ROOM WORKER (textile) alternate titles: greige-goods worker

A term applied to workers engaged in receiving and processing greige (unfinished) cloth or yarn in textile mill. Classifications are made according to process performed as GOODS LAYER (textile) 781.687-038; GREIGE-GOODS MARKER (textile) 229.587-010; or according to machine tended as GRAY-CLOTH TENDER, PRINTING (textile) 652.686-018.

GROUP LEADER (any industry) alternate titles: leader

A term applied to a worker who takes the lead and gives directions to workers while performing same duties as workers. Regularly performs all tasks of workers in group. Supervisory functions are secondary to the production duties performed and worker receives same classifications as workers led. Distinguished from STRAW BOSS (any industry).

HATTER (hat & cap)

A term for a worker who performs any of the operations connected with making felt hats or strawhats. Classifications are made according to the operation performed as BLOCKER, HAND (hat & cap) I; FUR-BLOWER OPERATOR (hat & cap); HAT-BLOCKING-MACHINE OPERATOR (hat & cap) I; HAT FINISHER (hat & cap).

HEALER (medical ser.)

A term applied to persons engaged in healing arts other than those requiring recognized legal, educational, or experience requirements. Usually restricted by law from performing such medical services as prescribing drugs or treating by surgery. Generally limited to such types of healing as physical culture and mental suggestion.

HIGHWAY SUPERVISOR (construction)

A term applied to a SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title who supervises work crews engaged in highway construction activities, such as clearing right-of-way, preparing subgrade, laying road surface, and installing curbing and guardrails. Classifications are made according to activity of workers supervised. Typical classifications are CLEARING SUPERVISOR (construction); CONCRETING SUPERVISOR (construction); SUPERVISOR, GRADING (construction).

INSTALLATION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to an engineer who specializes in installing equipment. Classifications are made according to field of engineering specialization.

INSTRUCTOR, MACHINE (any industry)

A term applied to workers who instruct new employees in machine operations by giving on-the-job training. Workers are classified according to major work assignments as MACHINIST (machine shop); WEAVER (nonmet. min.; textile). Workers with supervisory duties are classified as SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title.

INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to a worker who designs and supervises operation and maintenance of electrical, mechanical, and thermal instruments and control equipment necessary for safe and efficient operation of industrial plant. Classifications are made according to field of engineering specialization.

JOB-PRESS OPERATOR (print. & pub.)

A term applied to workers engaged in operation of printing presses used for printing small quantities, usually one sheet at a time, requiring frequent changes of press make-ready. Classifications are made according to type of press operated as CYLINDER-PRESS OPERATOR (print. & pub.) 651.362-010; PLATEN-PRESS OPERATOR (print. & pub.) 651.362-018.

JOURNEY WORKER (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who has completed a specified training program as an APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title in learning a trade or craft, or who can give written proof of a specified number of years of qualifying experience for such trade or craft.

KETTLE TENDER (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who melts, cooks, or dyes material or substances in a container heated by electricity, flame, or steam. Workers are usually classified according to material or substance treated as COOK, KETTLE (beverage; can. & preserv.; grain-feed mills); DIPPER (any industry); RENDERING-EQUIPMENT TENDER (meat products).

LABORATORY CHIEF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: director, laboratory

A term applied to persons who serve as administrative heads of chemical, physical, electrical, biological, or other scientific laboratories. Classifications are made according to particular science or branch of engineering as CHEMICAL LABORATORY CHIEF (profess. & kin.).

LABORATORY WORKER (any industry)

A term for any worker in a laboratory performing routine or special tests, or research. Classifications are made according to type of work as BIOCHEMIST (profess. & kin.); FOOD TESTER (any industry); LABORATORY TESTER (any industry); SCIENTIFIC HELPER (profess. & kin.).

LAUNDRY HAND (laundry & rel.)

A term applied to any laundry worker. Classifications are made according to work performed as FLATWORK FINISHER (laundry & rel.); SHIRT PRESSER (laundry & rel.); WASHER, MACHINE (laundry & rel.).

LINGUIST (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to any person who has become skilled in languages, particularly living languages. Classifications are made according to occupation in which this skill is utilized, as INTERPRETER (profess. & kin.); TRANSLATOR (profess. & kin.).

LOGGER (logging)

A term applied to any worker engaged in logging. Classifications are made according to type of activity as BUCKER (logging); CHOKE SETTER (logging); FALLER (logging) I; FALLER (logging) II; LIMBER (logging); LOGGER, ALL-ROUND (logging); RIGGING SLINGER (logging).

LOG-YARD CRANE OPERATOR (saw. & plan.)

A term applied to LOCOMOTIVE-CRANE OPERATOR (any industry); TRACTOR-CRANE OPERATOR (any industry); or TRUCK-CRANE OPERATOR (any industry) when operating a crane to lift and move logs in log storage yard.

MACHINE ADJUSTER (any industry) alternate titles: adjuster

A term applied to workers who set up and adjust a battery of machines designed to perform a particular function in a manufacturing process. Classifications are made according to type of material or article produced as MACHINE SET-UP OPERATOR, PAPER GOODS (paper goods); ROPE-MACHINE SETTER (tex. prod., nec).

