[Federal Register: April 18, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 75)]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
[Public Notice 3990]
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Request for Grant
Proposals: African Workforce Development
SUMMARY: The Near East/South Asia/Africa Division of the Office of
Citizen Exchanges, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA),
announces an open competition to spur development of the African
workforce for effective and satisfying participation in 21st century
businesses, government, NGOs, and other venues. U.S.-based public and
private non-profit organizations meeting
the provisions described in Internal Revenue Code section 26 USC
501(c)(3) may submit proposals to conduct international exchange
Programs and projects must comply with Bureau requirements and
guidelines outlined in this Request for Grant Proposals (RFGP) and the
Bureau's Proposal Submission Instructions (PSI).
The Bureau seeks proposals for an exchange program on African
Workforce Development linking U.S. vocational trainers with African
organizations seeking to strengthen their ability to upgrade the
African workforce. U.S.-African partnership is emphasized as a mutually
beneficial, direct and efficient method of promoting this goal.
Partnerships promote the interests and long-term commitment of African
and American participants going beyond U.S. government financing.
Partnerships also help to establish a strong network of counterpart
institutions in the U.S. and Africa, which invigorate and inform each
other, enable collaborations and joint projects, and promote the
exchange of information and resources.
The Office of Citizen Exchanges encourages applicants to be
creative in planning project activities. Proposals should include
practical, hands-on, community-based initiatives, designed to achieve
concrete objectives in the field. The proposal should not focus on
theoretical/academic workshops, seminars, studies or research.
In an effort to increase mutual understanding and build long-
lasting linkages between the U.S. and African countries, proposals
should include, to the fullest extent possible, an exchange involving
equal numbers of American and African participants. In addition,
applicants are encouraged to include participants who are new to
international exchanges and/or to the target countries.
The Bureau encourages applicants to consider carefully the choice
of target countries. In order to prevent duplication of effort,
applicants should research the work of development agencies (such as
USAID, UN agencies) on the target themes, and select countries for
which there has been limited investment on the issue. Applicants are
welcome to contact the Public Affairs Sections (PAS) in U.S. Embassies
in Africa, and the Office of Citizen Exchanges, to discuss proposed
activities and their relevance to mission priorities.
Applicants may design single-country or multiple-country projects.
The Bureau offers the following programming ideas and suggestions.
Africa Workforce Development. The purpose of this program is to
enhance Workforce Development efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa through
Citizen Exchanges. In developing and carrying out such a program, we
have a keen interest in utilizing electronic information technologies
both as a vehicle for correspondence and training and as a workforce
skill to be taught.
The Office realizes that there are many different conceptions of
and approaches to workforce development, and is open to considering a
wide variety of program plans while recommending that they do the
Assist citizens in making the transition from academic
studies to participation in the workforce;
Assist citizens in learning skills and attitudes which
make them more employable;
Guide citizens in seeking jobs and in carrying them out
Provide training in information technology;
Develop programs which can be delivered online as well as
Develop programs which are adaptable to local and
Develop programs which are easily portable and can be
replicated in different venues; and
Develop programs which will attract and maintain the
attention of citizens, encouraging their initiative and commitment.
We anticipate awarding two $150,000 grants. While all of Sub-
Saharan Africa is eligible in this solicitation, proposals should focus
on one or two countries rather than a large group so as to maximize
This program is intended to be a catalyst to stimulate thinking
about the possibilities for wide range implementation of Workforce
Development programs afforded though the use of new technologies.
It is expected that the selected grantees will install or enhance
working Internet systems at the facilities of the African partners that
will be linked to U.S. counterparts. Note that the Bureau would provide
only modest support for this work out of the grant funds, but would
expect that additional funds would be raised privately or otherwise
It is further expected that there will be a commitment on the part
of the African partners to pay for future maintenance and on-line fees
for the installations so that the systems will be fully operable far
beyond the completion of the grant. The commitment of African partners
will be important to long-term program success, and applicants should
consider the possibility of selecting African partners through a
competitive process to assess their commitment and capability.