MACHINE RUNNER (mine & quarry) alternate titles: mining-machine operator

A term applied to workers who operate one or more mining machines to drill, undercut, load, and continuously mine in an underground mine. Classifications are made according to specific duties as CONTINUOUS-MINING-MACHINE OPERATOR (mine & quarry); CUTTER OPERATOR (mine & quarry); DRILLING-MACHINE OPERATOR (mine & quarry); LOADING-MACHINE OPERATOR (mine & quarry).

MAINTENANCE WORKER (any industry) alternate titles: service worker; trouble shooter

A term applied to workers engaged in repairing and maintaining buildings, machinery, and electrical and mechanical equipment in commercial, governmental, or industrial establishments. Classifications are made according to trade as CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE (any industry); ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE (any industry); or according to structure repaired or maintained as BOILERHOUSE MECHANIC (any industry); MAINTENANCE REPAIRER, BUILDING (any industry); or according to machinery and equipment repaired or maintained as CELLOPHANE-CASTING-MACHINE REPAIRER (plastic prod.); ELEVATOR REPAIRER (any industry).

MANAGER, BAR (hotel & rest.)

A term applied to a BARTENDER (hotel & rest.) or WINE STEWARD/STEWARDESS (hotel & rest.) when supervising personnel engaged in mixing and serving drinks and performing related duties, such as purchasing supplies for the bar.

MANAGER, FACILITATING SERVICES (any industry)

A term applied to workers in industrial organizations who plan, organize, and direct overhead services, such as employment, public relations, and safety. Classifications are made according to work performed as MANAGER, EMPLOYMENT (profess. & kin.); MANAGER, PERSONNEL (profess. & kin.); PUBLIC-RELATIONS REPRESENTATIVE (profess. & kin.); SAFETY ENGINEER (profess. & kin.).

MANAGER, SERVICE ESTABLISHMENT (any industry) alternate titles: superintendent, service establishment

A term applied to workers who manage an organization that renders service to public, such as business-service, repair-service, or personal-service establishment. Typical classifications are MANAGER, BARBER OR BEAUTY SHOP (personal ser.); MANAGER, MARINE SERVICE (ship-boat mfg.); MANAGER, RETAIL STORE (retail trade); MANAGER, SERVICE DEPARTMENT (wholesale tr.); SUPERVISOR, CAB (motor trans.).

MASON (construction)

A term applied to any worker when working with artificial stone, brick, concrete, stone, and the like. Classifications are made according to material worked with as BRICKLAYER (construction); CEMENT MASON (construction); STONEMASON (construction).

MASON HELPER (construction)

A term applied to a BRICKLAYER HELPER (construction); CEMENT-MASON HELPER (construction); or STONEMASON HELPER (construction) when assisting one of the masons.

MASTER (water trans.) alternate titles: captain; skipper

A term applied to a worker who commands a self-propelled watercraft. May be licensed by U.S. Coast Guard depending on type and tonnage of craft and water navigated. Classifications are made according to type of watercraft commanded as CAPTAIN, FISHING VESSEL (fishing & hunt.); DREDGE CAPTAIN (water trans.); FERRYBOAT CAPTAIN (water trans.); MASTER, RIVERBOAT (water trans.); MASTER, SHIP (water trans.); TUGBOAT CAPTAIN (water trans.).

MIGRANT WORKER (agriculture)

A term applied to a worker who moves about the country, working as member of farm crew to grow and harvest vegetables, grains, and fruits: Usually contracts for work with MIGRANT LEADER (agriculture) and receives pay, subsistence, and transportation from same. Drives farm equipment to plow, plant, or cultivate crops. Plants, weeds, thins, picks, washes, ties, grades, or packs fruits and vegetables by hand or with handtools. Classifications are made according to duties performed as FARM-MACHINE OPERATOR (agriculture); HARVEST WORKER, FRUIT (agriculture); HARVEST WORKER, VEGETABLE (agriculture); IRRIGATOR, GRAVITY FLOW (agriculture); WEEDER-THINNER (agriculture).

MILLER (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who grinds material, such as coal, cocoa beans, coffee, grain, or ore, using a machine. Classifications are made according to material ground or method employed as MILLER, WET PROCESS (grain-feed mills); WASH-MILL OPERATOR (chemical).

MILL HAND (any industry)

A term applied to workers performing various duties in a mill. Classifications are made according to type of machine operated or work performed as MILL OPERATOR (any industry); ROD-MILL TENDER (cement; smelt. & refin.); ROUGHER (steel & rel.); WASH-MILL OPERATOR (chemical).

MILL HAND (grain-feed mills)

A term applied to workers in a grain or feed mill whose duties require no previous experience and who work under the direction of other workers. Classifications are made according to tasks performed or worker assisted as BIN CLEANER (beverage; grain-feed mills); CUT-IN WORKER (grain-feed mills).

MILL WORKER (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who grinds and pulverizes materials, cleans and smooths articles and materials, treats hides and skins, or extracts metallic constituents from ore. Classifications are made according to machine or method used as FLOTATION TENDER (smelt. & refin.); TANNING DRUM OPERATOR (leather mfg.); TUMBLER OPERATOR (any industry).

MINER II (mine & quarry)

A term applied to any mine worker. Classifications are made according to work performed as CUTTER OPERATOR (mine & quarry); STRIPPING-SHOVEL OPERATOR (mine & quarry); TIMBER FRAMER (mine & quarry). In some areas the term MINER indicates only workers who have passed qualifying examinations for state miner's certificate.

MODEL MAKER II (any industry)

A term applied to workers who apply trade knowledge and skills to construct full scale experimental working models of electrical, electronic, or mechanical machines, controls, or tools, or to construct scale models for testing or display, or models to form molds for cast products. Workers are classified according to trade skill and knowledge applied as CONCRETE SCULPTOR (concrete prod.); PATTERNMAKER, WOOD (foundry); TOOL-AND-DIE MAKER (machine shop).

MUNICIPAL-SERVICES SUPERVISOR (government ser.)

A term for supervisory workers engaged in the maintenance of a public works program. Classifications are made according to municipal service rendered as SNOW-REMOVING SUPERVISOR (government ser.).

MUSEUM INTERN (museums)

A term applied to individuals who perform curatorial, administrative, educational, conservation, or research duties in museum or similar institution, to assist professional staff in utilization of institution's collections and other resources and to gain practical experience and knowledge to enhance personal qualifications for career. Classifications are made according to assignment which is usually based upon academic specialization as CRAFT DEMONSTRATOR (museums) 109.364-010; PAINTINGS RESTORER (profess. & kin.) 102.261-014; RESEARCH ASSISTANT (profess. & kin.) 109.267-010; RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (museums) 109.067-014.

NATURALIST (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to persons specializing in study of plants or animals. Classifications are made according to division studied as BOTANIST (profess. & kin.); ZOOLOGIST (profess. & kin.).

NEEDLE-TRADE WORKER (garment)

A term applied to workers engaged in sewing by hand in garment manufacturing establishment. Classifications are made according to type of sewing performed as BASTER, HAND (garment); FELLER, HAND (garment); SEWER, HAND (any industry).

NUMISMATIST (profess. & kin.)

A term for persons who specialize in science and collection of rare coins, medals, tokens, and paper money. Persons engaged in sale of coins are classified as SALESPERSON, STAMPS OR COINS (retail trade; wholesale tr.); those engaged in management of collections are classified CURATOR (museums).

NURSE, PROFESSIONAL (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse; nurse, certified; nurse, licensed; nurse, registered

A term applied to persons meeting the educational, legal, and training requirements to practice as professional nurses, as required by a State Board of Nursing. Performs acts requiring substantial specialized judgment and skill in observation, care, and counsel of ill, injured, or infirm persons and in promotion of health and prevention of illness. Classifications are made according to type of nursing activity engaged in as DIRECTOR, NURSING SERVICE (medical ser.); NURSE, GENERAL DUTY (medical ser.); NURSE, PRIVATE DUTY (medical ser.).

PACE SETTER (agriculture)

A term applied to a lead worker engaged in picking fruit or truck crops, who picks at specified rate that determines production of workers. Classifications are made according to workers involved or crop picked as FARMWORKER, VEGETABLE (agriculture) II; HARVEST WORKER, FRUIT (agriculture).

PAINT GRINDER (paint & varnish) alternate titles: grinder operator; stock grinder

A term applied to workers engaged in reducing and dispersing dry particles in liquid vehicle for use in producing paint and related products. Classifications are made according to type of equipment used as ROLLER-MILL OPERATOR (paint & varnish); STONE-MILL OPERATOR (paint & varnish).

PHILATELIST (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to a worker who collects and studies stamps, stamped envelopes, and related material. Persons employed in sale or purchase of stamps are classified as MANAGER, RETAIL STORE (retail trade); SALESPERSON, STAMPS OR COINS (retail trade; wholesale tr.); those in charge of museum collections are classified CURATOR (museums).

PHYSICIAN, RESEARCH (medical ser.)

A term applied to persons with degree of doctor of medicine who conduct medical experiments and investigations to discover causes of various diseases; facts concerning diseases; and remedies for diseases. Classifications are made according to specialty.

PILE DRIVER (construction)

A term applied to a HOLDER, PILE DRIVING (construction); LABORER, PILE DRIVING, GROUND WORK (construction); LOFT WORKER, PILE DRIVING (construction); or RIGGER (construction) when driving piles.

PIPE CUTTER (construction)

A term applied to a PIPE FITTER (construction); PIPE-FITTER APPRENTICE (construction); PIPE-FITTER HELPER (construction); PLUMBER (construction) or PLUMBER APPRENTICE (construction) when cutting pipe for use in an air, water, steam, gas, or waste disposal system.

PIPELINE SUPERVISOR (construction)

A term applied to a SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title who supervises work crews engaged in pipeline-construction activities, such as clearing pipeline right-of-way, laying pipe, and backfilling ditches. Classifications are made according to activity of workers supervised. Typical classifications are CLEARING SUPERVISOR (construction); SUPERVISOR, LABOR GANG (construction).