The grantee is also expected to provide in its proposal an
explanation of the need for workforce development in the targeted
African country(ies) and to propose a detailed plan for working
together with African partners to develop a basic curriculum to address
this need. The final product of this grant activity must include the
A basic interactive curriculum that works over the
Internet and serves to advance Workforce Development in Sub-Saharan
A plan to train presenters of the basic curriculum;
A set of lead trainers who have gone through the prototype
training program and who have performed a trial implementation of the
basic course; and
Establishment of an Internet network between U.S.
organizations and the African partners to sustain productive
interaction on this activity far beyond the term of the grant itself.
In order to achieve the most widespread understanding, appreciation
and impact of this grant, this Office will expect the Grantee at the
end of the program to come to Washington DC to make a presentation of
the accomplishments and lessons learned through the grant to an
audience selected by the Office of Citizen Exchanges.
Program activities for the above-listed theme might include:
1. A U.S.-based program that includes orientation to program
purposes and to U.S. society; study tour/site visits; professional
internships/placements; interaction and dialogue for learning; hands-on
training; and action plan development.
2. Capacity-building/training-of-trainer (TOT) workshops in Africa
to help participants to identify priorities, create work plans,
strengthen professional and volunteer skills, share their experiences
with committed people within each country, train leading trainers, and
become active in other practical and valuable ways.
3. Site visits by U.S. facilitators/experts to monitor projects in
the region and to provide additional training and consultations as
4. Content-based Internet training/cyber-training to encourage
citizen participation in workshops, fora, chats, and/or discussions via
the Internet that will stimulate communication and
information sharing among key opinion leaders on priority topics. In
addition to using the Internet and Cyber Training to develop those very
skills, on-line programs should be developed to teach other workforce
skills such as literacy, numeracy, problem-solving, decision-making,
leadership, personnel management, and personal qualities such as
initiative, integrity, responsibility, flexibility, sociability, and
respect for diversity.
Content-Based Internet Training: As noted above, the Bureau
encourages applicants to use the Internet to assist African
counterparts in networking, communicating and organizing on the above-
listed priority issues. Proposals that include content-based Internet
training must reflect knowledge of the opportunities and obstacles that
exist for use of information technologies in the target country or
countries, and, if needed, provide hardware, software and servers,
preferably as a form of cost sharing. Internet and Cyber Training
should be only one component of an overall program.
In-Country Partners: Applicants should identify the U.S. and
African partner organizations and individuals with whom they are
proposing to collaborate. Specific information about the African
partners' activities and accomplishments is required and should be
included in the section on ``Institutional Capacity.'' Resumes (not
exceeding two pages) for individuals mentioned in the proposal should
be provided, including proposed U.S. and African staff, trainers,
consultants, etc. Letters of support from proposed in-country partners
that are tailored to this project are strongly encouraged.
Evaluation: Short- and long-term evaluation is critical to the
success of any professional development program. In accordance with the
Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993, Federal Agencies
must create strategic plans, set performance goals, and develop methods
for measuring how well the goals of this program are realized.
The grantee would be required to work closely with the Bureau to
fulfill this responsibility. Applicants are asked to submit an
evaluation plan that would address the GPRA requirements and assess the
long-term impact and effectiveness of this program. The evaluation plan
should include a listing of goals and results desired, and an
indication of what types of information would be used to determine if
these goals were met or results achieved, as well as a description of
how the applicant would gather and evaluate this information. Please
include with the proposal, at least in draft form, any evaluation tools
(survey/focus group questions) that would be used as part of the
A total of $300,000 will be available, and we expect to award two
grants of $150,000 each. Bureau policy states that organizations with
less than four years of experience in managing international exchange
programs are limited to $60,000; therefore they are not eligible to
apply under this competition.
Applicants are strongly encouraged to consult with African partners
in the design of the proposal budget and to obtain statements of
commitment from those partners. Competitive proposals will demonstrate
a thorough and realistic understanding of the costs for in-country
administration, communication, transportation, and per diem. Proposals
should include letters of support tailored to this project from
proposed African partner organizations.