PIPE THREADER, HAND (construction)

A term applied to a PIPE FITTER (construction); PIPE-FITTER APPRENTICE (construction); PIPE-FITTER HELPER (construction); PLUMBER (construction); PLUMBER APPRENTICE (construction); or PLUMBER HELPER (construction) when threading pipe.

PLANTER (agriculture)

A term applied to farmers, usually large-scale entrepreneurs, who specialize in growing cotton, rice, tobacco, or other crops. Classifications are made according to crop as COTTON GROWER (agriculture); PEANUT FARMER (agriculture); SOYBEAN GROWER (agriculture); TOBACCO GROWER (agriculture).

POLYMERIZATION OPERATOR (chemical; plastic-synth.)

A term applied to workers engaged in polymerization of chlorobutadiene into neoprene rubber, including preparation of constituent solutions. Classifications are made according to equipment operated as KETTLE OPERATOR (plastic-synth.).

POWER-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry)

A term applied to workers who operate, tend, or feed one or more power driven presses that cut, bend, punch, trim, compress, forge, rivet, emboss, upset, or force together materials to shape, fabricate, or assemble them by action of dies mounted on bed and ram of machine. Material may be manually or automatically fed into such press. Classifications are made according to function of machine as ASSEMBLY-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry); COMPRESSION-MOLDING-MACHINE TENDER (plastic prod.); EMBOSSING-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry); FORGING-PRESS OPERATOR (forging) I; FORGING-PRESS OPERATOR (forging) II; PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry) I; PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry) II; PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR (any industry) III.

PRECIPITATOR OPERATOR (smelt. & refin.)

A term applied to workers engaged in precipitating aluminum hydroxide from rich liquor in the process of extracting alumina from bauxite. Classifications are made according to work performed as BOTTOM-PRECIPITATOR OPERATOR (smelt. & refin.); TOP-PRECIPITATOR OPERATOR (smelt. & refin.).

PRECISION-OPTICAL WORKER (optical goods)

A term applied to workers engaged in preparation of precision glass elements, working to close tolerances. Classifications are made according to work performed as OPTICAL-GLASS ETCHER (optical goods); OPTICAL-GLASS SILVERER (optical goods); PRECISION-LENS GRINDER (optical goods); PRECISION-LENS POLISHER (optical goods).

PRESS FEEDER (print. & pub.)

A term applied to workers who feed paper into printing presses. Classifications are made according to type of press fed.

PRESS OPERATOR (print. & pub.)

A term applied to workers who make ready and operate printing presses. Classifications are made according to type of press operated as CYLINDER-PRESS OPERATOR (print. & pub.) 651.362-010; OFFSET-PRESS OPERATOR (print. & pub.) I 651.382-042; PLATEN-PRESS OPERATOR (print. & pub.) 651.362-018.

PUBLIC-UTILITIES ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term for persons who perform professional engineering work in field of regulation and control of public and private electric, natural gas, and water utilities. Classifications are made according to area of specialization, such as CIVIL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); ELECTRICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); ELECTROLYSIS-AND-CORROSION-CONTROL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); POWER-DISTRIBUTION ENGINEER (utilities); RATE ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); VALUATION ENGINEER (profess. & kin.).

PUBLISHER (print. & pub.)

A term applied to the individual who publishes printed materials, such as newspapers, books, and magazines, and directs marketing of these products. Classifications are made according to executive capacity in which engaged as EDITOR, BOOK (print. & pub.) 132.067-014; EDITOR, MANAGING, NEWSPAPER (print. & pub.) 132.017-010; MANAGER, CIRCULATION (print. & pub.) 163.167-014; PRESIDENT (any industry) 189.117-026.

RAILROAD SUPERVISOR (construction)

A term applied to a SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title who supervises work crews engaged in railroad construction activities, such as clearing railroad right-of-way, installing pipe culverts, and laying ties and rails. Classifications are made according to activity of workers supervised. Typical classifications are CLEARING SUPERVISOR (construction); TRACK-LAYING SUPERVISOR (construction).

REAMER (construction)

A term applied to a RIVETER HELPER (any industry); or RIVETER, PNEUMATIC (any industry) when shaping misaligned rivet holes in structural-steel members, using a hand or electrically powered reaming tool.

REHABILITATION THERAPIST (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to persons engaged in restoring physical, emotional, social, and economic effectiveness of medical patients and other disabled persons. Classifications are made according to type of therapy applied as CORRECTIVE THERAPIST (medical ser.); TEACHER, EMOTIONALLY IMPAIRED (education); MANUAL-ARTS THERAPIST (medical ser.); MUSIC THERAPIST (medical ser.); OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.); ORIENTATION AND MOBILITY THERAPIST FOR THE BLIND (education; medical ser.; nonprofit org.); PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.); RECREATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.).

RELIEF WORKER (tobacco) alternate titles: packing-machine relief-operator-and-salvager; utility hand

A term applied to workers who relieve other employees engaged in packing or export department of cigarette manufacturing firm. Classifications are made according to work performed as CARTON-PACKAGING-MACHINE OPERATOR (tobacco); CIGARETTE-MAKING-MACHINE CATCHER (tobacco); CIGARETTE-PACKING-MACHINE OPERATOR (tobacco).

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to persons who conduct independent research in scientific, legal, medical, political, academic, or other specialized fields. Individuals working at this level are required to have a graduate degree. Classifications are made according to field of specialization as AERODYNAMICIST (aircraft mfg.) 002.061-010; METALLURGIST, PHYSICAL (profess. & kin.) 011.061-022; MICROBIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) 041.061-058; PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.061-010; POLITICAL SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.) 051.067-010.

RIVER-AND-HARBOR SUPERVISOR (construction)

A term applied to a SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title who supervises work crews engaged in activities, such as deepening and widening harbors, canalizing streams, and impounding waters. Classifications are made according to activity of workers supervised. Typical classifications are BANK BOSS (construction); CONCRETING SUPERVISOR (construction); SUCTION-DREDGE-PIPELINE-PLACING SUPERVISOR (construction).

ROLL OPERATOR II (any industry)

A term applied to workers who operate machines to form, forge, bend, or straighten hot or cold metal by passing metal between or under revolving cylinders. Typical classifications are ANGLE-ROLL OPERATOR (any industry); FLANGING-ROLL OPERATOR (any industry); FORMING-ROLL OPERATOR (any industry) II; ROLL-FORMING-MACHINE OPERATOR (any industry) II; STRAIGHTENING-ROLL OPERATOR (any industry).

SAILOR (water trans.) alternate titles: sailor-merchant mariner

A term applied to workers aboard seagoing vessels. Classifications are made according to duties performed as MARINE OILER (water trans.); ORDINARY SEAMAN (water trans.).

SALESPERSON, CONTINGENT (retail trade) alternate titles: relief clerk; salesperson, part time; salesperson, relief

A term applied to a SALESPERSON (retail trade; wholesale tr.) Master Title who works only when called and works for period shorter than work period of regular SALESPERSONS (retail trade; wholesale tr.). May be employed for specified number of hours or days per week or month.

SAND HOG (construction)

A term applied to persons working under compressed air as in caisson or tunnel. Classifications are made according to work performed as LOCK TENDER (construction) I; MINER (construction); MUCKER (construction).

SAWYER (stonework)

A term applied to workers engaged in cutting stone with power-driven saws. The techniques required and types of machines vary considerably. Classifications are made according to type of saw as CIRCULAR SAWYER, STONE (stonework); GANG SAWYER, STONE (stonework); WIRE SAWYER (stonework).

SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to a worker engaged in scientific studies and research. Classifications are made according to scientific specialties, such as ASTRONOMER (profess. & kin.); BIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.); MATHEMATICIAN (profess. & kin.); PHYSICIST (profess. & kin.); ZOOLOGIST (profess. & kin.).

SECOND HAND (textile)

A term applied to supervisors who supervise part of department in textile mill. Classifications are made according to name of department in which supervision is exercised as SUPERVISOR, PREPARATION DEPARTMENT (textile); SUPERVISOR, WINDING AND TWISTING DEPARTMENT (textile).

SECTION HAND (textile)

A term applied to supervisors, usually subordinate to SECOND HAND (textile), who supervise part of department in textile mill. Classifications are made according to name of department in which supervision is exercised as SUPERVISOR, PREPARATION DEPARTMENT (textile); SUPERVISOR, WINDING AND TWISTING DEPARTMENT (textile).

SERGING-MACHINE OPERATOR (any industry) alternate titles: edging-machine operator; overcasting-machine operator; overedge-machine operator; overlock-machine operator; overseaming-machine operator; serger

A term applied to sewing-machine operators when operating machine that trims raw edges from fabric and simultaneously binds trimmed edge with an overlock stitch. For classification of sewing-machine operators, see three-digit groups 786-787.

SEWER-AND-WATERWORKS SUPERVISOR (construction)

A term applied to a SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title who supervises work crews engaged in sewer-and-waterworks-construction activities, such as clearing right-of-way, loading materials, mixing concrete, and laying pipe. Classifications are made according to activity of workers supervised. Typical classifications are CLEARING SUPERVISOR (construction); CONCRETE-BATCHING AND MIXING-PLANT SUPERVISOR (construction); LABOR-CREW SUPERVISOR (construction; utilities); MATERIAL-CREW SUPERVISOR (construction; mfd. bldgs.).

SHARECROPPER (agriculture)

A term applied to a farmer who plants, cultivates, and harvests crops on land owned by another for specified share of receipts of sale of crop. Usually equipment, seed, and fertilizer are provided by land owner who may also specify crops to be grown and when planting and harvesting will take place. Classifications are made according to crop grown as FARMER, FIELD CROP (agriculture); FARMER, VEGETABLE (agriculture).