Format: Applicants must submit a comprehensive line item budget
based on the model in the Proposal Submission Instructions, but are
encouraged to provide the optional separate sub-budgets for each
program component, location or activity in order to facilitate
decisions on funding. Applicants should include a budget narrative or
budget notes for clarification of each line item. Review Criteria for
Cost sharing: The Bureau's grant assistance will constitute only a
portion of total project funding, and proposals should list and provide
evidence of other sources of cost sharing, including financial and in-
kind support. Proposals with substantial private sector support from
foundations, corporations, and other institutions will be considered
more competitive. Although no minimum amount of cost sharing is
stipulated in this competition, preference will be given to proposals
that provide cost sharing of at least 20 percent of total program costs
(federal component plus cost sharing component). Thus if a grant of
$150,000 in federal funds is awarded, the grantee should contribute at
least $37,500 in cost sharing to achieve the 20% figure (20% of
$187,500 = $37,500). Cost sharing may be offered in kind or in cash as
long as its value can be confirmed through documentation. Please refer
to the statement on cost sharing in the Proposal Submission cost
sharing in the Proposal Submission Instructions.
1. Transportation. International and domestic airfares (per the Fly
America Act), transit costs, ground transportation costs, and visas for
U.S. participants to travel to African countries (J-1 visas for African
participants to travel to the U.S. funded by the Bureau's grant
assistance are issued at no charge).
2. Per Diem. For U.S.-based activities, organizations should use
the published Federal per diem rates for individual U.S. cities. For
activities in Africa, the Bureau strongly encourages applicants to
budget realistic costs that reflect the local economy. Domestic and
foreign per diem rates may be accessed at:
http://www.policyworks.gov/. Applicants may opt to provide ``home-
stay'' accommodations as a way to reduce per diems costs and as a way
to enhance cross-cultural understanding. In no case may per diem rates
exceed the U.S. Federal published rates.
3. Interpreters. If needed, interpreters for the U.S.-based program
are available through the U.S. Department of State Language Services
Office. Local interpreters with adequate skills and experience may be
used for program activities.
Typically, one interpreter is provided for every four visitors who
require interpreting, with a minimum of two interpreters. Bureau grants
do not pay for foreign interpreters to accompany delegations from their
home country. Salary costs for local interpreters must be included in
the budget. Costs associated with using their services may not exceed
rates for U.S. Department of State interpreters. The Bureau encourages
applicants to use local interpreters. U.S. Department of State
Interpreters may be used for highly technical programs with the
approval of the Office of Citizen Exchanges. Proposal budgets should
contain a flat $170/day per diem for each U.S. Department of State
interpreter, as well as home-program-home air transportation of $400
per interpreter, reimbursements for taxi fares, plus any other
transportation expenses during the program. Salary expenses are covered
centrally and should not be part of an applicant's proposed budget.
4. Book and cultural allowance. Foreign participants are entitled
to a one-time cultural allowance of $150 per person, plus a book
allowance of $50. Interpreters should be reimbursed up to $150 for
expenses when they escort participants to cultural events. U.S. program
staff, trainers or participants are not eligible to receive these
5. Consultants. Consultants may be used to provide specialized
expertise or to make presentations. Honoraria should not exceed $250
per day. Subcontracting
organizations may also be used, in which case the written agreement
between the prospective grantee and subcontractor should be included in
the proposal. Subcontracts should be itemized in the budget.
6. Room rental. Room rental may not exceed $250 per day.
7. Materials development. Proposals may contain costs to purchase,
develop and translate materials for participants.
The Bureau strongly discourages the use of automatic translation
software for the preparation of training materials or any information
distributed to the group of participants or network of organizations.
Costs for good-quality translation of materials should be anticipated
and included in the budget. Grantee organizations should expect to
submit a copy of all program materials to the Bureau.
8. Equipment. Proposals may contain limited costs to purchase
equipment for Africa-based programming such as computers, printers, and
fax machines. Please note, however, that the Bureau encourages cost
sharing for these expenses, and equipment costs must be kept to a
minimum. Equipment purchased with ECA grant funds must be approved by
ECA, and its final disposition after completion of the grant program
will be determined by ECA. Costs for furniture are not allowed.
9. Working meal. Only one working meal may be provided during the
program. Per capita costs may not exceed $8 for a lunch and $20 for a
dinner, excluding room rental. The number of invited guests may not
exceed participants by more than a factor of two-to-one. Interpreters
must be included as participants.