SHED WORKER (agriculture)

A term applied to farm workers when they are working in a building or lean-to which provides protection from weather or which is used for drying and storing crops. Classifications are made according to kind of crop, such as HARVEST WORKER, FIELD CROP (agriculture); HARVEST WORKER, VEGETABLE (agriculture); or according to duties performed as PACKER, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE (agriculture); SORTER, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE (agriculture; can. & preserv.; wholesale tr.); SUPERVISOR, SHED WORKERS (agriculture).

SHOP STEWARD (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who negotiates with company officials as a representative of fellow employees for the protection of their working interests or contractual rights. Acts as representative for other workers in the settlement of individual grievances. May keep overtime records. Workers whose union functions are incidental to their production work should be classified according to the production or administrative duties performed. Workers who spend full time in union activities should be classified as BUSINESS REPRESENTATIVE, LABOR UNION (profess. & kin.).

SMELTERY WORKER (smelt. & refin.)

A term applied to any worker in a smeltery where ores are melted to separate and recover the metals contained therein and the latter refined to a state of purity demanded for commercial use. Classifications are made according to type of activity or equipment used as FLOTATION TENDER (smelt. & refin.); KETTLE TENDER (smelt. & refin.) I; RAW SAMPLER (smelt. & refin.).

SOCIAL-WORK CONSULTANT (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to workers who render advisory service to agencies, groups, or individuals in fields of social work, employing their knowledge and skills gained through training, graduate-level education, and experience. Classifications are made according to areas of social work in which training, education, and experience have been acquired.

SOCIAL WORKER (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to a worker performing social service functions, based on university-level education in social-welfare human services, or equivalency, in a public or voluntary social welfare agency, organization, or department, or in other settings, as in housing projects or in schools. Classifications are made according to work performed as SOCIAL GROUP WORKER (social ser.); SOCIAL WORKER, DELINQUENCY PREVENTION (social ser.); SOCIAL WORKER, PSYCHIATRIC (profess. & kin.).

SOLDERER, SILVER (welding)

A term applied to workers who braze together components of metal assemblies with a brazing alloy, usually containing silver (hard solder), by any brazing method. Workers are classified according to function or equipment used as BRAZER, ASSEMBLER (welding); BRAZER, CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERIC FURNACE (welding); BRAZER, INDUCTION (welding); BRAZER, REPAIR AND SALVAGE (welding); BRAZING-MACHINE OPERATOR (welding).

SPECIAL-DELIVERY DRIVER (any industry)

A term applied to TRUCK DRIVER, HEAVY (any industry); or TRUCK DRIVER, LIGHT (any industry) when delivering orders that cannot be handled by regular delivery system because order must reach customer immediately, customer's address is not on regular route, or for other reasons.

SPECIALTY CHEF (hotel & rest.) alternate titles: chef, department; chef, station

A term applied to the head cook of a station when specializing in a given type of cooking, such as frying foods or cooking sauces. Classifications are made according to specialty as SOUS CHEF (hotel & rest.).

SPINNING-ROOM WORKER (plastic-synth.)

A term for workers employed in the spinning department of a synthetic-fiber plant. Classifications are made according to work performed as BOX TENDER (plastic-synth.); PUMP TESTER (plastic-synth.); SPINNER (plastic-synth.); SPINNING-BATH PATROLLER (plastic-synth.); TEMPERATURE-CONTROL INSPECTOR (plastic-synth.).

SPONSOR (retail trade) alternate titles: coach; instructor, training

A term applied to MANAGER, DEPARTMENT (retail trade), his or her assistant, or to experienced salesperson who instructs and supervises new sales employees in store system, care and location of stock, merchandise information, and selling methods.

SPREADER II (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who lays out, coats, places, or spreads material to be cut, joined, stretched, or smoothed. Classifications are made according to material spread as CANDY SPREADER (sugar & conf.); FLATWORK FINISHER (laundry & rel.).

STAGE HAND (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: stage technician

A term applied to all workers backstage of theater who handle props, curtains, or electrical equipment. Classifications are made according to type of activity in which engaged as PROPERTY COORDINATOR (amuse. & rec.; radio-tv broad.).

STILL OPERATOR (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who operates or tends equipment for distilling, purifying, reclaiming, or refining materials. Usually designated according to type of duties performed as BATCH-STILL OPERATOR (chemical) II; DISTILLER (chemical) I; DISTILLER (chemical) II; and REFINERY OPERATOR (petrol. refin.).

STITCHER, MACHINE (boot & shoe)

A term applied to workers who operate single, double, or multiple needle standard or special stitching machines to join, decorate, or reinforce shoe parts. Classification are made according to type of machine used as STITCHER, SPECIAL MACHINE (boot & shoe); STITCHER, STANDARD MACHINE (boot & shoe).

STONE MECHANIC (stonework) alternate titles: stone finisher

A term applied to a worker who is skilled in layout work and the use of handtools and machines for cutting, polishing, and sandblasting building and monument stone. Classifications should be made according to work performed as SANDBLASTER, STONE (stonework); STONECUTTER, HAND (stonework); STONECUTTER, MACHINE (stonework); STONE POLISHER, HAND (stonework).