10. Return travel allowance. A return travel allowance of $70 for
each foreign participant should be included in the budget. The
allowance may be used for incidental expenses incurred during
11. Health Insurance. The ECA Bureau insures international and U.S.
participants in a variety of exchange-of-persons programs at no cost to
the participants. This insurance is not all-purpose health insurance;
it is subject to specific limitations. This insurance is not intended
to replace any insurance a participant may already have. Instead, the
intent is to supplement existing coverage and to ensure that a
participant's basic health is protected in a foreign country. Please
see the fuller statement on insurance in the Proposal Submission
12. Administrative Costs. Costs necessary for the effective
administration of the program may include salaries for grantee
organization employees, benefits, and other direct and indirect costs
per detailed instructions in the PSI. (Indirect costs are allowable
only when the applicant has an indirect cost rate agreement with a
qualified U.S. Government office.) Applicants are encouraged to budget
administrative costs for African partner organizations to cover their
in-country costs. While there is no rigid ratio of administrative to
program costs, preference will be given to proposals whose
administrative costs are less than twenty-five (25) per cent of the
total requested from the Bureau. Proposals should show strong
administrative cost-sharing contributions from the applicant, the
African partner and other sources.
Please refer to the Proposal Submission Instructions (PSI) for
complete budget guidelines.
Announcement Title and Number
All communications with the Bureau concerning this Request for
Grant Proposals (RFGP) should refer to the announcement title ``African
Workforce Development'' and reference number ECA/PE/C/NEAAF-02-74.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Office of Citizen Exchanges, ECA/
PE/C/NEAAF, Room 216, U.S. Department of State, 301 Fourth Street, SW.,
Washington, DC 20547, attention: Jim Ogul, telephone: (202) 205-0535
and fax number: (202) 619-4350, Internet address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please read the complete Federal Register announcement before
sending inquiries or submitting proposals. Once the RFGP deadline has
passed, Bureau staff may not discuss this competition with applicants
until the proposal review process has been completed.
To Download a Solicitation Package Via Internet
The entire Solicitation Package may be downloaded from the Bureau's
Web site at http://exchanges.state.gov/education/RFGPs. Please read all
information before downloading.
Deadline for Proposals
All proposal copies must be received at the Bureau of Educational
and Cultural Affairs by 5 p.m. Washington, DC time on June 10, 2002.
Faxed documents will not be accepted at any time. Documents postmarked
the due date but received on a later date will not be accepted. Each
applicant must ensure that the proposals are received by the above
Applicants must follow all instructions given in the Application
Package. The applicant's original proposal and ten (10) copies
(unbound) should be sent to: U.S. Department of State, SA-44, Bureau of
Educational and Cultural Affairs, Ref.: ECA/PE/C/NEAAF-02-74, Program
Management, ECA/EX/PM, Room 534, 301 4th Street, SW., Washington, DC
Applicants must also submit the ``Executive Summary'' and
``Proposal Narrative'' sections of the proposal on a 3.5" diskette,
formatted for DOS. These documents must be provided in ASCII text (DOS)
format or Microsoft Word format. The Bureau will transmit these files
electronically to the Public Affairs section at the US Embassy for its
review, with the goal of reducing the time it takes to get embassy
comments for the Bureau's grants review process.
Public Affairs Section (PAS) Involvement
The Public Affairs Sections of the U.S. Embassies (formerly known
as USIS posts) play a key role throughout every phase of project
development. Posts assist in evaluating project proposals; coordinating
planning with the grantee organization and in-country partners;
facilitating in-country activities; nominating participants and vetting
grantee nominations; observing in-country activities; debriefing
participants; and evaluating project impact. Posts are responsible for
issuing DSP-2019 forms (formerly known as the IAP-66 form) in order for
overseas participants to obtain necessary J-1 visas for entry to the
United States. They also serve as a link to in-country partners and
Nonetheless, overall project administration and implementation are
the responsibility of the grantee. The grantee must inform the PAS in
participating countries of its operations and procedures and coordinate
with and involve PAS officers in the development of project activities.
The PAS should be consulted regarding country priorities, current
security issues, and related logistical and programmatic issues.
VISA Regulations: Foreign participants on programs sponsored by the
Bureau are granted J-1 Exchange Visitor visas by the U.S. Embassy in
the sending country. All programs must comply with J-1 visa
regulations. Please refer to the Proposal Submission Instructions (PSI)
for further information.
Selection of Participants: Proposals should include description of
an open, merit-based process for selecting international travelers in
this project, including methods of advertising, recruitment and
selection. A sample application should be submitted with the proposal.
Applicants should expect to carry out the entire recruitment
process, but the Bureau and the Public Affairs Sections of the U.S.
Embassies abroad should also be consulted. The Bureau and the U.S.
Embassies retain the right to nominate participants and to approve or
reject participants recommended by the grantee institution. Priority
must be given to foreign participants who have not traveled to the
United States. ECA encourages applicants to design programs for non-
English speakers where appropriate. The Bureau is particularly
interested in projects that focus on or include persons with
disabilities in any of the above-listed themes.
Diversity, Freedom and Democracy Guidelines
Pursuant to the Bureau's authorizing legislation, programs must
maintain a non-political character and should be balanced and
representative of the diversity of American political, social, and
cultural life. ``Diversity'' should be interpreted in the broadest
sense and encompass differences including, but not limited to
ethnicity, race, gender, religion, geographic location, socio-economic
status, and physical challenges. Applicants are strongly encouraged to
adhere to the advancement of this principle both in program
administration and in program content. Please refer to the review
criteria under the `Support for Diversity' section for specific
suggestions on incorporating diversity into the total proposal. Public
Law 104-319 provides that ``in carrying out programs of educational and
cultural exchange in countries whose people do not fully enjoy freedom
and democracy,'' the Bureau ``shall take appropriate steps to provide
opportunities for participation in such programs to human rights and
democracy leaders of such countries.'' Public Law 106-113 requires that
the governments of the countries described above do not have
inappropriate influence in the selection process. Proposals should
reflect advancement of these goals in their program contents, to the
full extent deemed feasible.
The Bureau will acknowledge receipt of all proposals and will
review them for technical eligibility. Proposals will be deemed
ineligible if they do not fully adhere to the guidelines stated herein
and in the Solicitation Package. All eligible proposals will be
reviewed by the program office, as well as the Public Diplomacy
sections of U.S. embassies overseas, where appropriate. Eligible
proposals will be subject to compliance with Federal and Bureau
regulations and guidelines and forwarded to Bureau grant panels for
advisory review. Proposals may also be reviewed by the Office of the
Legal Adviser or by other Department elements. Final funding decisions
are at the discretion of the Department of State's Assistant Secretary
for Educational and Cultural Affairs. Final technical authority for
assistance awards (grants) resides with the Bureau's Grants Officer.
Technically eligible applications will be competitively reviewed
according to the criteria stated below. These criteria are not rank
ordered, and all are important in the proposal evaluation. Proposals
should address each of these criteria:
1. Program Planning and Ability to Achieve Objectives: Program
objectives should be stated clearly and precisely and should reflect
the applicant's expertise in the subject area and the region.
Objectives should respond to the priority topics in this announcement,
and relate to the current conditions in the target country or
countries. Objectives should be reasonable, attainable, and tied to the
anticipated outcomes of the project. A detailed work plan should
explain step-by-step how objectives would be achieved and should
include a timetable for completion of major tasks. The substance of
project planning, orientation sessions, workshops, presentations,
consultations, site visits and seed/sub-grant projects should be
included as attachments (i.e. sample agendas, draft applications,
etc.). Responsibilities of U.S. and in-country partners should be
2. Institutional Capacity: The proposal should include: (a) The
U.S. institution's mission and date of establishment; (b) detailed
information about the capacity of any partner institutions, and the
history of the partnership(s); (c) an outline of prior awards--U.S.
government and private support received for the target theme/region;
and (d) descriptions of experienced staff members and other resource
persons who would implement the program. Proposed personnel and
institutional resources should be adequate and appropriate to achieve
the program's goals. The narrative should demonstrate proven ability to
handle logistics. The proposal should reflect the institution's
expertise in the subject area and knowledge of the conditions in the
target country/region(s). Specific information about the African
partners' activities and accomplishments is required and should be
included in the section on ``Institutional Capacity.'' Resumes for
individuals mentioned in the proposal should be included, including
proposed U.S. and African staff, trainers, consultants, etc.