STONE RENOVATOR (construction)

A term applied to a BRICKLAYER (construction); CEMENT MASON (construction); PLASTERER (construction); or STONEMASON (construction) when resurfacing stone to restore and renovate building.

STRAW BOSS (any industry) alternate titles: gang leader; group leader; head; pacer; pusher

A term applied to a worker who takes the lead in a construction or laboring crew and is selected to expedite the work of the crew, usually small in number. Regularly performs all duties of workers in crew. Explains tasks to new workers. The supervisory functions are incidental to the duties performed as a member of the crew. Classifications are made according to type of work performed by crew.

STRIPPER (any industry)

A term applied to a worker who dismantles or separates articles or material, removes coverings, trims and decorates products, or otherwise works with strips of material. Classifications are made according to article or material processed as CARD STRIPPER (textile); COVER STRIPPER (paper goods); FORM STRIPPER (concrete prod.; construction); FRAME STRIPPER (soap & rel.).

STUD-DRIVER OPERATOR (construction) alternate titles: cartridge-actuated-tool operator; explosive-actuated-tool operator; powder-actuated-tool operator

A term applied to a CARPENTER (construction) or ELECTRICIAN (construction) when driving steel studs into concrete, steel, or masonry base to anchor construction materials and equipment, using powder-actuated stud driver.

STYRENE OPERATOR (chemical)

A term applied to workers in a styrene manufacturing plant who operate or tend panel-controlled equipment, such as stills and catalytic converter units, to facilitate production of product meeting plant standards. Classifications are made according to equipment operated or tended as CATALYTIC-CONVERTER OPERATOR (chemical); CONTINUOUS-STILL OPERATOR (chemical).

SWITCHYARD WORKER (r.r. trans.)

A term applied to workers when switching or supervising workers engaged in switching cars within yard of railroad, industrial plant, quarry, construction project, or other similar location for purpose of loading, unloading, making up, and breaking up of trains. Classifications are made according to type of activity engaged in as CONDUCTOR, YARD (r.r. trans.); SWITCH TENDER (r.r. trans.); YARD COUPLER (r.r. trans.).

TAILINGS MACHINERY TENDER (smelt. & refin.)

A term applied to worker who tends equipment used to dispose of tailings (worthless material) after valuable minerals have been removed by ore-dressing processes. The equipment used varies with each individual mill, with pumps, bucket elevators, desliming cones, thickeners, launders, and settling tanks commonly being used. Usually designated according to type of equipment tended as CLASSIFIER TENDER (smelt. & refin.).

TEACHER, HOME (education)

A term applied to a TEACHER, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (education) or a TEACHER, SECONDARY SCHOOL (education) who instructs students unable to attend classes because of confinement at home or hospital.

TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: engineering aide; technical aide; technical assistant

A term applied to a worker who works in direct support of ENGINEERS (profess. & kin.) or SCIENTISTS (profess. & kin.), utilizing theoretical knowledge of fundamental scientific, engineering, mathematical, or draft design principles. Solves practical problems encountered in fields of specialization, such as those concerned with development of electrical and electronic circuits, and establishment of testing methods for electrical, electronic, electromechanical, and hydromechanical devices and mechanisms; application of engineering principles in solving design, development, and modification problems of parts or assemblies for products or systems; and application of natural and physical science principles to basic or applied research problems in fields, such as metallurgy, chemistry, and physics. Classifications are made according to specialization as ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.); MATHEMATICAL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.).

TEXTILE ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to workers possessing college degrees or equivalent experience in textile technology. These workers usually enter textile industry as trainees for any one of several supervisory or technical occupations. Classifications are made according to specialty as CLOTH DESIGNER (profess. & kin.); MANAGER, QUALITY CONTROL (profess. & kin.); DYER, SUPERVISOR (knitting; tex. prod., nec; textile); PRODUCTION SUPERINTENDENT (any industry); WEAVING SUPERVISOR (nonmet. min.; textile). Professional engineers who refer to themselves as textile engineers because of their experience in the textile industry should be classified according to their specialty as CHEMICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); ELECTRICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); MECHANICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.).

TIRE BUILDER (rubber tire)

A term applied to workers engaged in building parts of tires or assembling whole tires. Classifications are made according to part of tire being made as BAND BUILDER (rubber tire); or according to tire assembled as TIRE BUILDER, AUTOMOBILE (rubber tire); TIRE BUILDER, HEAVY SERVICE (rubber tire).

TOWER OPERATOR I (chemical)

A term applied to workers who operate or tend columns or towers in chemical absorption, distillation, stripping, rectification, or related processes. Classifications are made according to process operated as ABSORPTION OPERATOR (chemical) or according to equipment unit as TOWER HELPER (chemical).

TOXIC OPERATOR (chemical)

A term applied to any worker who processes or otherwise handles toxic explosives, such as tetryl and nitroglycerin, or toxic ingredients, such as acids and benzene. Classifications are made according to equipment used or according to material handled as TETRYL-SCREEN OPERATOR (chemical).

TRAINEE (any industry)

A term applied to workers who are engaged, under direct supervision, in learning a job or trade that may require up to several months of continuous on-the-job training, with or without related schooling in vocational subjects, before the worker may be considered fully qualified to perform the job. Such workers should be treated as entry applicants except that, if they have completed their training requirements, they should be classified according to the job learned. Workers who are learning a trade through apprenticeship training should be classified in accordance with the procedure set forth under APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title.

TRAINEE ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to an engineer who works under supervison of experienced engineers to gain qualifying experience in a particular field. Classifications are made according to field of specialization as CHEMICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); ELECTRICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.); MECHANICAL ENGINEER (profess. & kin.).

TRUCK DRIVER (any industry) alternate titles: truck operator

A term applied to workers who drive trucks to transport materials, merchandise, equipment, or people. Workers are classified according to type of truck as DUMP-TRUCK DRIVER (any industry); TRACTOR-TRAILER-TRUCK DRIVER (any industry); TRUCK DRIVER, LIGHT (any industry).

TUNNEL WORKER (construction)

A term applied to a person working in tunnel. Classifications are made according to work performed as LOCK TENDER (construction) I; PIPE CAULKER (construction); SHIELD RUNNER (construction).

TYPESETTER (print. & pub.)

A term applied to a worker who, prior to actual printing operations, sets and assembles type and cuts in chases for printing articles, headings, and other printed matter; or who composes type by operating various typesetting machines. Typically is required to complete a lengthy apprenticeship and is thoroughly versed in type style, printed page makeup, and printing techniques involved in newspaper or commercial printing. Classifications are made according to type of printing activity engaged in as COMPOSITOR (print. & pub.) 973.381-010; LINOTYPE OPERATOR (print. & pub.) 650.582-010; MAKE-UP ARRANGER (print. & pub.) 973.381-026; MONOTYPE-KEYBOARD OPERATOR (machinery mfg.; print. & pub.) 650.582-014; TYPE-CASTING MACHINE OPERATOR (print. & pub.) 654.582-010; TYPESETTER-PERFORATOR OPERATOR (print. & pub.) 203.582-062.

VISUAL-INFORMATION SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.)

A term applied to civil service workers who plan and design visual material used in publications, exhibits, speeches, briefings, television, motion pictures, film strips, and similar visual media. Classifications are made according to duties and area of specialization as ART DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.); AUDIOVISUAL PRODUCTION SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.); DISPLAY DESIGNER (profess. & kin.); GRAPHIC DESIGNER (profess. & kin.); ILLUSTRATOR (profess. & kin.); PUBLIC-RELATIONS REPRESENTATIVE (profess. & kin.); SET DESIGNER (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).

WARE FORMER (pottery & porc.)

A term applied to workers who form clay into vessels or other objects by hand or by using molds or presses. Classifications are made according to method used as CASTER (pottery & porc.); DIE PRESSER (pottery & porc.); JOLLIER (pottery & porc.); POTTERY-MACHINE OPERATOR (pottery & porc.); THROWER (pottery & porc.).

WASTE HAND (textile)

A term designating workers who handle waste materials in textile mill. Classifications are made according to task performed as LABORER, SALVAGE (any industry); or according to machine tended as WASTE-MACHINE TENDER (tex. prod., nec; textile).

WELDER, CERTIFIED (welding) alternate titles: certified welder

A term applied to a welder who possesses a written certification from an employer or certifying agent, such as governmental agency, and professional or technical association, verifying that worker's production of specified welds meets prescribed standards. Not all welders are certified. Certified and non-certified welders are classified according to welding process or workpiece, such as WELDER, ARC (welding); WELDER, BOILERMAKER (struct. metal); WELDER-FITTER (welding).

WELL-POINT SETTER (construction)

A term applied to a LABORER, PLUMBING (construction); MUCKER, COFFERDAM (construction); or PIPE-LAYER HELPER (construction) when assisting in the installation of well-point pumps and in setting well-point pipe into sand or loose earth to provide subsoil drainage systems for excavation work below ground water level.

WHEELER (construction) alternate titles: buggy pusher; chute worker; loader; wheelbarrow pusher

A term applied to a BRICKLAYER HELPER (construction); CARPENTER HELPER, HARDWOOD FLOORING (construction); LABORER, CONCRETE-MIXING PLANT (construction); LABORER, PLUMBING (construction); LABORER, ROAD (construction); PLASTERER HELPER (construction); or STONEMASON HELPER (construction) when pushing wheelbarrow or buggy (two-wheeled push cart with deep body) to transport concrete, mortar, sand, or other material.

YARD SUPERVISOR (any industry) alternate titles: yard boss

A term applied to a worker who supervises and directs activities of workers engaged in such duties as stacking materials, loading and unloading incoming and outgoing shipments, or sorting scrap materials for salvage, in yard of an industrial plant. Classifications are made according to activity supervised as STOCK SUPERVISOR (clerical); SUPERVISOR, FRAMING MILL (wood prod., nec); SUPERVISOR, SCRAP PREPARATION (steel & rel.).

YEOMAN (water trans.)

A term applied to an ADMINISTRATIVE CLERK (clerical) who performs clerical duties on board ship.



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