3. Cost Effectiveness: Overhead and administrative costs for the
proposal, including salaries, honoraria and subcontracts for services,
should be kept to a minimum.
4. Cost Sharing: Applicants are encouraged to cost share a portion
of overhead and administrative expenses. Cost sharing, including
contributions from the applicant, U.S. or African partners, and other
sources, should be included in the budget. Although no minimum amount
of cost sharing is stipulated in this competition, preference will be
given to proposals which provide cost sharing of at least 20 percent of
total program costs.
5. Program Evaluation: The proposal must include a plan and
methodology to evaluate the program's successes, both as activities
unfold and at the program's conclusion. ECA recommends that the
proposal include a draft survey questionnaire or other technique (such
as a series of questions for a focus group) to link outcomes to
original program objectives. The evaluation plan should include a
summation of goals and results desired, and an indication of what types
of information would be used to determine if these goals were met or
results achieved, as well as a description of how the applicant would
gather and evaluate this information. Please include with the proposal
any evaluation tools (survey/focus group questions) that would be used
as part of the overall plan.
6. Follow-On Activities: The proposal should provide a plan for
continued follow-on activity (beyond the ECA grant period), ensuring
that ECA-supported programs are not isolated events. Follow-on
activities sponsored by the applicant should be clearly outlined.
7. Support of Diversity: The proposed project should demonstrate
substantive support of the Bureau's policy on diversity. Program
content (training sessions, resource materials, follow-on activities)
and program administration (participant selection process, orientation,
evaluation, resource/staff persons) should address diversity in a
comprehensive and innovative manner. Applicants should refer to ECA's
Diversity, Freedom and Democracy Guidelines below and on page four of
the Proposal Submission Instructions (PSI).
8. Multiplier Effect/Impact: Applicants should describe how
responsibility and ownership of the program would be transferred to the
African participants to ensure continued
activity and impact. Programs should be designed so that the sharing of
information and training that occurs during the grant period will
continue long after the grant period is over. Proven methods of
sustainability include, but are not limited to: A model TOT program
that would include initial training, practice presentation sessions for
the African participants, followed by training activities coordinated
and implemented by the African participants in their home countries; a
commitment to create or support in-country training/resource centers; a
curriculum program that would include teacher training, lesson plan
development, and cooperation with ministries of education and related
education administrators on implementation; development of online
communities, professional networks or professional associations;
regularly published electronic and/or hard-copy newsletters.
Proposals will be more competitive to the extent that they have: an
active, existing partnership between a U.S. organization and African
institution(s); a proven successful track record for conducting program
activity; cost-sharing from U.S. and African sources, including
donations of air fares, hotel and/or housing costs, ground
transportation, interpreters, room rentals, etc.; experienced staff
with relevant language ability; a clear, convincing plan outlining
exactly how the program components will be carried out and how
permanent results will be accomplished as a result of the grant; and a
follow-on plan that extends beyond the Bureau grant period. Please
refer to the Review Criteria above.
Overall grant making authority for this program is contained in the
Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, Public Law 87-
256, as amended, also known as the Fulbright-Hays Act. The purpose of
the Act is ``to enable the Government of the United States to increase
mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the
people of other countries * * *; to strengthen the ties which unite us
with other nations by demonstrating the educational and cultural
interests, developments, and achievements of the people of the United
States and other nations * * * and thus to assist in the development of
friendly, sympathetic and peaceful relations between the United States
and the other countries of the world.'' Funding authority for the
program cited above is provided through the Fulbright-Hays Act.
The terms and conditions published in this RFGP are binding and may
not be modified by any Bureau representative. Explanatory information
provided by the Bureau that contradicts published language will not be
binding. Issuance of the RFGP does not constitute an award commitment
on the part of the Government. The Bureau reserves the right to reduce,
revise, or increase proposal budgets in accordance with the needs of
the program and the availability of funds. Awards made will be subject
to periodic reporting and evaluation requirements.
Final awards cannot be made until funds have been appropriated by
Congress, allocated and committed through internal U.S. Department of
Dated: April 11, 2002.
Patricia S. Harrison,
Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of
[FR Doc. 02-9503 Filed 4-17-02; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4710-05-P
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